Transport Certification Update Edition 27 by dandanhuanghuang


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                           Federal Aviation Administration,
                           Department of Transportation

                           Transport Certification Update

From the Directorate Manager:
AD compliance is essential to maintaining safety

A       irline compliance with           and airlines. It also focuses on the      their willingness to advocate for
        Airworthiness Directives         interfaces among FAA offices,             change, and efforts to seek the best
        (ADs) is an essential piece      airlines, and manufacturers during        solutions to provide the broader
of maintaining the safety of the air     AD development and                        safety benefit and efficiency. As a
transportation system. Over the          implementation of the mandated            major player in this effort, we in the
past 12–18 months there were a           actions. The 13 recommendations           Transport Airplane Directorate view
few highly visible cases of AD           can be grouped into 4 categories:         this initiative as an opportunity to
noncompliance, which required a          (1) development of service                bring about the necessary process
closer evaluation of the existing        instructions, (2) development of ADs,     and cultural changes resulting in
system—from the time a safety            (3) AD implementation, and                improvements in consistent and
concern is identified until all          (4) roles and responsibilities of FAA     timely compliance with ADs, and to
affected airplanes are in                offices.                                  ensure the continued safety of the
compliance. The evaluations were                                                   transport fleet of aircraft. 
intended to determine the scope of       In response to the recommendations,
the potential problems and identify      the FAA chartered an Aviation
                                                                                   ~ Ali   Bahrami
possible improvements.                   Rulemaking Committee (ARC) to
                                         achieve a successful implementation
The evaluations were done by the         of recommendations. The ARC
AD Compliance Review Team (CRT),         membership consists of FAA
a joint FAA/industry team, and an        representatives, aircraft
Independent Review Team (IRT),           manufacturers, airlines, and several
chartered by the Department of           industry associations. The goal is to
Transportation. Although the IRT         define improvements based on best
charter encompassed the FAA’s            practices and ensure a uniform and
safety system and culture of safety,     consistent implementation by all
the team also looked into the            stakeholders. We are at the early
compliance aspects of ADs.               stages of this activity, and expect
                                         full implementation to be completed
On September 17, 2009, the results       by June 2011.
of the AD CRT were released, in
two separate reports. The first          This is an opportunity to improve on
report documents findings and            a system that has served us very
recommendations associated with a        well. It is highly unlikely that there
particular AD applicable to Boeing       will be a single breakthrough action
Model MD-80 airplanes. The               or process from this effort that
second report contains findings and      could result in a significant level of
recommendations resulting from a         improvement in safety or efficiency.      The AD Compliance Review Team

much broader review of the AD            The greater benefit can be                released two reports. One report discusses

process. It addresses various            achieved only through full                AD 2006-15-15, and the second contains

processes used by manufacturers          commitment of the stakeholders,           broader recommendations.

                               Transport Certification Update                     Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 1
                                                                                                         Transport Certification Update

“AD-friendly” service bulletins       A simple idea with far-reaching benefits                                    Page 3.
                                      by Marcia Walters
                                      Rose Opland contributed to this article

Extended Operations (ETOPS)           Governing the design, operation, and maintenance of                         Page 5.
                                      airplanes flying routes when the airplane is a long distance
                                      from a place to land in an emergency
                                      by Steve Clark

CSTAs— Chief Scientific and           A group of specialized technical experts at the forefront of the            Page 8
Technical Advisors                    agency’s research and development efforts
                                      by Mina Mitchell.

From the Directorate Manager          AD compliance is essential to safety                                         Page 1.
                                      by Ali Bahrami

TAD Regulatory Radar                  Regulations published in the Federal Register since April 2009              Page 10.
                                      by James Wilborn

On the Web
        Aircraft Certification (AIR) Web Site                     Federal Rulemaking Web Site
        AIR Draft Docs. Open for Comment                          Regulatory and Guidance Library
        FAA Flight Plan Quarterly Report                          Transport Airplane Directorate Web Site

 Contact Us:                          Transport Airplane Directorate Organization.
 If there is a topic you
 would like to read about, if                Ali Bahrami, Manager                    Steve Boyd, Assistant Manager.
 you would like to subscribe       Technical and Administrative Support Staff,         Denver Aircraft Certification Office,
 to the Transport Certification            John V. Barrett, Manager                          Todd Dixon, Manager
 Update, or if you have a
 question or comment,                   Manufacturing Inspection Office,               Seattle Aircraft Certification Office,
 please e-mail us:                        Linda Navarro, Manager                              Jeff Duven, Manager                  Transport Standards Staff,                Los Angeles Aircraft Certification Office,
                                            Mike Kaszycki, Manager                            Kevin Hull, Manager

                                  Transport Certification Update                         Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 2
                                                                                                    Transport Certification Update

