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Present State of Food and Agricultural Statistic in Myanmar

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Present State of Food and Agricultural Statistic in Myanmar Powered By Docstoc
					        Review on the Present State of Food and Agricultural Statistic
                                In Myanmar



Introduction

         Before 1988, agricultural policy of Myanmar could be depicted as rigid and

controlled and subsidized policy that highly emphasized on domestic food security and

stability of price. After the economic transition from planned economic system to market-

oriented economic system in 1988, agricultural policies of Myanmar pay attention on boosting

production and promotion of agricultural exports. The Government considers agriculture "as

the base for all-round development of other economic sectors". The three major objectives

of the agriculture sector are: (i) to achieve surplus in paddy production; (ii) to achieve self-

sufficiency in edible oil; and (iii) to step up the production and export of pulses and

industrial crops. At the same time, within the context of market-oriented economic system,

freedom in agricultural production, and participation of private sector have became the

major policies in the agriculture sector.

         Myanmar is traditionally an agricultural country and agriculture sector remains as a

major contributor to GDP, and its share of export earnings is about 40%. At the same time,

agriculture sector provides employment to more than 60 per cent of work force. In addition,

food security for the people and raw material production for domestic agro-based industries

are heavily dependent on the agricultural sector。

         For future prospect, Myanmar set up the millennium development goals targeting

2015 and significant progress has been achieved in various sectors including agriculture.

Major issues on the future development of agriculture sector are regional food security,

extension of agricultural land, enhancing participation of private entrepreneurs in agricultural



                                             -1-
activities, income generation activities through introducing new crops, and encouraging

farmers to cultivate environmental friendly crops.



(1)     Recent and Proposed Changes in Statistical Organizations Related to Food and

Agriculture



Statistics Law

         Concerning with the statistical activities for agriculture and non-agriculture sectors,

the government of Myanmar has laid down the Central Statistical Authority Act of Myanmar:

1952 for backing up the activities of statistics with the legal support. The statistical act of

Myanmar has been applying for all statistical activities including agricultural statistical

activities.

Major Agricultural Statistical Agencies

        There are several statistics agencies for collecting, compiling and disseminating of

economic and social statistics in Myanmar. Some major statistics agencies related to the

agriculture sector of Myanmar are as follows:

Settlement and Land Records Department (SLRD)

        Settlement and Land Records Department (SLRD) is sole government department

taking highest responsibility for collecting, compiling and disseminating agricultural statistics,

particularly for production statistics, such as planted area, harvested area, yield and

production of crops, in Myanmar.

        In addition the Settlement and Land Records Department under the Ministry of

Agriculture and Irrigation is taking responsibility not only for the crops statistics but also for

the statistics on the land use and land management. In order to get the complete and reliable



                                              -2-
statistics, SLRD always keep the close relation and collaboration with the relevant

departments and ministries.

          Another important task of SLRD is conducting agricultural censuses. Since Myanmar

gained its independence in 1948, three agricultural censuses ( 1952, 1993 and 2003) have

been conducted by the SLRD and now preparing to conduct 2010 agricultural census.

Central Statistical Organization (CSO)

          Central Statistical Organization (CSO) under the Ministry of National Planning and

Economic Development, is a sole national statistics organization which mainly emphasized on

economic and social statistics of Myanmar. The CSO compiles various data from both public

and private sectors. CSO obtains those data as administrative records of the concerned

departments.

          Moreover, some of the data and information compiled in the CSO were obtained from

the sample surveys. CSO collaborates with the SLRD for the agricultural production and land

use statistics and also makes bilateral relationships between other agencies, such as Livestock

Breeding and Veterinary Departments, Fisheries Departments, Forest Department.

          In addition, CSO has been conducting various kind of surveys such as Population

survey, Household expenditure survey, Agriculture survey, Health and Social survey, Vital

statistics survey, Livestock survey, Labour force survey, Transport survey and Private Sector

Industrial Survey. Primary function of CSO is to collect, process, organize and supply data for

the use of planners, policy makers and other users in the country as well as international

bodies.

Planning Department (PD)

          Planning Department under the Ministry of National Planning and Economic

Development is taking responsibility to measure the growth of national economy including

agriculture sector. Production statistics for all economic sectors are compiled from the
                                             -3-
administrative records of concerned departments and ministries whilst price data for various

commodities are collected and compiled from the sample surveys.

Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD)

        Major role of the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department under the Ministry

of Livestock and Fisheries is to collect, compile and disseminate the livestock production

statistics of Myanmar. Furthermore, LBVD also has a responsibility for animal health and

livestock development activities of Myanmar. LBVD also conducts the field surveys for the

collection of livestock production statistics. LVBD produces livestock statistics, such as

livestock population, production of livestock and livestock products, annually.

Department of fisheries (DOF)

        Department of Fisheries is one of the department under the Ministry of Livestock and

Fisheries and it is taking responsibility for the management of fisheries, conservation of

fishery resources, providing extension services, conducting research and compilation of

fishery statistics of the Union of Myanmar. Major statistics disseminating in DOF are

production from freshwater and marine fisheries and volume and value of exports.

Other Agricultural Related Government Agencies

        Department of population under the Ministry of immigration and population has

highest responsibility for conducting population censuses and demographic surveys,

estimating and publishing national, states/divisions population figures and urban/rural

population figures of Myanmar. Another important department for preparing agricultural

statistics is Department of Labor under the Ministry of Labour. Department of Labor also

conducts labor force surveys and disseminates agricultural labor force statistics through the

various statistics reports.




                                             -4-
(2) Main Characteristics of the Agricultural Statistical System

        Organizational Structure for data collection in agricultural sector in Myanmar is quite

different from the other productive sectors. Significant features related to the productive

activities depend on changes in the seasonal pattern or weather conditions. Seasonality can

have serious impact on food production. The elongated shape of the map of Myanmar is a

natural advantage; the northern most part of country experiences low temperature and the

temperature rise until it reaches the southern part. A major portion of country enjoys a tropical

climate. At the province level, Myanmar is administratively divided into 17 States/Divisions.

The States/divisions are sub-divided into 64 districts which are further divided into 324

townships. The townships are again subdivided into 13,759 village tracts. The basic

administrative unit in Myanmar is the village tract and is administrated by a committee which

is directly supervised by township Peace and Development Council. Most of the statistics in

Myanmar represent those administrative regions.

       Since the lowest administrative unit is the village tract, statistics are collected usually

on that bias. The village tract Peace and Development Council is an integral part of the

agricultural statistics system and it has to give necessary assistance to the staffs of other

agricultural related agencies, such as SLRD, MAS, LBVD, DOF, in the collection and

compilation phases of information and keeping records for the village tract. Myanmar has

therefore a very closely knit structure of local administrative system. This network helps in

coordinating statistical activities at the local level and ensures close cooperation between

farmers and government agencies. The government statistical agencies of Myanmar are

systematically formed by the field staffs who have thorough knowledge of local climate,

farming systems and crop technology and also they are familiar with the local people and their

customs as well.



                                              -5-
       Nevertheless National agricultural statistics system of Myanmar can be defined as a

decentralized system with minimum coordination with other concerned departments and

ministries. Each ministry has its own statistical unit to serve its own needs either through the

survey method of or a by-product of administration.


Agricultural Data Collection Methods Applied in Myanmar

           In Myanmar there are four main sources for agricultural data collection. They are:

                       1. Censuses

                       2. Surveys

                       3. Administrative records and

                       4. Informal Sources

Censuses

       Agricultural censuses are large scale data collection exercises under taken at frequent

intervals. Agricultural Censuses are designed mainly to collect data on agriculture and other

stock type data. In general, there are two main objectives in agricultural censuses; (i) to

collect data on agricultural structures which do not change rapidly from year to year, (ii) to

provide a frame for conducting other surveys on the basis of agricultural holdings. Holdings

are also used to generate sampling frames for collecting current statistics.

Surveys

           Ad hoc surveys are often conducted to collect data on agricultural production.

Myanmar has carried out different sample surveys to meet the data requirements of various

departments.

Administrative Records

          Administrative records too provide agricultural statistics. Data on agricultural sector

are obtained as a by-product from routine reporting system. Report released by the Settlement


                                              -6-
and Land Records Department, Myanma Agriculture Service and other publication of line

ministries contained information on agriculture including livestock and fisheries.

