Wood Utilization Research

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					2005
a n n u a l   r e p o r t




                            Center for
                     Wood Utilization
                       Research
                                    Forest and Wildlife
                                     Research Center
                        Introduction
The global demand for forest products is increasing. This increase in demand coincides
with diminished wood supplies in many established wood-producing countries of the
world. Restrictions on harvesting from public forest lands in the United States (U.S.),
particularly in Washington, Oregon, and California, have predictably exacerbated global
timber supply shortfalls and increased demands on forests of the Southern U.S.

The Southern U.S. region is well positioned in terms of long-term timber supply and the
forest products manufacturing infrastructure to meet a portion of the projected increase
in demand. In fact, the South produces approximately 60 percent of the nation’s timber
products, almost all of it from private forests. The South produces more timber than any
other single country in the world and is projected to remain the dominant producing
region for years to come.

A major challenge for the Southern U.S. is to extend the available wood resource by de-
veloping more efficient methods of processing and utilizing this wood and by developing
new uses for that portion of the forest resource, including mill residues and unmerchant-
able trees, that currently is unused. The Forest and Wildlife Research Center (FWRC)
receives funds to support a special research program on timber harvesting and wood
utilization opportunities for the southern region.

Results from the FWRC’s Wood Utilization Research Program are made available to the
public and specialized user groups through publications in appropriate journals, short
courses and conferences, and meetings with industry groups. Each year, thousands of
inquiries (letters, telephone questions, facsimile and E-mail) are answered based on re-
search funded by this program.




               Research Program
The Office of Technology Assessment Report presented to Congress in August
1983 states policy options “designed to enhance the advantage of U.S. producers in
international markets, to provide research and development in forest management,
environmental effects of forestry and wood materials science, and to improve the
productivity of the U.S. forests.” An important recommendation of this assessment
was to establish Centers for Wood Utilization Research (WUR). Congress authorized
the program and appropriated funds in 1985. Currently there are 12 universities that
participate in the WUR program. The Departments of Forest Products and Forestry
within Mississippi State Universitys’ Forest and Wildlife Research Center were selected
as program participants. Summaries of all current projects funded by the WUR program
are included in this report.
                                                                    2005 annual report

                    Center for
              Wood Utilization Research
                                              Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                  Mississippi State University


                                                                  Table of Contents

Timber Harvesting and Transportation ............................................................................................................................. 1

Lumber Manufacturing and Processing ............................................................................................................................. 7

Wood-Based Composite Materials ..................................................................................................................................11

Protection and Preservation of Wood ............................................................................................................................16

Wood Chemistry .................................................................................................................................................................23

Economic Evaluation and Technology Transfer ..............................................................................................................32

Appendix - Publications ......................................................................................................................................................44




                              The research supported here was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
                              Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, Wood Utilization
                              Research Program. Agreement numbers include:




                                                           00-34158-9035                     03-34158-13398
                                                           01-34158-44076                    04-34158-14152
                                                           02-34158-11926                    05-34158-16442
Timber Harvesting and Transportation
The objective of the timber harvesting and transportation research activity conducted by the
Department of Forestry is to provide timely information on trends, technologies and economic
factors affecting the logging industry and the industrial wood supply system.

Research impacts include:

• The detailed analysis of land ownership in Mississippi was an invaluable asset to Mississippi
  forestry landowners in gaining tax relief following the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.

• Efforts to rationalize the wood supply system saved a wood-using facility over $150,000 and
  resulted in loggers generating more than $425,000 in additional economic activity.

• Data gathered have provided valuable information on water quality and control of nonpoint
  source pollution in forestry.

Research accomplishments include:

• Data gathered on Mississippi forests to determine the spatial distributions of forests and their
  approximate ages, have provided critical information to assist in forming baseline for biomass
  and fire prediction models and in developing a stronger damage rating system.

• In an exploratory survey of five Mississippi counties, researchers found parallel changes
  occurring—timber production still ranks high as a long-term goal, but is often tied to another
  land use like recreation or wildlife management. This information will be used to continue to
  monitor the effects of land use and ownership changes in the state.




