Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans by linxiaoqin


									The Anglo-Saxons
Distribution of IE Languages, 5th BCE
        Germanic Homeland
• Ancient Germanic homeland was located in
  southern Scandinavia and northern
• There are no other traces of any other IE
  language in these areas;
• The Germanic tribes usually associated with
  the “Battle-ax Culture” invaded this area
  approximately 3000 BCE
   The Classical Authors on the
        Germanic Tribes
• Classical writers such as Caesar (c. 50
  BCE) and Tacitus (c. CE 98) describe the
  Germanic peoples
• Tacitus describes social organization,
  family structure, religion, customs, diet, etc.
       Physical Characteristics
For my own part, I agree with those who think that
  the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of
  intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they
  appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but
  themselves. Hence, too, the same physical
  peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All
  have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit
  only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to
  bear laborious work.
                    In Battle
Their line of battle is drawn up in a wedge-like
  formation. To give ground, provided you return to
  the attack, is considered prudence rather than
  cowardice. The bodies of their slain they carry off
  even in indecisive engagements. To abandon your
  shield is the basest of crimes; nor may a man thus
  disgraced be present at the sacred rites, or enter
  their council; many, indeed, after escaping from
  battle, have ended their infamy with the halter.
A shield from Sutton Hoo Burial
                   Honor and Glory
When they go into battle, it is a disgrace for the chief to be surpassed in
  valor, a disgrace for his followers not to equal the valor of the chief.
  And it is an infamy and a reproach for life to have survived the chief,
  and returned from the field. To defend, to protect him, to ascribe one's
  own brave deeds to his renown, is the height of loyalty. The chief
  fights for victory; his vassals fight for their chief. If their native state
  sinks into the sloth of prolonged peace and repose, many of its noble
  youths voluntarily seek those tribes which are waging some war, both
  because inaction is odious to their race, and because they win renown
  more readily in the midst of peril... Indeed, men look to the liberality
  of their chief for their war-horse and their bloodstained and victorious
  lance. Feasts and entertainments...are their only pay.
A Gold Buckle from
 Sutton Hoo Burial
Tradition says that armies already wavering and giving way
  have been rallied by women who, with earnest entreaties
  and bosoms laid bare, have vividly represented the horrors
  of captivity, which the Germans fear with such extreme
  dread on behalf of their women, that the strongest tie by
  which a state can be bound is the being required to give,
  among the number of hostages, maidens of noble birth.
  They even believe that the sex has a certain sanctity and
  prescience, and they do not despise their counsels, or make
  light of their answers.
        Celtic / Roman Britain
55-54 BCE Julius Caesar launches two invasions of
  Britain from Gaul; no permanent colonies
43 CE Emperor Claudius leads expedition to Britain
  of 40,000 men; he conquers southern and central
  Britain and leaves a garrison and a governor
410 CE       Roman legions officially withdrawn
  from island to defend Rome from barbarian
  Germanic hordes
       The Germanic Invaders
449 CE Britain invaded by Germanic tribes
  from Denmark and Low Countries; they
  settle in the south and east of island until
  they displaced the Celtic peoples to the west
  (Wales) and north (Scotland)
  Bede writes of this “invitation”
At this time the Angles or Saxons came to Britain at
  the invitation of King Vortigern in three long-
  ships, and were granted lands in the eastern part of
  the island on the condition that they protected the
  country: nevertheless their real intention was to
  subdue it. They engaged the enemy advancing
  from the north, and having defeated them, send
  back news of their success to their homeland,
  adding that the country was fertile and the Britons
              Bede continues
These new-comers were from the 3 most formidable
  races of Germany, the Saxons, Angles, and
  Jutes...Their first chieftains are said to have been
  the brothers Hengist and Horsa. The latter was
  subsequently killed in east Kent, where a
  monument bearing his name still stands. They
  were the sons of Wictgils, whose father was Witta,
  whose father was Wecta, son of Woden, from
  whose stock sprang the royal house of many
 Germanic Invasions of England
The Germanic invasions
  begin in 449 CE.
Thus we date the
  beginning of the Old
  English linguistic
  period to 449.
The Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
            From the Jutes are descended
              the people of Kent and the
              Isle of Wright...From the
              Saxons came the East,
              South and West Saxons
              [Wessex]. And from the
              Angles...are descended the
              East and Middle Angles,
              the Mercians, all the
              Northumbrian stock and
              the other English peoples.
  The Mission of St. Augustine
In 597 Gregory I send St. Augustine and his
  missionaries to the Angles (Angli) to
  convert the pagan Anglo-Saxons. St.
  Augustine was given permission by King
  Æthelberht of Kent to preach and within a
  year the King was converted and within 10
  years 3 bishoprics were established.
The Desborough Necklace
     (650-700 CE)
            This is the finest of its kind
              surviving from Anglo-
              Saxon England, richly
              made from gold beads and
              deep red garnets. It was
              found buried near the head
              of a female skeleton in a
              grave. The gold tells us
              that she must have been
              extremely wealthy, and
              the cross tells us that she
              was a Christian.
 The Next Wave of Invasions
The Raiding Stage (787-850 CE)
Between 787-850 Scandinavian attacks on
 England began with plundering of
 monasteries and towns near the eastern
 coast. In 793 Lindisfarne was sacked and
 then in 794 Jarrow was sacked. By 850 the
 Danes controlled most of eastern England
 and had established extensive settlements.
  Further Anglo-Saxon Defeats
 The Settlement Stage (850-78 CE)
In 866 a large Danish army plundered East
  Anglia. In 867, they captured York. In 869,
  the East Anglian King Edmund was
  martyred and the Danes then controlled the
  eastern half of England. They established
  organized, large settlements.

