Among the very earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, hurdy gurdy, clavichord and harpsichord. The organ is without doubt the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, though this e

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Among the very earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, hurdy gurdy, clavichord and harpsichord. The organ is without doubt the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, though this e Powered By Docstoc
					            Among the very earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, hurdy gurdy, clavichord and
 harpsichord. The organ is without doubt the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, though this
 early instrument—called hydraulis—did not use a keyboard in the modern sense. From its invention until
    the 14th century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. Often, the organ did not feature a
        keyboard at all, rather buttons or large levers which were operated by a whole hand. Almost every
                                                .keyboard until the 15th century had naturals to each octave

  The clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the 14th century, the clavichord probably being the
  earlier. The harpsichord and the clavichord were both very common until the widespread adoption of the
  piano in the 18th century, after which their popularity decreased. The piano was revolutionary because a
    pianist could vary the volume (or dynamics) of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was
struck. The piano's full name is "gravicèmbalo con piano e forte" meaning "harpsichord with soft and loud"
                                    .but can be shortened to "piano-forte", which means "soft-loud" in Italian

          Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early 20th century. Early electromechanical
       instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century. This was a very important
                                                                   .contribution to the keyboard's history
                                                                                        edit] Construction[

  The keys were traditionally made of natural materials. The white tangents were made of ivory, the black
   of ebony, but now artificial materials like plastic are used to cover the wooden keys. Cheaper materials
                                                                 .like oak, walnut and soft wood are used now

      On most keyboard instruments, a "black note" is one of the smaller keys that stand above the "white
 notes". All the black notes found within an octave form a pentatonic scale.[1] Black notes can be referred
          to as sharps of the white note below, or as flats of the white note above. In keyboard percussion
   instruments with a layout similar to that of the piano, the corresponding notes are often also called "the
      black notes" though in reality the bars producing those notes are of the same color as the rest of the
                                                                                           .instrument's bars

  These notes act as the "accidentals" to the original notes, allowing the player to play sharps or flats of a
   given note. However, not all notes have a sharp or flat version, and the sharp of one can be the same
                                ]note as the flat for another, for example C# and Db are the same note.[2

                                        .#The five accidentals written as sharps are: C#, D#, F#, G# and A
                                                                                   edit] Modern keyboards[

Much effort has gone into finding an instrument which sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight.
The electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while being useful instruments in their own
    right, were not successful in convincingly reproducing the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic
                                                          .organs were developed during the same period

Significant development of the synthesizer occurred in the 1960s and has continued ever since. The most
  notable early synthesizer is the Moog synthesizer, which used analog circuitry. In time, digital synthesis,
                                                       .using actual piano samples, has become common
                                                                         edit] List of keyboard instruments[
                                                                                         edit] Chordophones[

                                                                                                Clavichord
                                                                                            Electric piano
                                                                                                Clavinet
                                                                                                  Pianet
                                                                                         Rhodes piano
                                                                                Wurlitzer electric piano
                                                                                              Harpsichord
                                                                                                  Spinet
             Virginal
        Lautenwerck
       Archicembalo
                  Piano
          Fortepiano
      Tangent piano
         Bowed clavier
           Hurdy gurdy
        Keyed fiddle

        edit] Aerophones[

            Accordion
Harmonium/Reed organ
            Melodeon
             Melodica
           Pipe organ
                Regal
              Calliope

         edit] Idiophones[

               Carillon
               Celesta
            Glasschord
              Dulcitone
             Toy piano

      edit] Electrophones[

          Digital piano
   Electronic keyboard
      Electronic organ
      Electronic piano
                Keytar
              Mellotron
               Optigan
           Synthesizer

				
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Description: Among the very earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, hurdy gurdy, clavichord and harpsichord. The organ is without doubt the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, though this early instrument—called hydraulis—did not use a keyboard in the modern sense. From its invention until the 14th century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. Often, the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, rather buttons or large levers which were operated by a whole hand. Almost every keyboard until the 15th century had naturals to each octave.