                                                     1

                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                         Mississippi State University
       Timber Harvesting and Transportation
 Project                                                                                                    Project
                                   Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                    Duration


               Characteristics of businesses participating in Missis-                 L. A. Grace
 065350M
               sippi’s wood supply system                                             W.B. Stuart       6/1/02 - 5/31/05

               A detailed analysis of land ownership in Mississippi
                                                                                      W.B. Stuart
 065350N       and the implications of ownership evolution for
                                                                                      L.A. Grace        6/1/02 - 5/31/05
               forest management and wood supply systems

               Analysis of timber production information and                         D. L. Grebner
 065360A
               engineered wood products                                                 K.L. Belli      7/15/03 - 7/14/05

                                                                                      D.L. Evans
                                                                                       K.L. Belli
               Use of geospatial technologies in large-area forest
 065360B                                                                             T.G. Matney
               inventories                                                                              7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                     R.C. Parker
                                                                                     E.B. Schultz
                                                                                     L. A. Grace
               Economic and environmental effectiveness of water
                                                                                      R. Maiers
 065390H       quality and forest sustainability on timber harvesting
                                                                                     W.B. Stuart        4/1/04 - 3/31/06
               and wood utilization in Mississippi
                                                                                        C. Sun
               The economic impact of implementing carbon
               sequestration management strategies on timber
 065430C                                                                              R.K. Grala        9/15/05 - 9/14/07
               supply and the forest products industry in
               Mississippi and the southern region
Proposed for   Improving the performance of the wood supply                          L.A. Grace,
                                                                                                        7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        system                                                                W.B. Stuart




                                                           2

                                                   2005 annual report
                                          Center for Wood Utilization Research
                      Characteristics of businesses participating in Mississippi’s wood supply system
L. A. Grace, W.B. Stuart                                 065350M                                June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research are:                        few benefits and is subject to weather related lost wages.
1. To conduct a comprehensive survey of business involved in            Mechanization has made the work less physical demanding than
   Mississippi’s wood supply system;                                    in the past, but has increased the need for a literate, dependable,
2. To collect support information from these businesses to              skilled, drug free work force.
   document the profiles of businesses involved in Mississippi’s
   wood supply system; and                                              FUTURE PLANS: The work will be continued—a new
3. To provide a baseline for examining changes in business pro-         project will revisit participants in the earlier surveys to find if
   files of this segment of Mississippi’s economy.                      they are still active wood-producing firms or the reasons for
                                                                        withdrawing, how they have restructured and changed, and the
PROGRESS: Baseline data have been compiled from a variety               challenges and opportunities they see for the future.
of publicly available data sources, including BLS and the U.S.
Census Bureau. Analysis indicates that the logging segment of           IMPACTS: Data collected as part of this have been used to
Mississippi’s economy is considerably larger than traditionally         work with several firms involved in the wood supply system.
assumed. Early survey results indicate that there are over 3,000        We have been cooperating with a wood using facility and
individual logging firms operating in Mississippi employing over        their contractors in assessing and implementing strategies for
25,000 individuals. The U.S. Census Bureau recognized roughly           rationalizing their wood supply efforts. Some of the recently
600 firms employing 4,200 individuals.                                  implemented changes resulting from earlier WUR work has
                                                                        resulted in stabilizing wood flows to the manufacturing facility
The logging industry was especially hard hit by the “downsizing         and improved financial performance for the contractors. A
and restructuring” of the forest products industry of 2003              combination of better communication and improved planning
- 2004. Many well-established firms chose to pull back or               has produced numerous beneficial results. First, two of the
withdraw from the industry. The perceived over-capacity of 2001         wood supplying businesses have saved a combined $1 million in
turned into perceived under-capacity in 2004. The exit/entry            business equity by changing their operating strategy. Without this
rate affects not only the number of businesses but also the             savings, neither would currently be in operation, and 42 people
characteristics of the producing firms in the short term.               would be unemployed. Second, these changes have resulted in
                                                                        more operating days for the businesses providing wood to the
Our work finds that the industry is typified by a large number of       manufacturing facility and reduced the need for the facility to
small firms - 65% have four or fewer employees. Nearly all are          build wood inventory. Each day they operate, the six businesses
individually or family-owned with the wife of the owner taking an       in the study generate approximately $60,500 in economic
active role in bookkeeping and other administrative roles. One-         activity. Each day wood is delivered to the facility that would
third of the businesses are minority-owned. The majority (58%)          not be under the previous system; the facility saves $22,575 in
are organized as sole proprietorships, 16% as full corporations,        inventory (storage and handling) costs. In the first nine months
12% as partnerships, and 10% as S corporations. Larger firms            since these managerial and operational changes were made, the
tend to fill multiple roles in the wood supply system, serving          wood suppliers have been able to work an additional seven days,
as timber buyers, wood brokers, or hauling contractors. Some            despite dealing with two major hurricanes. The seven additional
also include forestry advisory services. These firms commonly           work days saved the manufacturer over $150,025 and allowed
split their operations into wholly-owned subsidiaries, each with        the loggers to generate almost $425,000 in economic activity.
a form of organization determined by liability and tax purposes.
The owner population is aging; fewer businesses have a member
of the next generation planning to continue the business. The           GRADUATE STUDENTS: Three MS students worked on this
work force is aging as well. Firms are finding it difficult to          project.
attract and retain quality labor in an industry that offers very