“AD-friendly” service bulletins:
A simple idea with far-reaching benefits

I   n this issue of the Update, the
    message from the TAD
    Directorate Manager focuses on
ongoing efforts made to improve AD
compliance. This article considers one
                                            TAD ADs: clear, cogent …
                                            and complex
                                            Our primary objective in developing
                                                                                      But this team took it a step further.
                                                                                      From this collaboration sprang a new
                                                                                      idea: What if ADs simply refer to the
                                                                                      manufacturers’ service information
                                                                                      for the requirements, instead of
                                            ADs has always been to ensure their
recommendation:                             clarity and enforceability. Every AD      restating them? In the past, when ADs
                                            must be easy to read and easy to          restated the essential pieces of a
   Original Equipment                       understand—or we risk                     service bulletin, we risked
   Manufacturers (OEMs) should              noncompliance from operators who          misinterpreting—even mistyping—
   make user-friendly improvements          misinterpret the requirements.            the essential information in the AD.
   to service instructions such as:                                                   Because of the complex issues typical
                                            But ADs for transport airplanes are       of transport ADs, operators could
   provide clear instructions; use
                                            often inherently complex. While we        unintentionally err when attempting
   simplified formats; identify
                                            simplify the information as much as       to comply with an AD, especially if
   critical tasks; provide flexibility,
                                            possible so ADs are clear and             there were discrepancies between
   as appropriate, for the use of
                                            enforceable, simplifying an AD            the AD and the corresponding service
   alternative methods, materials,
                                            demands a great deal—more than            bulletin. It just made sense to have
   and practices; reference standard
                                            simply using plain language. To write     the essential instructions and
   maintenance and modification
                                            transport ADs, we often deconstruct       compliance times in only one place—
   practices, and ensure that
                                            complex requirements and compound         the service bulletin. And the lawyers
   corrective actions are
                                            compliance times, while considering       agreed!
                                            intricate technical concepts on
                                            multiple airplane groups. An AD                                  (Continued on page 4)
An existing initiative in the Transport     writer spends considerable time
Airplane Directorate has already            developing an AD that is clear,
begun to address some of the                simple, and enforceable, but we           Feedback from airlines
recommendations regarding OEM               consider that time to be well spent
service instructions. By intensifying       when hundreds of readers can              In response to our AD-friendly
and expanding this initiative, we           benefit from the writer’s efforts.        efforts, we have received some
hope to continue the effort to                                                        encouraging feedback:
improve compliance with ADs by              TAD ADs: readable,
making them more user-friendly.             enforceable … and doable                  a phenomenal improvement … that
Briefly, this “AD-friendly service                                                      will help operators comply with
bulletin” initiative focuses on the         In 2000, the FAA started writing ADs
                                            in plain language. Soon after, the          ADs
compatibility of ADs and service
                                            TAD collaborated with several U.S.        a marked improvement in transport
bulletins, by allowing the AD to
                                            air carriers and other industry
simply refer to the associated service                                                  ADs
                                            representatives to identify ways to
bulletin(s) for the requirements and        make ADs more user-friendly. It was
compliance times. Through these                                                       headed in the right direction
                                            obvious that clear service information
efforts, we have already made               and straightforward language would
significant progress toward                                                           should make things less costly and
                                            improve compliance with AD
improving AD usability.                     requirements.                               save us a lot of work.

                                    Transport Certification Update                   Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 3
(Continued from page 3)
                                                                                                    Transport Certification Update

In 2001, the “AD-Friendly Service        on user feedback and needs. We             AD-friendly principles
Bulletin” initiative was launched.       achieved our objectives by
                                         exploring ways that writing service        The AD-friendly initiative has
A collaboration between the TAD          bulletins could influence the              already proved effective in
and major airframe manufacturers,        efficiency of writing ADs. Then the        improving the usability of both ADs
this initiative involves analyzing and   team agreed on the specific                and service bulletins. AD-friendly
improving ADs and service bulletins      formatting and language that would         principles are deceptively simple—
to ensure that safety actions are        be included in Boeing service              logical concepts that were difficult
appropriate and described                bulletins, based on some basic             to develop. These are the basic
accurately. The primary goal of the      principles.                                ideas:
initiative for manufacturers is to
develop legally enforceable service      Positive feedback from                      Service bulletins use legally
bulletin language that can be            airlines                                     enforceable, standard
adopted easily in ADs. Ultimately,                                                    compliance terms that are easily
for any AD that directs the reader       We have received only positive               adopted in an AD. This leaves
to the service bulletin for compliance   feedback from airlines and other             little room for the error and
times and actions, we save time for      airworthiness authorities, and only          confusion that could result if the
operators and reduce inaccuracies        enthusiastic participation from the          AD restates all of the service
in the AD.                               representatives on the AD-friendly           bulletin information.
                                         team. We expect the effort, still
The development of                       going strong after nearly a decade          Compliance times appear in a
                                         of work, to continue with the same           standard location in the service
AD-friendly                              energy and efficiency.                       bulletin; complex compliance
But reaching that goal was no small                                                   times are given in table format.
task. Before we could put AD-            An AD-friendly future                        Then the AD simply refers to the
friendly principles into action, the                                                  service bulletin for the compliance
                                         We have begun to spread the word
manufacturers and the TAD poured                                                      times.
                                         about AD-friendly. To that end, we
significant resources into reviewing
                                         have initiated discussions with other
our respective writing standards for                                                 The “Accomplishment Instructions”
                                         transport airframe manufacturers,
service bulletins and ADs, an often
                                         as well as their airworthiness
                                                                                      in the service bulletin provide all
difficult exercise that resulted in                                                   the actions necessary to correct
                                         authorities. The general consensus is
compromising some long-standing                                                       the unsafe condition. Then the AD
                                         that AD-friendly is a good idea with
procedures. The ongoing effort                                                        simply refers to the service
                                         significant potential benefits for the
ensures that the new format and                                                       bulletin to require those actions.
                                         affected parties. Future efforts
language for the service bulletins
                                         might include investigating ways to         The manufacturer ensures that
results in technical accuracy and
                                         focus on the critical tasks in a service
legal enforceability in the ADs.                                                      within the service bulletin there is
                                         bulletin and providing flexibility for
To begin this effort, we focused on      operators to accomplish those tasks.
                                                                                      not conflicting information in the
the largest U.S. manufacturer,                                                        Compliance paragraph, the
                                         If you have suggestions or wish more         Accomplishment Instructions,
Boeing. Representatives from the
                                         information on AD-friendly, contact          figures, and flow charts.
TAD, FAA attorneys, and Boeing
                                         Rose Opland, Transport AD
worked out ways to build quality                                                     The manufacturer adjusts its
                                         Program Manager
and legally enforceable language                                                      authoring standards and
into the service bulletin. We met        ( 
                                                                                      guidance to improve service
with some specific common goals: to
minimize the differences between
                                                                                      bulletin quality and usability, and
service bulletins and ADs, address                                                    works closely with the TAD to
barriers and reduce the work                                                          minimize differences between
necessary to produce ADs, and                                                         service bulletins and ADs.
improve the quality and readability
of service bulletins and ADs based