Informal Data Sources

         Informal Data Sources can be defined as those sources which collected data that are

not based on formal statistical techniques. Even then, these data souses are regarded as

alternative sources for additional information on the subject under study. Informal data

sources are:

 1. Remote sensing

 2. Early warning systems

 3. Micro-surveys

 4. Rapid rural appraisal



Types of Agricultural Statistics of Myanmar and Concerned Departments

Following table shows the types of agricultural statistics currently available in Myanmar and

responsible departments for those agricultural statistics.

                                                                      Periodicity    Available
                Statistics/
 Domain                                  Source         Coverage      of    Data     Time
                Indicators
                                                                      Collection     Series
 Production     Volume              of SLRD             National,     quarterly      1970 to
                production                              Sub-                         2008
                                                        national
                Value of production      PD             National      quarterly      1970   to
                                                                                     2008
                Major           Crops                   National,     Yearly         1970   to
                Inventory                               Sub-                         2008
                                                        national
                Gross        national PD                National      Yearly         1985   to
                product                                                              2008
                Gross       domestic PD                 National      Yearly         1985   to
                product                                                              2008
                Gross value added in PD                 National      Yearly         1985   to
                agriculture                                                          2008


                                               -7-
 Trade            Total     value     of   CSO & PD    National   Yearly     1985    to
                  exports and imports                                        2008
                  Volume              of   CSO & PD    National   Yearly     1985    to
                  agricultural exports                                       2008
                  and imports
 Prices           Average       monthly    CSO         National   Yearly     1985    to
                  prices of selected                                         2008
                  agricultural products
                  Producer price index     CSO         National   Yearly     1985    to
                  by commodity group                                         2008
                  Consumer         price   CSO         National   Yearly     1985    to
                  index by commodity                                         2008
                  group
 Agricultural     numbers                  PD, MOAI    National   Yearly     1985    to
 machinery                                                                   2008
 Fertilizer                      CSO,
                  Imports and exports        National             Yearly     1985    to
                  Sales          Ministry of                                 2006
                                 Trade
 Land use   Total farm area      SLRD        National             Yearly     1970    to
                                             Sub-                            2008
                                             national
            Irrigated area       SLRD        National             Yearly     1970    to
                                             Sub-                            2008
                                             national
            Area                 SLRD        National             Yearly     1970    to
            planted/harvested of             Sub-                            2008
            crops                            national
 Labor and Labor       force  in DOL         National             Yearly     1985    to
 employment agriculture                                                      2008
            Employment        in DOL         National             Yearly     1985    to
            agriculture                                                      2008




(3) Agricultural and related surveys undertaken and plans for the future

          Followings are agricultural statistics collected, complied and disseminated in

Myanmar

Production Statistics

               Volume of crop production

               Value of crop production

               Volume of livestock and poultry production

                                                 -8-
              Value of livestock and poultry production

              Volume of fishery production and aquaculture

              Value of fishery production, and aquaculture

              Volume of fish production by major species

              Value of fish production by major species

              Gross domestic product

Trade Statistics

              Total value of exports and imports

              Volume of agricultural exports and imports

              Value of agricultural exports and imports

Prices Statistics

              Average monthly prices of selected agricultural products

              Consumer price index by commodity group

              Whole Sale Price of Selected Commodities

Fertilizer

              Production

              Imports and exports

              Use of fertilizers by crops

Land use

              Total farm area

              Irrigated area

              Area planted/harvested of crops

              Arable Land

              Fallow Land

              Land area for permanent crops
                                             -9-
               Area of Non-agricultural Land

               Area of Land by Type of Land

               Double, Multiple and Mixed Crops Area

               Area of crops by kinds of crops

               Squatter Area

Labor and employment

               Rural population (estimated)

               Labor force in agriculture

               Active population in agriculture

               Employment in agriculture

Others

               Income and Expenditures by households

               Agricultural credit



Survey methods applied for agricultural statistics

               Survey methods used for collecting and compiling agricultural statistics in

Myanmar can be summarized as follows.