                                                                    3

                                                    Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                        Mississippi State University
                  A detailed analysis of land ownership in Mississippi and the implications of ownership
                               evolution for forest management and wood supply systems
W.B. Stuart, L.A. Grace                                  065350N                                June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research are:                          An exploratory survey of landowners from five Mississippi
1. To use publicly available tax rolls from Mississippi counties          counties found parallel changes taking place in landowner
    to develop more detailed ownership, accessibility, and                expectations - timber production is still an important long-term
    location descriptions.                                                goal, but it is often tied to another land use such as recreation
2. To use these descriptions to develop an improved                       or wildlife management.
    understanding of timber availability.
3. To establish baseline information to monitor the effects of            A parallel study of the cost and productivity of harvesting
    land use and ownership changes.                                       systems finds that the smaller firms best suited to harvest
4. To incorporate this information into current research                  tracts of 50 acres or less were most heavily affected by
    regarding the nature of Mississippi’s wood supply system.             economic conditions of the last five years. Cost pressures have
                                                                          encouraged firms to become more productive, moving larger
PROGRESS: Work continues on extracting and matching                       volumes per day with the net result of more lost time associated
information from the property tax records for the year 2000               with moving between tracts.
and the 1995 data available from an earlier study. Extraction
began with Northeast Mississippi counties to meet a request for           FUTURE PLANS: Scientists will complete the data extraction
information to support economic development planning in that              and analyses for the remaining Mississippi counties with a
region but is being expanded across the state. Data extraction is         significant level of forestry activity. Scientists will continue and
complete for 58 Mississippi counties.                                     expand the use of the material as support for research and
                                                                          extension efforts. A cooperative study with a major forestry
Land ownership is changing across the state. Large ownerships             firm in the state is addressing the issue of the effects of tract size
are being sold to private and institutional investors that are in         (volume) on the economic efficiency of thinning contractors.
turn breaking the ownerships into smaller parcels. Tax rolls
for counties most affected by these sales and dis-aggregation             IMPACTS: The data developed from this project proved
are being evaluated across recent years to measure the import             invaluable to the Mississippi forestry community in their efforts
of the actions. There is a general trend toward smaller-sized             to gain tax relief for Mississippi forest landowners devastated by
holdings and less intensive forest management practices.                  the effects of Hurricane Katrina. The information (presented in
Indications are that the median tract harvested in the future will        the form of an Extension publication) allowed the delegation to
be 40 acres or less.                                                      put a human face on the tragedy.