                                  Transport Certification Update                    Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 4
                                                                                                          Transport Certification Update

Extended operations (ETOPS)
One of the great success stories in the history of commercial

E        TOPS regulations govern the
         design, operation, and
         maintenance of an airplane
flying a route where the airplane is a
long distance from a place to land in
an emergency.
In 1936, “a long distance from a place
to land in an emergency” meant that
an airplane could not fly more than
100 miles from an airport where it
could land. Then in 1953, air carrier
operating rules required airplanes to
stay within 60 minutes from a place to
land in case one engine failed. These
early requirements were necessary to
maintain an adequate level of safety
when airplanes were powered by
piston engines, which frequently failed.
                                           I  n order to create a real sport, it will be necessary to

                                              provide means for flying cross-country without risk.

                                           There are several ways in which this can be accomplished: 

Engine reliability improved                The perfection of the flying machine and motor to that
dramatically with the advent of              degree where forced landings will never be necessary.
turbine-powered jet transport
airplanes in the late 1950s. In 1964,      The estalishment of distinctly marked and carefully
three-engine airplanes were exempted         prepared landing places at such frequent intervals that
from the 60-minute limit, while the          one could always be reached in case of the sudden stoppage
restrictions for two-engine airplanes        of the motor.
remained. However, the revised rule        The development of airplanes of such design as to permit of
permitted an increase in the distance        landing in any ordinary field encountered in cross-country
two-engine airplanes were allowed to         flying.
fly, “based on the character of the
terrain, the kind of operations, or the
performance of the airplane to be
used.” Because of improvements in          By the 1980s, airplane manufacturers         60-minute limit. The FAA developed
turbine-engine reliability over the        began building large two-engine turbine-     standards to allow a deviation, and the
years, the FAA used this provision of      powered airplanes that had the               first ETOPS flights began in 1985.
the rule to allow two-engine operations    performance and reliability to fly long-
to expand incrementally beyond the         range routes previously flown only by        As the reliability of engines and other
initial 60-minute limit to 75 minutes in   three‑ and four-engine airplanes. Further,   systems continued to improve, the FAA
benign areas of operation. Benign          two-engine airplanes used less fuel than     has provided guidance for deviations
areas of operation were areas that         airplanes with more than two engines and     from the rule allowing two-engine
the FAA considered the “character of       could therefore be operated more             operations to expand incrementally
the terrain” and the prevailing climate    economically on direct routes across the     beyond the initial 60-minute restriction.
to be non-challenging to extended          North Atlantic between the United States
operations, with such features as low      and Europe.                                  ETOPS today
terrain and a warm year-around
climate. Most such 75-minute               In 1982, shortly after its 767 airplane      Two-engine airplanes approved for
approvals were for operations in the       entered service, Boeing approached the       ETOPS have achieved a level of engine
Caribbean Sea.                             FAA about obtaining a deviation from the     reliability up to ten times better than any
                                                                                                                 (Continued on page 6)

                                     Transport Certification Update                      Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 5
                                                                                                                                                                                   Transport Certification Update
              Boeing has seen progressive improvement in IFSD rates since the start of ETOPS in 1985
                                                                                                                                                                             Including all engines on:
                                                                                                                                                                                  717                   757
                  0.07                                                                                                                                                            737-3/4/500           767
                                                                                                                                                                                  737-6/7/8/900         777
                                                                                                                                                                                  747-400               MD-11