             Domain of Statistics        Collecting Method

Production                               Complete

Trade                                    Administrative Records

Price                                    Sample Surveys

Agricultural Machineries                 Administrative Records

Fertilizer                               Both surveys and administrative records



                                               - 10 -
Pesticides, insecticides, herbicides   Both surveys and administrative records

Land use                               Complete

Labor and Employment                   Sample Surveys, Administrative Records




Agricultural Census in Myanmar

       Myanmar has conducted three agricultural censuses after the independence. The first

agricultural census was conducted in 1952 and the second agricultural census was carried out

in 1993. The most recent agricultural census done in 2003 was the third agricultural census

experienced in Myanmar. The first and the second agricultural census were conducted using

sampling methods and the last census was conducted using complete enumeration method. All

agricultural censuses done in Myanmar were undertaken by the Settlement and Land Records

Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation.

         The Myanmar agricultural Census 1993 covered 272 townships out of the 319

townships of 14 States and Divisions. The urban wards in Yangon and Mandalay Divisions,

remote areas and less-populated insecure areas were excluded from the enumeration of the

census. The method applied in the Myanmar Agricultural Census 1993 was sampling technique

with the UNDP/FAO technical support. The data were compiled for each state, division and

Union level and reported in 1995.

       The third agricultural census of Myanmar was launched in 2003 according to the

guideline of the FAO‟s World Census of Agriculture 2000 programme. Settlement and Land

Records Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation took responsibility for

conducting Myanmar Agricultural Census 2003. Since WCA2000 guided to include

aquaculture households in the implementation of agricultural census, information concerning


                                           - 11 -
livestock, fisheries and aquaculture were also collected. Myanmar Agriculture Census 2003

was carried out using complete enumeration method so that the result of census will provide

the most important and basic information for formulation of future development plans and

measures. Since the Myanmar Agricultural Census 2003 was conducted in complete basis,

enumeration of census covered the entire country except highly urban areas, some remote areas

where transportation facilities were not good enough to conduct the enumeration. At the time

of census, there were 9 States and 8 Divisions with 63 districts, 324 townships, about 12,900

village tracts and about 58,000 villages in the Union of Myanmar. However, of the 324

townships, only 283 townships were included in the census.

       In the implementation of the Myanmar Agricultural Census 2003, FAO provided

297,000 US$ as an assistance under the Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP/MYA/2801)

only for preparation of the Myanmar Agricultural Census. Therefore, all expenses for the

implementing, processing and disseminating of the Myanmar Census of Agriculture were used

by the own budget of the Settlement and Land Records Department.

       In the implementation of 2003 Census, responded households were about 3.7      millions

and about 9000 SLRD field staffs took responsibility for collection of information. Myanmar

government, SLRD under Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation expense all charges for

information. On the other hand, farmers in rural area are very co-operative and they gave their

transportation facilities freely and contribute computer for data processing.

       However, implementation of Agriculture Census is one of main function of Settlement

and Land Records Department. Therefore, Settlement and Land Records Department has

planned to conduct the Myanmar Census of Agriculture in 2010, According to the guideline

of WCA 2010. Formulation of list frame for the Census has successfully conducted in

Myanmar during February 2009 to May 2009.



                                             - 12 -
(4)    Recent Innovative activities and measures undertaken since the last Commission

       Session

Myanmar Agriculture Census 2010

       Long-term and short-term objectives for implementing Myanmar Agriculture Census

2010 are described as follows:



                 (1) To collect, monitor and issue the reliable and concrete data concerning

                    food and agriculture sectors of Myanmar which can be used as baseline

                    information for formulation of rural development plans;

                 (2) To provide accurate information concerning food and agriculture sectors

                    of Myanmar that will reflect present situation of food and agriculture

                    sectors from which effective nation-wide and regional development

                    policies and administrative tasks could be set up;

                 (3) To provide data to use as benchmarks for current agricultural statistics;

                 (4) To nurture local experts and technician in food and agricultural statistics



            And Short-term Objectives are:
                 (1) To provide accurate structural data of food and agriculture sector of
                      Myanmar;
                 (2) To acquire baseline data and information that can be applied in
                      measuring growth and development of food and agriculture sectors of
                      Myanmar;
                 (3) To provide basic data and information to be able to analyze and
                      evaluate the effectiveness of the development projects relating to food
                      and agriculture sectors of Myanmar;
                 (4) To provide data on the structure of agriculture, livestock, fisheries and
                      aquaculture, especially for small administrative units;
                 (5) To provide frames for agricultural sample surveys;
                                             - 13 -
        (6) To strengthen human resource development in the activities concerning
             agricultural statistics, surveys and agricultural census;
        (7) To provide information for role of gender in food and agriculture
             sectors of Myanmar;
        (8) To collect reliable and concrete data and information that reflects the
             environmental issues and situation of the sustainability of agricultural
             development in Myanmar.