The English people and the English language
 are threatened with annihilation.
Enter a King
      Alfred was born in ca.
        848. He was the
        fourth son of
        Æthelwulf, king of the
        West Saxons.

      The ring of Æthelwulf.
Alfred the Great
        He became king of the
          West Saxons in 871
          and had to fight
          against the
          encroaching Danes.

        His silver penny
        front: Alfred REX
        back: LVNDONIA
 Victory at Ethandum in 878 CE
  Political Assimilation (878-1042 CE)
After several years of Danish victories and a fugitive
  existence, Alfred gathered enough allies to defeat
  a Danish army under Guthrum.
The Treat of Wedmore signed by Alfred and
  Guthrum specified that the Danes had to withdraw
  from Alfred’s territory and stay east of a newly
  drawn Danelaw. A third condition was that
  Guthrum and his lords be baptized with Alfred as
  their sponsor.
              The Danelaw
The map of England
  after the Treaty of
  Wedmore signed by
  Alfred and Guthrum.
                 Alfred’s Peace
Alfred reigned until 899 and during this time of relative peace
  he began an ambitious program of translation and
Alfred commissioned translations into Anglo-Saxon of Bede,
  Pope Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care, Boethius’
  Consolation of Philosophy, parts of the Old and New
  Testaments, the Psalms. He also instigated the production
  of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a continuous record of
  annual events starting the first landing of Julius Caesar (55
  BCE) and ending with the coronation of Henry II in 1154.
           Alfred’s Schools
In his prefatory letter to his translation of
  Gregory’s Pastoral Care, Alfred outlines a
  program of education for all free-born, male
  children (who had enough wealth or ability
  or both and could not do anything else) be
  educated by the bishops in their cathedral
And Old English Runic Alphabet
An alphabet used in northern Europe in
  Scandinavia, Germany and England. The
  earliest inscriptions date from the third
  century CE. It derives in part from the
  Roman and Greek alphabets.
Futhorc was used principally for inscriptions
  on weapons, jewelry, monuments such as
  the Ruthwell Cross.
Seax of Beagnoth
Anglo-Saxon, 9th-10th century
From the River Thames,

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