                                                                                                                                                                             Note: An IFSD rate of
                                                                                                                                                                             0.05 became the
                                                                                                                                                                             requirement for 120-
                                                                                                                                                                             minute ETOPS in 1985.
                                                                                                                                                                             An IFSD rate of 0.02
                                                                                                                                                                             became the target for
 IFSD Rate                                                                                                                                                                   180-minute ETOPS in
    (In-Flight                                                                                                                                                               1989. An IFSD rate of
   Shutdowns                                                                                                                                                                 0.01 became the target
                0.04                                                                                                                                                         for beyond 180-minute
    per 1,000
  Engine Flight                                                                                                                                                              ETOPS in 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                          180-minute ETOPS requirement

                                                                                                                                                            Beyond 180-minute ETOPS requirement




























  Boeing has seen progressive improvement in in-flight shutdown rates since the start of ETOPS in 1985.

(Continued from page 5)

that existed when ETOPS began in 1985.                               Design requirements                                                            ETOPS design requirements focus on two
The number of engines is no longer the                                                                                                              main safety objectives:
biggest factor affecting the safety of                               In the 27 years since ETOPS began, there                                        To preclude any failure or malfunction
long-range operations. Other factors,                                has been only one dual-engine loss that                                           that could result in an ETOPS diversion
such as fuel planning and passenger                                  occurred during an ETOPS flight. That                                             from intended flight; and
facilities at remote diversion airports,                             event occurred in 2001 and was a result
affect operations of all passenger                                   of a fuel leak that was not detected by                                         To protect the safety of the airplane
airplanes traveling far from adequate                                the flightcrew before the leak reached a                                          and occupants during an ETOPS
airports. As a result, certain ETOPS                                 critical state. Once the crew recognized                                          diversion.
requirements now also apply to turbine-                              the fuel loss, they diverted to the Azores.
                                                                     Both engines flamed out during the                                             To meet these objectives, airplane and
powered, passenger-carrying airplanes
                                                                     diversion due to fuel starvation, but the                                      engine design must meet five
with more than two engines operating in
                                                                     flightcrew was able to glide the airplane                                      requirements:
remote and demanding areas of the
world that take them more than three                                 to a safe landing, and there were no                                            Reliably provide functions necessary for
hours from an adequate airport.                                      serious injuries.                                                                 safe ETOPS flights.
The current standards for the design and                             As a result of this event, the FAA included                                     Eliminate sources of airplane diversions
full-time operation of two-engine                                    a design requirement in the ETOPS rules                                           that occurred in current or past designs.
airplanes could allow flight anywhere in                             issued in 2007 requiring installation of a                                      Conduct ground and flight testing.
the world, with FAA approval.                                        low fuel alert. Any new airplane must
                                                                     meet this requirement before it can be                                          Report and correct design problems.
                                                                     approved for ETOPS.                                                             Demonstrate reliability.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Continued on page 7)

                                                      Transport Certification Update                                                                Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 6
(Continued from page 6)                                                                                                                                                             Transport Certification Update

The future of ETOPS                                 evaluates every application for ETOPS                                                       ETOPS Regulations Past and
                                                    approval.                                                                                   Present
The FAA has always taken a cautious
approach to extending the time an                   ETOPS has been one of the greatest                                                          Before 2007, Title 14 of the Code of
airplane may fly from a place to land,              success stories in the history of commercial                                                Federal Regulations part 121, section 161
and the new rules continue that stepped             aviation. ETOPS allows airlines to use the                                                  (14 CFR 121.161 “Airplane limitations: Type
approach. Today, no aircraft is                     most fuel-efficient airplanes to the                                                        of Route”) restricted two-engine airplanes
certificated to fly farther than 207                maximum extent, with levels of safety and                                                   from operating more than 60 minutes from a
minutes from a landing airport; however,            reliability never before seen. ETOPS has                                                    suitable airport with one engine inoperative
                                                    benefited both the airlines, which have                                                     unless authorized by the FAA Administrator
the rules issued in 2007 contain provisions                                                                                                     according to one of the following:
for future approvals for aircraft to fly up         achieved lower operating costs, and the
                                                    traveling public, who can fly to distant                                                     Advisory Circular (AC) 120-42 (1985)
to 240 minutes and beyond. These
                                                    locations at remarkably low fares.                                                             extended to 120 minutes.
provisions will enable airplanes to fly
anywhere in the world, including south                                                                                                           AC 120-42A (1988) extended to 180
                                                    The FAA’s ETOPS approval process over
polar regions where one-engine                                                                                                                     minutes.
                                                    the past two decades has been a
inoperative diversion times on some routes          measured, step-by-step process of                                                            ETOPS Policy Letter EPL 20-01 (2000)
could exceed five hours.                            increased approval authority based on                                                          extended to 207 minutes part-time on
                                                    improving reliability and operational                                                          certain routes.
Further, the number of manufacturers
considering ETOPS approval has                      experience. This process has been a direct                                                  Operations conducted under such
increased significantly. The rules have             driver for many of the technological and                                                    authorizations became known as extended
expanded the applicability of ETOPS to              operational improvements in aviation as                                                     range operation with two-engine airplanes
more manufacturers—and not just large               the industry has continually increased the                                                  or ETOPS.
transport airplanes (part 121). Now                 operating scope of these airplanes.                                                         On January 16, 2007, the FAA published
ETOPS applies to business class airplanes           Since it pioneered ETOPS service in 1982,                                                   Extended Operations (ETOPS) of Multi-
(part 135) and to three- and four-engine            the Boeing Model 767 has flown over 3                                                       Engine Airplanes (14 CFR Parts 1, 21, 25,
passenger transport airplane operations.                                                                                                        33, 121, and 135; 72 FR 1807) that
                                                    million ETOPS flights. The new ETOPS rules                                                  codified previous FAA policy, industry best
Regional jets are getting into markets              written in 2007 acknowledged the
traditionally dominated by large                                                                                                                practices, and recommendations, as well as
                                                    complete success of this effort when the                                                    international standards designed to ensure
transport airplanes.                                FAA gave two-engine airplanes the                                                           that long-range flights operate safely.
The Transport Airplane Directorate,                 methodology to fly any routing in the
assisting in ETOPS certification for these          world. 
additional manufacturers, carefully