        By participating the FAO‟s World Census of Agriculture 2010 round,

Settlement and Land Records Department has planned to conduct the Myanmar

Census of Agriculture in 2010. According to the guidelines of WCA 2010, 16 core

modules and 89 supplementary modules are suggested to implement in agricultural

census in 2010 round. FAO also guided that 16 core modules should be done in

complete basis and additional supplementary modules should be conducted by

sampling method. Since Myanmar has already conducted its Myanmar Census of

Agriculture 2003 using complete enumeration method, data and information obtained

from 2003 could be applied as a frame for 2010 Myanmar census of agriculture. In

addition, in order to be in line with the guideline of the FAO‟s World Census of

Agriculture 2010, Settlement and Land Records Department has decided to conduct

the agriculture census in 2010 using Complete Enumeration Method for collecting

Core Items and applying sampling method for necessary supplementary items.



        Myanmar Census of Agriculture 2010 is being conducted to get the

following information:

            (1) Identification of Holding and their household size

            (2) Legal status of holders

            (3) Sex and age of holders

                                    - 14 -
            (4) Educational attainment of holder

            (5) Economic activities of holders

            (6) Land use

            (7) Irrigation

            (8) Crop

            (9) Agricultural practices

            (10)     Agricultural Services

            (11)     Livestock

            (12)     Fishing and Aquaculture

            (13)     Farm labor

            (14)     Demographic characteristics and gender issues



        According to the planned time-frame, period of the Project is 4 years starting

from July 2008 to June 2012. The project focus on entire works of the Census

including preparation of the Project, compiling equipments and materials, finding

international assistance, budget allocation, recruitment of enumerators and the

Project Staff, training for enumerators and supervisors, conducting pilot census,

implementation of the core and supplementary censuses, developing programs for

data processing, editing and data checking, conducting post-enumeration surveys,

evaluation of the Project and Printing and publication of census reports for both core

and supplementary censuses.

        In order to be in line with the guidelines of FAO for World Census of

Agriculture 2010 and to follow the work plan, implementation of the Core Census

has successfully conducted in Myanmar during February 2009 to May 2009. The

Core census of Myanmar has been carried out using complete enumeration method

                                   - 15 -
and covered the whole country except some remote areas and highly urbanized areas.

The report for the Core Census of Myanmar is planned to publish at the end of the

year 2010.

          Supplementary Modules will be conducted during November and December

2010. Final reports for Union and each of the state/division will be published in mid-

2012. Detail work plan will be prepared at the start of the Project by the National

Project Director in consulting with the member of National Census Technical

Committee and international and National consults and experts.

          For the participation of the World Census of Agriculture 2010, FAO

recommended the countries to conduct the agricultural census according to the

guidelines so that comparative analysis could be done among the countries.

According to the guidelines of the World Census of Agriculture 2010 for the

implementation of Core Module, there are 16 items that should be done by complete

method.

          However, Settlement and Land Records Department (SLRD) under the

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Myanmar, the sole government department

of the Union of Myanmar taking responsibilities for collecting agricultural statistics

and conducting agricultural censuses, decided to conduct the surveys for 11 items in

the core census. SLRD decided not to include in core census for remaining 5 items

because some items recommended by FAO, such as “Presence of Irrigation on the

holdings”, “Types of temporary crops and permanent crops on the holdings”, etc., are

being surveyed annually using complete method by SLRD.

          Recently enumeration of core census items and preparation of maps have

been completed in Myanmar. However, activities for data compilation and data

processing are still on going processes. Since the result of the core census has to be
                                   - 16 -
used as basic data for implementation of supplementary modules, it is necessary to

speed up the process of compilation and processing of data collected from core

census in Myanmar.

       According to the provisional data, Myanmar Agriculture Census 2010 for

Core Module covered the 6.2 million households living in 53,749 villages and 3,565

blocks of 322 townships, 64 districts of 17 states and divisions of Myanmar. In

addition, more than 70,000 sketch maps must be transferred to digital format for

selecting sample villages and enumeration areas. On the other hand, SLRD is

urgently needed the technical and financial assistances from international

organizations for determination of census design, survey methods, and statistical

analyses to proceed the implementation of supplementary census.