                                                                          GRADUATE STUDENTS: Two MS students and a PhD
                                                                          student have worked on this project.




                                                                      4

                                                              2005 annual report
                                                     Center for Wood Utilization Research
                          Analysis of timber production information and engineered wood products
 D. L. Grebner, K. L. Belli                                065360A                         July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES:                                                              FUTURE PLANS: This year the graduate student assigned
1. Identify and document characteristics important for raw               to this project should complete his master’s thesis and defend
   material used in the wood engineering process and determine           his work which will serve as the basis for publishing popular or
   the extent of relevant timber production knowledge that               scientific journal articles.
   currently exists.
2. Relate and categorize these raw material input requirements           IMPACTS: The results of this research are expected to
   to existing knowledge of initial stand conditions and                 provide several benefits. First, it will aid researchers and be a
   management treatments.                                                stimulus in designing investigative projects that compensate for
3. Evaluate the range of possible combinations of raw material           areas where scientific knowledge is limited - in this case, the
   input characteristics and existing timber production                  production relationships and predictive ability of alternative
   knowledge for determining future areas of research useful in          silvicultural treatments and properties that define wood quality.
   improving production efficiencies.                                    Second, it will provide needed information to both non-industrial
4. Identify future research directions based on objectives 1, 2,         and industrial landowners for planning their forest management
   and 3.                                                                operations and strategies. In addition, it will aid funding agencies
                                                                         in efficiently allocating financial resources by identifying and
PROGRESS: Since our last progress report, the assigned                   targeting poorly-understood linkages in literature in this area.
graduate student is evaluating results and writing a master’s            Finally, it is expected that the results from this study will improve
thesis on this topic. The work is encompassing all four                  the output efficiencies along the entire production line from the
objectives stated above. Various document drafts have been               forest landowner to the engineered wood manufacturer.
reviewed and revised.
                                                                         GRADUATE STUDENTS: One M.S. student worked on this
                                                                         project.




                                 Use of geospatial technologies in large-area forest inventories
 D.L. Evans, K.L. Belli, T.G. Matney,
 R.C. Parker, E.B. Schultz                                 065360B                               July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES:                                                              are being used to develop a more robust damage rating system
1. Develop a current forest type map from satellite data for the         that might be used in the future to develop damage predictions
   state of Mississippi.                                                 prior to impacts of future storms.
2. Develop a map of approximate forest age class distributions
   for Mississippi.                                                      FUTURE PLANS: Validation of all products will be
3. Incorporate items 1 and 2 within the framework of a                   completed by the end of the project.
   statewide inventory system.
                                                                         IMPACTS: Satellite image interpretation products have
PROGRESS: Research has been completed on use of historic                 provided information needed to more effectively help in both
satellite data to determine the changes in spatial distributions         short- and long-term hurricane recovery efforts directed at
of forests and their approximate ages across Mississippi. The            rural southern Mississippi. The protocol adopted in this work is
age distribution products are presently being validated through          also being examined by the US Forest Service for derivation of
use of historic aerial photography. These, and the forest type           damage estimates for Federal and private timberlands impacted
maps, form the baseline for biomass and fire prediction models           by Hurricane Rita in East Texas and West Louisiana.
in related on-going research projects. The type maps have been
used to implement a stratified field sampling design used by the         GRADUATE STUDENTS: Two masters students are in the
Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI) to conduct field       process of completing their thesis research on use of remote
inventory of forests statewide. They also serve as baseline for          sensing in regional inventories. Both were employed on half-
a study instituted to characterize timber damage due to the              time appointments during the past year.
impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Pre-
and post-Katrina satellite images were acquired, processed and
compared to map the spatial extent of damage. These products