                                                                  St Johns

 What do ETOPS rules do?                                              SOUTH POLAR OPERATIONS                                      Georgetown               Luanda                          Addis Ababa
                                                                  777 M=0.84/320 KIAS
 ETOPS design requirements ensure that                                                           Fortaleza Recife

 an airplane has high reliability, as well                                                     Belem
 as the systems redundancy and                                  Bermuda
                                                                              Fort De France                                                     Cape Town
 capability to make a safe diversion to                                San Juan                            Sao Paulo
                                                                                                                                                                    Durban         Antananarivo

 an emergency airport throughout its                                          Caracas
 entire route of flight.                                                                        San Jose                           240 Minutes - 1731 nm
                                                                                                           Buenos Aires
 ETOPS operating requirements further                                                                                                                                                                          Male
                                                                                                                                                                                                Diego Garcia
 ensure that an airplane carries enough                       Miami
                                                                          Panama City
                                                                                     Lima Santiago
                                                                                                                  Mount Pleasant      300 Minutes - 2161 nm
 fuel to safely complete the planned                                   San Jose
                                                                               Guayaquil Concepcion
                                                                                              Puerto Montt
                                                                                                                   Rio Gallegos
 flight plus enough fuel to safely reach                                                                          Punta Arenas           330 Minutes - 2376 nm

 an alternate airport during any                                                                                                                                             T         EST
                                                                                                                                                                              YPICAL W BOUND T   RACK
                                                                                                                                                                             ACTUAL W IND PLUS 93 KTS
 emergency that might arise during an                                         GREAT CIRCLE T          N
                                                                                            RACKS SHOW IN BLUE

 ETOPS flight. Airports that might be                                                                                                                                                                      Padang
 used in an emergency must have                                                                   Easter Island                                                                                                Singapore
 proper facilities and emergency                                                                                                                                                   Perth
                                                                                                                                                                                           Learmonth Jakarta
 equipment to safely handle both the                                                                                      POSSIBLE EASTBOUND T RACKS

 airplane and the passengers.                                    La Paz                                                   ACTUAL W            O
                                                                                                                                  IND PLUS 4 T MINUS 14 KTS
                                                                                                                                                              Hobart Adelaide

 ETOPS maintenance requirements                                                                                                                Christchurch Melbourne
                                                                                                                                               Wellington  Sydney                                                 Hong Kong
 direct that ETOPS carriers have a                                                                          Hao Island
                                                                Los Angeles
 maintenance and reliability program                                                                                Papeete
 sufficient to maintain the highest level                                                                                  Rarotonga
                                                                                                                                      Nuku'alofa                             Port Moresby
 of reliability on airplanes used in                                                                                   Pago Pago

 ETOPS. Maintenance requirements also                                                                                              Apia

 make sure that ETOPS carriers have                                                                                                                                                    Guam

 specific procedures in place to prevent                                   New ETOPS provisions will enable airplanes to fly anywhere
 human errors from resulting in multiple                                   in the world, including south polar regions.
 engine failures in flight.

                                             Transport Certification Update                                                                    Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 7
                                                                                           Transport Certification Update

Chief Scientific and Technical Advisors

           he FAA’s Chief Scientific and Technical Advisors (CSTAs) are a group of
           specialized technical experts who are at the forefront of the agency’s research
           and development efforts. CSTAs also participate in the design and development
           of aircraft, and in the application of regulatory policies and practices for
  certification of technology. For more information about CSTAs, go to the CSTA website.
  There are only fifteen CSTAs in the FAA, and they represent the best and brightest in
  their technical disciplines. They work in all fields and regions. As stated on the CSTA
  website, these leaders “possess the skills and abilities required to deal with the rapidly
  advancing aerospace technology and internationalization of the industry that is already
  upon us. They are active members of technical societies, write technical papers, and
  lecture at universities, and at industry and government forums.”