(A)   Expected Output
       The outputs of the Project are as follows:
         (1) Digital list frames with household location maps for further sample
             surveys
         (2) Pilot Census Report
         (3) Preliminary Census Report
         (4) Final Census Reports (for Core Module and Supplementary Module)
         (5) Post-Enumeration Survey Report
         (6) Training Program, Training Materials and Manuals
         (7) Technical Report describing the census data processing Report
         (8) Trained persons for census design, methodology and analysis
         (9) Report on data users/producers seminar
         (10) Data and Information concerning agriculture and food sectors of
             Myanmar
         (11) Data and Information showing structure of Myanmar agriculture




                                   - 17 -
(5)    Problems Facing in Agricultural Statistics

               Agricultural statistics and information will play increasingly important roles in

agricultural sector development. Accuracy and timeliness of data are quite important for

MOAI in order to maintain the efficiency and quality of government services. However,

present situation of agricultural statistics is quite unsatisfactory from the users‟ point of view.

Utilization of agricultural statistics and agricultural sector information is no longer confined

to the governmental sector and their use has expanded and has become a stimulus for growth

of the private sector with the shift of government policies to diversify agriculture from

subsistence level farming to a more profitable business venture. Statistical data officially

published by MOAI is limited in terms of their scope and quantity. Present mechanism and

procedure of data collection does not assure high degree of data accuracy, reliability and

timeliness. Data analyses for forecasting and other purposes to serve policies are not

sufficient. These problems originate from the following constraints to the statistical

organization and its activities:

              Agricultural statistics in Myanmar are under the responsibility of three

               different line Ministries. Each ministry has its own statistical unit to serve its

               own needs either through the survey method or as a byproduct of

               administration.

              Myanmar still relied mostly on the administrative reporting system which is

               combined with some kind of measurement as the major source of information.

               The data collection is a very large operation and as a result field procedures are

               not always strictly followed and control over field work is difficult to maintain.

              Data are not widely disseminated and few statistical publications are issued.

              Crop forecasting procedures are inadequate.


                                              - 18 -
              The whole land records system and its associated registers are still manual

               operations.

              Manpower is insufficient for all levels of the statistical organization,

               particularly for field-level data collection. Basic understanding, quality-control

               practice and techniques concerning statistics need to be upgraded for the staffs

               in the ministry, province and field levels.

              Transportation and communication infrastructure is still very week. Access to

               villages and fields are not quite easy for district officers. Data reporting is

               often delayed by poor communication conditions.



(6)    Role of Agriculture in the Statistical Master Plan (SMP) and in the National

       Strategy for Development Statistics (NSDS)



        Since the inception of power by the State Law and Order Restoration Council

(CLORC) in September 1988, the official policies turned towards the market based,

agriculture-led, export-oriented growth along with a prompt promulgation of a series of lawd

and initiation of liberal economic reforms including agriculture. The SLORC implemented

two hoc plans during the first two years, 1989-90 to 1990-91, in order to achieve the

following two short term objectives:

               (a)    Economic recovery and social stability ; and

               (b)    Lay firm foundations for achieving a rapid and sustainable growth in

                      the long run.

       Among the liberal reform measures undertaken during the first two years, agricultural

aspects of the reforms included production reforms, trade and marketing, and institutional


                                             - 19 -
reforms, the salient points of which could be summarized as follows. On the production side,

farmers are allowed to grow crops of their choice, while the State, co-operatives, and private

individual or enterprises are also allowed to claim and utilize fallow and cultivable wasteland

up to 20,000 hectare for enhancement of agricultural production. Foreign direct investment is

also allowed in agricultural production and other activities as prescribed by the Union of

Myanmar Foreign Investment Law (promulgated in 1988). Introduction of new products with

emphasis on semi-processed and processed goods in agriculture either individually or

collectively by locals or by foreign firms are encouraged with the purpose of diversification of

agricultural export which is retained as State monopoly. Domestic procurement, whole saling

and retailing, processing, milling, storage, and transportation of all farm products including

rice which have all been under the State control until 1988 are now allowed to private, joint-

ventures, and co-operatives.