                                                                     5

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                  Economic and environmental effectiveness of water quality and forest sustainability on
                                     timber harvesting and wood utilization in Mississippi
 L.A. Grace, R. Maiers, W.B. Stuart, C. Sun               065390H                          April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES:                                                               measured. Data comparing relative contributions of logging and
1. Examine and review the evolution of forestry best                      natural erosional processes to increased sediment loads and
   management practices (BMPs), their relationship to forest              changes in water quality and quantity are being analyzed.
   certification and the current use of BMPs in Mississippi;
2. Evaluate the economic costs and benefits of adopting BMPs              A welfare analysis has also been conducted using a Muth-type
   on the wood supply system and associated communities in                equilibrium displacement model with two production stages.
   Mississippi;                                                           Under the base scenario perceived as being the most realistic,
3. Estimate the distribution of costs and benefits of                     consumers had the largest absolute welfare loss and second
   implementing forestry BMPs among primary stakeholders                  largest loss in relative welfare loss. Industrial mills generally
   in the wood supply system (forest landowners, loggers, and             experienced little welfare loss from forestry BMP regulation.
   industry);                                                             Their relative welfare change was close to zero in most cases.
4. Develop a cost-effective, easy to implement method for                 As part of a larger scale analysis of the efficacy of traditional
   evaluating the sediment budget at a watershed-scale;                   contractual arrangements on wood supply system performance,
5. Compare the relative effectiveness of forestry BMPs in                 the effects of altered harvesting operational strategies on the
   reducing sediment-related non-point source sedimentation               performance of individual businesses as well as the procurement
   versus other land-use practices in the watershed                       strategy for a wood manufacturing firm were studied.
                                                                          Preliminary results indicated that strategies such as “double-
Natural soil erosion rates in forested ecosystems are largely             shifting” (logging businesses operating two 8-10 hour shifts in
undocumented and a sustainable soil loss tolerance associated             the woods) did increase the amount of wood delivered to a
with forested ecosystems of central Mississippi has not been              manufacturing facility, but at the expense of the long-term (3-5
established. Past silvicultural studies have addressed short-term         year) viability of the logging business.
effects of timber harvesting on non-point source sedimentation
with little regard for natural rates and variable sources of              FUTURE PLANS: The overarching goal of this project is to
sedimentation. To date, there are no conjunctive studies of 1)            integrate data on (1) business factors relevant to productivity
pre-harvest vs. post-harvest rates of sedimentation, 2) control           and cost of doing business in terms of BMP implementation
vs. silvicultural impacts and 3) variable sources of sedimentation.       for primary stakeholders in the wood supply system and (2)
The aim of this study is to develop a sediment budget for a 121           sediment movement and water quality associated with existing
hectare (ha) watershed located in the sand-clay hills of central          BMP application.
Mississippi in order to evaluate the impact of forest harvesting
on water quality and sedimentation rates.                                 IMPACTS: These results have implications for future forestry
                                                                          BMP programs. Water quality and control of nonpoint source
PROGRESS: A comprehensive literature review on sediment                   pollution in forestry will continue to be an important issue in
production as a function of forest management practices has               coming years. How to enhance current state forestry BMP
been completed. Twenty-seven sub-watersheds approximately                 guidelines, increase the implementation rate, and improve
2.2 ha in size are being monitored for gross sediment movement            program monitoring efficiency and effectiveness will keep on
pre- and post-harvest, using readily available, economic methods.         challenging policy makers and stakeholders in forest management
In a completely randomized design containing three replications           communities. Based on the evaluations of welfare distribution,
of two treatments (harvested vs. unharvested) and two slopes              future technical and financial assistance for forestry BMPs should
(<9% vs. >9%), twelve sub-watersheds have been randomly                   clearly target these who have experienced considerable financial
selected for intensive measurement of the sources and sinks of            losses, such as landowners and loggers.
sediment after every major precipitation event. In-stream, bank
and hillslope sediment movement are being measured. Relative              GRADUATE STUDENTS: Three graduate students have
rates of movement due to various silvicultural activities (e.g.           worked on this project
road construction, water control and logging) are also being