Profile of a CSTA:
Tom Kraft, CSTA for Aeronautical Communications

Today, the FAA’s most advanced         aircraft, air traffic control        Approximately 66 of these
data link capability allows air        facilities, and aeronautical         satellites orbit the earth on 6
traffic controllers and pilots to      operational control facilities       planes about the earth’s axis.
communicate using the Ocean 21         including Ocean 21. Kraft is
system. Ocean 21, located at           working with industry and            This data link capability,
Oakland, New York, and                 governments to determine the         referred to as the future air
Anchorage centers, interfaces          viability of Iridium’s 66 low-       navigation system 1/A, includes
with communication networks,           earth-orbit satellite system.        controller-pilot data link
including a high-tech satellite        Iridium satellites, which provide    communications and automatic
system. The satellite system is        complete global coverage             dependent surveillance –
Inmarsat’s 4 high-earth-orbit          including the Polar Regions,         contract, and is used mainly in
geostationary satellites.              weigh less, draw less power, and     oceanic airspace. Since its
                                       cost less (about one-tenth) than     implementation in 1995, the
As a CSTA for Aeronautical             that of an Inmarsat satellite        data link capability enables air
Communications, Tom Kraft              system. Iridium’s satellite system   navigation service provider
focuses his work on voice and          is fully interoperable with the      (ANSPs) to provide air traffic
data communications among              current Ocean 21 system.             services so operators can easily
                                                                                                 (Continued on page 9)

                                Transport Certification Update              Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 8
(Continued from page 8)
                                                                                       Transport Certification Update

In 2008, Oakland Center                 2010, will initially be used in      governments, and industry to
reported a saving of 21.9               the North Atlantic, Asia-            provide his expertise on such
million kilograms (kg) of fuel          Pacific, South American, and         matters related to the
and a reduction of carbon               African-Indian Ocean                 policies, regulation,
dioxide emissions by 69.2               Regions, and eventually in           standards, and guidance
million kg. The Oakland                 the European Region and              material for aircraft
Center is responsible for               other regions planning to            certification, operational
providing air traffic services          conduct data link operations.        authorizations, and the
throughout a large portion of                                                continued safety of
airspace over the Pacific               Kraft also co-chairs the             communication systems.
Ocean.                                  Communications Working
                                        Group (CWG) with Arnold              Kraft began his career at the
Since 2008, Kraft has led an            Oldach of Rockwell Collins.          FAA in 1983 as an engineer
ad hoc working group to                 The CWG operates under               in the Seattle Aircraft
develop a global                        the auspices of the                  Certification Office, and
operational data link                   Performance-Based                    later worked as an engineer
document (GOLD). The                    Operations Aviation                  in the Transport Airplane
group, sponsored by the                 Rulemaking Committee                 Directorate. In 1997, Kraft
International Civil Aviation            (PARC). According to Kraft,          was promoted to CSTA for
Organization (ICAO),                    the PARC CWG develops                Aeronautical Communications.
comprises members from                  recommendations related to
ICAO headquarters and                   the FAA’s regulatory criteria        Kraft’s memberships in
regional offices, ANSPs,                and guidance material for            professional organizations
airframe manufacturers,                 aeronautical voice and data          and societies include the
aircraft operators, and other           communication systems and            Institute of Electrical and
interested parties.                     their use. The PARC CWG’s            Electronic Engineers (IEEE),
                                        work program includes an             Society of Automotive
The purpose of the GOLD is              investigation of Inmarsat and        Engineers (SAE), and RTCA,
to facilitate global                    Iridium satellite voice              Inc. Tom earned his BSEE in
harmonization of existing               communication capabilities to        Control Theory and
data link operations and                determine their viability as         Communication from the
resolve regional/state                  an FAA-approved long-                University of Cincinnati, and
differences in an effort to             range communication system.          MS in Technical
work toward seamless                    If found to be viable, the           Communication from the
operations.                             PARC CWG will develop a              University of Washington. 
                                        recommendation and provide
The GOLD is intended                    criteria that could allow
primarily for those who are             routine dispatch of aircraft
involved in planning and                with one satellite voice
implementing data link                  communication system and
services and day-to-day                 only one high frequency (HF)
operations, and will be key             radio system, when two HF
to harmonizing oceanic and              radio systems are normally
domestic data link operations           required.
worldwide, according to
Kraft. The GOLD, expected               As a CSTA, Kraft also works
to be completed in June                 with the U.S. military, foreign

                              Transport Certification Update              Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 9
                                                                                               Transport Certification Update

Transport Airplane Directorate
Regulatory Radar
The following have been published in the Federal Register since
the last issue of the Transport Certification Update. For full text
of rulemaking and other actions see: For full
text of policies and advisory circulars, see