       One major area which was not much affected by the reform is the land policy. The

policy of State ownership of land remains unchanged. Farmers are given the right to use or Till

the land (which occupancy right) which cannot be privately transferred, divided, mortgaged,

sold, and or taken over in lieu of loan repayment. Land use right (and occupancy right) are

legally inheritable by the children who continue to work the land by themselves. Absentee land

ownership is illegal. If the holding is abandoned or confiscated by the State for some reasons,

the Land Committees at various levels have the right to trans for the holding to the entitles

landless farmers. However, the Government has taken some new initiatives since 1991-92 to

compensate this constraint and develop farming activities. A Central Committee for the

Management of Cultivable Land, Fallow Land, and Wasteland was formed in 1991. The

Committee grants up to 20,000 hectare of land to both local and foreign investors with

expertise, technology and capital who desire to invest in agricultural activities initially for 30

years, and extendable if requires. Activities allowed to undertake include farming activities
                                              - 20 -
related to plantation, orchards, and seasonal crops and livestock and poultry farming, and

aquaculture.

       After completing the groundwork to pave the way for carrying out the growth and

development activities in long run, a short term Four Years Plan (1992/93-1995/96) was

adopted and implemented by designating the first two years as “ Economic Years ‟‟ and the

third years as ‟‟ Integrated Development Year‟‟. The main thrust of the short term Four Year

Plan objectives are:

       (a) To step up production and exports for the achievement of complete economic

             recovery ; and

       (b) To speed up the development of the economy.

       Priority has been assigned to the development of primary productive sectors-agri

culture, livestock and fishery sectors-while emphasis has also been given to enhance the

production of other sectors. The reform measurers undertaken in agriculture for the purpose

were already summarized above. The major policy objectives of the SLORC in its Short Term

Four Year Plan (1992/93-1995/96) for agricultural sector can be summarized as

       (a)      To achieve surplus in paddy production for [promotion of] export ;

       (b)      To achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils in order to save foreign exchange

                through import-substitution, and

       (c)      To achieve increased production and export of industrial crops, pulses and other

                cash crops in order to stabilize domestic economy on the one hand and raise

                export earning through import savings on the other hand.

       When these agricultural development policy objectives are considered in the context of

the first of the four national economic objectives which explicitly spelled out the “development

of agriculture as the base and all-round development of other sectors of the economy as well‟‟,



                                             - 21 -
the importance attached, priority given, and dedication and determination placed on achieving a

sustainable agricultural development become unquestionably clear.

       The strategies adopted by the Government since 1988-89 to achieve the policy

objectives of agriculture are relatively more explicit, wider in scope and coverage, and diverse

and assume multi-dimensional in nature. It seems that the present strategies have well taken

into account the flaws and weaknesses of the past strategies, prevailing factor endowment

situation of the country, prevalence of different agro- ecological zones (or the nature of agro-

ecological diversity of the country), regional disparity in the level of development, and

prevalence of structural imbalances in the agriculture sector.

       The main goal of agriculture is to accomplish is to accomplish the target of achieving

a developed and sustained agricultural output of all products as much as possible at the

highest possible speed and rate within the prevailing limitations by employing all possible and

available strategies and means.

       Such is being the goal, the strategy considered is not a single one but a package of

strategies that involved different characteristics and qualities which, when combined, must

have the abilities and effectiveness to achieve a sustainable agricultural development. Where

and when possible, land will be intensively used to rice yields. Where land intensification is

not possible, it well be used extensively to contribute to increased total production. Frequency

of crop rotation will be raised with the support of appropriate machines, and water pumps, and

to reduce other forms of losses and risks, will be supported by increased use of quality seeds,

chemical fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, and improved cultivation practices better

arrangements of trade and marketing systems, and so and so forth. All these properties of the

„strategy package‟ can be summarized to include the following five strategies which are

officially spelled but by the Government as:

               (a)     Development of land resources;
                                               - 22 -
               (b)    Increased provision of irrigation;

               (c)    Expansion of small scale agricultural mechanization;

               (d)    Transfer and application of new and improved technologies;

               (e)    Increase supply of agricultural inputs including quality seeds.