                                                                      6

                                                              2005 annual report
                                                     Center for Wood Utilization Research
                   The economic impact of implementing carbon sequestration management strategies on
                    timber supply and the forest products industry in Mississippi and the southern region
R.K. Grala                                               065430C                 September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES: This research project has two main objectives:               Further, a review on incorporating GIS into the analysis and
1. Evaluate the feasibility of storing additional amounts of             identification of available data sources was conducted.
   carbon through the manufacture of long-life wood products
   with emphasis on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and better               FUTURE PLANS: This year research efforts will focus on
   utilization of processing, harvesting and thinning residuals.         examining technological capabilities of mills in the Southern
2. Assess the technological capabilities of converting facilities        Region to process large diameters trees resulting from longer
   to utilize larger-diameter logs and manufacture new wood              rotations designed for increased carbon sequestration. The
   products in response to predicted changes as well as examine          analysis will also examine the financial investments necessary to
   economic feasibility of implementing potential technological          implement technological changes to improve processing of large
   adaptations.                                                          diameter trees.

PROGRESS: Since this is a new project, current efforts have              IMPACTS: An economic impact cannot be determined at this
focused on a literature review regarding carbon sequestration            stage of the project.
management strategies and their possible outcomes in terms of
sequestered carbon amounts and shifts of timber supply. This             GRADUATE STUDENTS: One master’s level graduate
step is necessary to evaluate technological capabilities of mills        student will be recruited to work on this project beginning the
in the Southern Region to process logs with larger diameters.            summer of 2006.




                                                                     7

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                                     Improving the performance of the wood supply system

 L. Grace, W. Stuart                                     Proposed for 2006                                    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
It is widely recognized that the entire forest products sector is        The system has accumulated structural and philosophical
undergoing change (see The Strategic Needs Section, p. 1-5 of            characteristics during its evolution that constrain its ability
the WUR strategic plan). There is a need for innovation, new             to change. The legal systems of the United States, especially
products, new technologies, and new business methods across              concern over anti-trust and liability issues, make it difficult to
the entire sector, including the wood supply system, to ensure           approach change from a sector-wide basis (Forest Resources
that this important sector of the regional and national economy          Association 1993). The forest products industry is in the
is sustainable.                                                          throes of another transformation arising from globalization,
                                                                         and the wood supply system is struggling to adapt to the
The wood supply system is a network of businesses                        changed requirements for economic and environmental
encompassing landowners, consulting foresters, logging                   performance and the changes in land ownership. The approach
contractors, trucking contractors, wood dealers and brokers,             to transformation has followed traditional patterns, transferring
solid wood products firms, and the pulp and paper industry               costs and responsibility between players, an emphasis on
as well as associated finance, insurance, equipment, fuel, and           increasing “efficiency” of individual components instead of the
tire suppliers. It also includes the employees of these firms            overall system. However, the aggregation of so many different
and industries as well as the communities dependent on the               yet interrelated mill supply systems confounds efficiency
wood utilizing industries. It is also a concentration system,            improvements. Forests and mills represent long-term capital
charged with originating, concentrating, and directing the flow          investments, relatively fixed in time and location. The wood
of wood from a large number of dispersed timber tracts to                supply system joining them is composed of mobile businesses
the appropriate markets in the appropriate amount and at the             with relatively fast (less than or equal to 5 years) capital turnover.
appropriate time.                                                        Participants can enter and leave on short notice. The system is
                                                                         cognitive - each proposed “efficiency” is judged on the benefit or
Wood supply systems are seldom considered holistically - past            cost to the participant who then chooses to stay the same, make
academic efforts have tended to segregate them into discrete             the change, or leave the system.
components for analysis and improvement. This dissection
ignores the reality that wood supply is an interactive business          Objectives: The objectives of this research are to:
and social system that is a product of the environment in which          1. Identify characteristics that define wood supply system
it exists. Mississippi’s wood supply system, used for purposes               performance and develop measures to monitor those
of illustration, processes 30,000,000 tons of wood annually and              characteristics over time, emphasizing transparency,
may support 25,000 jobs. It is a major source of economic                    consistency, quality of product, productivity, quality of work
activity in the state, albeit a nearly invisible one. The current            life, innovation, and, most importantly, profitability.
system has been evolving as a contractor-based system for
over three hundred years. It has weathered changes in national           2. Conduct a critical analysis of the entire system to identify
affiliation, governments, land use, industry, and economics. In             points where costs have been built in that: (a) are artifacts of
the evolutionary process, the wood supply system has acquired               earlier wood supply structures, (b) are unnecessary in today’s
dimensions that make performance improvement difficult                      world, (c) are constraints that were implemented to counter
without considering the larger social and economic impacts                  earlier challenges, and (d) that serve functions outdated by
associated with that change.                                                modern technology.