                                       the airframe ice protection system.      below design maneuvering speed
Current Rulemaking                     This rule is the result of information   does not allow a pilot to make
                                       gathered from a review of icing          multiple large control inputs in one
Final Rules:                           accidents and incidents, and will        airplane axis or single full control
Special Requirements for Private       improve the level of safety for new      inputs in more than one airplane
Use Transport Category Airplanes. airplane designs for operations in            axis at a time without endangering
Docket No. FAA-2007-28250; Final icing conditions.                              the airplane’s structure.
Rule (FR) issued 5/8/09, effective Notices of Proposed
6/8/09. Special Federal Aviation
                                       Rulemaking:                              Policy and Advisory
Regulation (SFAR) No. 109. This
SFAR adds new cabin interior           Flightcrew Alerting. Docket No.          Circulars (ACs)
criteria for private use airplanes.    FAA-2008-1292; Notice of
These standards may be used            Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued        Part 25/26 Final Policies:
instead of the specific requirements 7/9/09. Comment period closed
that affect transport category         10/1/09. The proposed standards          Certification of Flight Management
airplanes operated by air carriers. address regulations regarding               Systems. ANM-111-09-006, issued
The standards supplement the           definitions, prioritization, color       3/30/09, establishes TAD guidance
requirements for operation under                                                for the airworthiness approval of
                                       requirements, and performance for
the air traffic and general                                                     flight management systems that in-
                                       flightcrew alerting. This proposal
operating rules. This rule is intended would update the current                 clude takeoff or approach refer-
to provide alternative criteria for    regulations regarding the latest         ence speed calculations.
transport category airplanes that      technology and functionality. This       Policy Statement on Certification
are operated for private use while proposal is necessary to include ad-         for Flammability of Lightweight
continuing to provide an acceptable ditional alerting functions, and con-       Seat Cushions. ANM-115-07-002,
level of safety for those operations. solidate and standardize definitions      issued 4/16/2009, provides alter-
Activation of Ice Protection           and regulations for flightcrew warn-     native flammability certification
Sytems. Docket No. FAA-2007-           ing, caution, and advisory alerting      criteria for lightweight seat cushions,
27654; FR issued 8/3/09, effective systems.                                     when tested in accordance with
9/2/09. Amendment 25-129. This          Design Maneuvering Speed                Appendix F, part II, of part 25.
amendment revises the airworthiness     Limitation Statement. Docket No.        Specifically, this policy defines a
standards for transport category        FAA-2009-0810; NPRM issued              lightweight seat cushion and
airplanes certificated for flight in    9/4/09. Comment period closed           provides adjusted pass/fail criteria.
icing conditions. The rule requires a   11/3/09. The proposed amend-                                   (Continued on page 11)
means to ensure timely activation of    ment would clarify that flying at or

                               Transport Certification Update                   Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 10
                                                                                              Transport Certification Update
(Continued from page 10)

   Policy on Issuance of Special         6/10/09, provides guidance on        analysis attributed the
   Conditions and Exemptions             adding part 26 certification infor-  phenomenon to configuration
   Related to Lightning Protection of    mation to Type Certificate Data      issues specific to the B-1 airplane.
   Fuel Tank Structure. ANM-112-         Sheets and STCs until Order          Since then many airplane designs
   08-002, issued 5/26/09, pro-          8110.4 is updated to include part    have incorporated more
   vides FAA policy on the fuel tank     26 in the type certification         advanced supercritical airfoil tech-
   provisions of § 25.981(a)(3), as      processes.                           nology, and the phenomenon has
   amended by Amendment 25-102,                                               not been observed in either
                                         Evaluating Deployment
   for lightning protection of fuel                                           transonic flutter model tests or the
                                         Mechanisms for Potential Injury
   tank structure. It provides the                                            multitude of flight flutter tests
                                         Hazards. ANM-115-05-016,
   considerations under which special                                         conducted on these airplanes and
                                         issued 7/20/2009, clarifies FAA
   conditions or exemptions should be                                         their derivatives. The FAA has
                                         certification policy to minimize
   applied, and the alternative                                               therefore determined the policy is
                                         potential injury hazards of
   requirements that will be applied                                          not necessary; the policy has been
                                         deployment mechanisms of interior
   in lieu of § 25.981(a)(3) when                                             rescinded.
                                         features. Leg rests, deployable
   special conditions or exemptions
                                         video, integral tables, and folding Part 25/26 Final ACs Issued
   are used. This policy memo also
                                         flight attendant seats, etc., should
   discusses the conditions under                                             AC 25-17A Transport Airplane
                                         have restricted motion, or be
   which the exception provision of
                                         shielded so that pinching and/or Cabin Interiors Crashworthiness
   § 21.101 will be used for type
                                         shearing hazards are minimized. Handbook. Issued 5/18/09. This
   design changes to allow                                                    handbook provides acceptable
   application of § 25.981(a) at an      Fuel Tank Flammability               certification methods for demon-
   amendment level earlier than          Reduction (FTFR) Supplemental strating compliance with the crash-
   Amendment 25-102.                     Type Certificate (STC) Limitation. worthiness requirements of part
                                         PS-AIR-100-2009-07-01, issued 25, as amended by Amendment
   Enhanced Airworthiness
                                         7/21/2009, addresses how to          25-112. Crashworthiness, as
   Program for Airplane Systems
                                         handle STC issuance with a limita- applied to airplane cabin
   (EAPAS) Supplemental Type
                                         tion statement when flammability interiors, denotes the incorporation
   Certificate (STC) Limitations. PS-
                                         exposure analysis has not been       in basic design of considerations
   AIR-100-2007-12-27B, issued
                                         completed. These analyses are not pertinent to the protection of
   6/10/2009, is Revision B to the
                                         due until 12/27/09, so STCs may airplane occupants in a survivable
   policy statement, which provides
                                         be issued before the analysis is     crash environment.
   guidance to STC holders on
   development of Electrical Wiring                                            Part 25/26 Draft Policy
   Interconnect System (EWIS)            Notice to Rescind Policy              Issued
   Instructions for Continued            Statement PS-ANM100-2002-
   Airworthiness. The revision           00102, Requirements for Flight        Interaction of Interior Structures,
   removed references to the             Flutter Tests to Determine            Including Seats. Published for
   certification basis, which has been   Freedom from Shock-Induced            comment 4/20/09; comment
   incorporated in a separate policy     Flutter Phenomena. Issued             period closed 5/21/09. Provides
   (see following entry on policy PS-    November 8, 2009. Policy No.          guidance to address structural
   AIR-100-2009-05-27).                  ANM-115-09-014. At the time the       interaction of interior components,
                                         policy was written, the phenome-      including seats. Interaction of
   Adding Part 26 to Type
                                         non of shock-induced flutter,         interior structures under load must
   Certificate Data Sheets and
                                         exhibited by the B-1 bomber, was      be considered under the
   Supplemental Type Certificates.
                                         attributed to characteristics of      regulations. In most cases this is
   PS-AIR-100-2009-05-27, issued
                                         supercritical airfoils. Subsequent    already common practice, or is not
                                                                                                   (Continued on page 12)