       It is obvious therefore that „he package of strategies‟ is diverse and assumes

“comprehensive and applied aspects of the following five strategies:

       (a)     Intensification Strategy      -       raising   productivity   through

                                                     intensive application of inputs / factors

                                                     of production;

       (b)     Extensification Strategy      -       area expansion;

       (c)     Diversification Strategy      -       broadening the base of agriculture in

                                                     terms of both production and

                                                     consumption;

       (d)     Rehabilitation Strategy       -       land improvement and rural

                                                     development; and

       (e)     integration Strategy          -       improving the co-ordination and co-

                                                     operation and working together in

                                                     concerted efforts between various

                                                     public and private agencies

                                                     involving in agricultural development.

       In view of the wide spectrum and complexity of the components involved in the above

strategies, the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation or any other agency alone is not

empowered with a full range of policy instruments or mandate to undertake the whole breadth

of such strategies. However, this package of strategies has been in use (or tested) effectively

for 4 years now with the introduction of the Short Term Four Year Plan in 1992/93.
                                            - 23 -
        Agricultural Statistics in Myanmar covered both national and sub-national (or states

and divisions level). Data collected in Myanmar covered all states and divisions, districts, and

townships level except some remote areas of Myanmar. However, those areas are included in

the statistics as an estimated data.




        Economic development of Myanmar depends on the agricultural sector. Reliable

agriculture statistics is means to the implementation of the economic objectives of the country

and successful achievement of the goals by coordination with related sectors. In Myanmar,

crops are grown by farmers to provide the people with food, shelter, clothing and other

essential needs. Crops are of two types: food and non food. Agriculture produce covers like –

cereals, oilseeds, pulses, spices and condiments, tobacco and betel, beverages, vegetables and

fruits, fiber and miscellaneous. Forestry, Fishery and Livestock also belong to the agricultural

sector. Agricultural statistics is concerned with weather and rainfall, land use, irrigation,

agricultural implements, draught bulls and bullocks, farm machinery, fertilizers and pesticides

etc.

        Agricultural Statistics for the public sector is valid and reliable. So too, for the

cooperative sector. Privatization following the adoption of the market oriented economic

system; the quality of data for the private sector suffers from incomplete coverage. Since a

large majority of farming was done by the private sector, it is difficult to get reliable data over

vast stretches of cultivated land in time. Coordination among line ministries and co-operation

between business communities and peasants is to be encourage in collecting information

regarding agricultural activities.




(7)     Needs for Capacity Building

                                              - 24 -
        Agricultural statistics in Myanmar is still in the early stage of development and

Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation intends to develop its capacity in this area of data

collection, analysis and dissemination of agricultural statistics. MOAI also desire to contribute

wider information for food security information system in ASEAN countries by providing

timely and reliable data to the member countries. to meet those destination Myanmar needs

the following backup for the improvement of Food and Agriculture Statistics:

        (a) The previous Agriculture Census was conducted in complete enumeration and by

taking of that, SLRD would like to implement the coming census according to the guidelines

established by FAO. to fulfill the wish, the international assistance is crucial for the

implementation of 2010 census of Agriculture of Myanmar. Since, to provide the required

information for planning and policy making in the food and agriculture sector with the aim of

rising the living standard and nutritional status of the people, especially in the rural sector.

        (b) Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Agriculture and SLRD are seeking

opportunities to be able shift the method data collection from the reporting system to sample

surveys for improvement of reliability and objectivity.

        (c) Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Agriculture and SLRD also request

opportunities in terms of capacity buildings projects for the improvement Agriculture

Statistics and Information as there are limitation of statistical staffs in the organization.



Conclusion

        Myanmar is now trying very hard to achieve growth and development with

momentum in antenatal economic life, although, Myanmar's economy is still mainly relied on

the agriculture sector and the majority of the population is rural based. Hence, Myanmar pays

special attention for all-round development of the country based on agriculture sector and

development of other agriculture sector as well.
                                               - 25 -
       Due to its resources constraints and the present situation of agriculture statistics of

Myanmar, international collaboration programs are welcome for the assistance and

improvement for the development of accurate and timely. Myanmar will actively take part in

the formulation of those activities to make rapid achievement on the welfare and well being of

the nation and on the other hand for the improvement of the agricultural system.




                                            - 26 -

				
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