                                Transport Certification Update                  Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009 11
(Continued from page 11)                                                                                                  Transport Certification Update

an issue. However, in some cases, the                  Part 25/26 Draft ACs Issued
requirements to address this interaction
may not have been well understood,                     Flightcrew Alerting (25.1322).
and should be included in future                       Published 7/9/09 for public comment
certification substantiation.                          in conjunction with NPRM. Provides
                                                       means of compliance for flightcrew
Flammability Testing of Interior                       alerting regulations as proposed and
Materials. Published 8/24/09 for                       modified by the rulemaking effort. 
comment; comment period closed                                                                                  Transport Airplane
9/23/09. Provides guidance on ac-                      _______________________________                          Directorate,
ceptable methods of compliance with
                                                       If you have questions or comments
                                                                                                                1601 Lind Avenue SW.,
the flammability requirements of Title                                                                          Renton, WA 98057.
14, Code of Federal Regulations part                   about the Regulatory Radar, please
25 for commonly constructed parts,                     e-mail us at 9-ANM-TAD-                                  Produced by:
construction details, and materials.         
                                                                                                                Airworthiness and
                                                                                                                Communications Branch,
                                                                                   The links in the Transport   ANM-114,
                                                                                   Certification Update are     Transport Airplane
                                                                                   current at the time of       Directorate
                                                                                   publication, but they are
                                                                                   subject to change at any     Acting editor-in-chief:
                                                                                   time. The target
                                                                                                                Marcia Walters
                                                                                   documents may be
                                                                                   moved to another             Contributing writers:
                                                                                   location, or the links
                                                                                   may not remain active
                                                                                                                Steve Clark, Mina
                                                                                   due to other factors         Mitchell, Marcia Walters,
                                                                                   beyond our control. We       James Wilborn
                                                                                   regret any
                                                                                   inconvenience this may       Contributing editors:
                                                                                   cause.                       Rose Opland

We welcome comments and questions. We might edit letters for style and/or length. If we have more than one
letter on the same topic, we will select one representative letter to publish. Because of our publishing schedules,
responses might not appear for several issues. We do not print anonymous letters, but we do withhold names or
send personal replies upon request. Send letters to the address above or e-mails to: 9-ANM-TAD-

The purpose of the Transport Certification Update is to provide the aviation community-at-large and designees with the latest information concerning
regulations, guidance material, policy and procedure changes, and personnel activities involving the certification work accomplished within the FAA
Transport Airplane Directorate's jurisdictional area. Although the information contained herein is the latest available at the time of publication, it
should not be considered "authority approved," unless specifically stated; neither does it replace any previously approved manuals, special
conditions, alternative methods of compliance, or other materials or documents. If you are in doubt about the status of any of the information
addressed, please contact your cognizant Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), Manufacturing Inspection District Office (MIDO), or other appropriate
FAA office.

                                         Transport Certification Update                                Edition 27 Fall/Winter 2009                 12

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