                                                                     8

                                                             2005 annual report
                                                    Center for Wood Utilization Research
Lumber Manufacturing and Processing

 Researchers in the Department of Forest Products are using cutting edge technology to
 search for solutions to upgrade lumber products and strengthen their market value.

 Research impacts include:

 • Research information will assist in regaining lost market share for southern pine
   lumber by increasing quality.

 • Lumber value will increase an average of 5 percent from logs in which knots have been
   detected and optimal sawing procedures applied.

 Research accomplishments include:

 • Foreign patents are currently being filed in select countries in Europe and Australasia
   for the Moisture and Density Detector which was patented in the U.S. in 2003.

 • Using the Moisture and Density Detector, researchers have been able to detect
   compression wood in southern pine by noting the significant difference in shift signals
   between the compression wood and normal wood.

 • A conceptual design for a high temperature metallic catalytic reactor to reduce VOC
   emissions from lumber has been developed.




                                                9

                                Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                    Mississippi State University
       Lumber Manufacturing and Processing
 Project                                                                                                   Project
                                  Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                   Duration


               Detection of knots in hardwood lumber by radio
 065350K                                                                             P.H. Steele       6/1/02 - 5/31/04
               frequency scanning

                                                                                     P.H. Steele
 065360K       Development of a through-log density detector                                           7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                     J. Cooper

                                                                                       J. Zhang
               Development of machine vision technology for
 065390G                                                                             P.H. Steele       4/01/04 - 3/31/06
               lumber and panel products
                                                                                      M.G. Kim

 065430F       Wood drying research and breakthrough technology                     R. Shmulsky        9/15/05 - 9/14/07

Proposed for   Classification of hazardous air pollutants from drying                R. Shmulsky,
                                                                                                       7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        southern pine lumber                                                 L.L. Ingram, Jr.




                                                         10

                                                  2005 annual report
                                         Center for Wood Utilization Research
                            Detection of knots in hardwood lumber by radio frequency scanning
P.H. Steele                                             065350K                             June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to                       IMPACTS: Development of technology to detect compression
determine the potential for differentiating compression wood            wood in southern pine will allow rapid detection of warp-
from normal wood in loblolly pine lumber.                               prone lumber. Special drying methods can then be applied
                                                                        to reduce warping. Warp reduction in lumber containing
PROGRESS: This project has resulted in the development                  compression wood will reduce southern pine lumber degrade.
of an invention to detect juvenile, compression, heart and              Customer acceptance of southern pine will be increased if the
normal wood types. The device was patented as the Moisture              high degree of warp is reduced. A considerable loss in market
and Density Detector with U. S. Patent No. 6,784,671 issued             share to imported lumber has occurred as a result of customer
on August 31, 2003. Foreign patents are currently being filed           dissatisfaction with the quality of southern pine lumber. Annual
in select countries in Europe and Australasia. The invention            dollar value returned to the industry from adoption of this
consists of non-contact adjacent electrodes positioned 0.125            technology is conservatively estimated to be in the $500 million
inch from lumber surfaces. Lumber is passed under multiple              range from decreased lumber degrade. The value of regaining
adjacent pairs of electrodes comprising a scanning head. Phase          lost market share for southern pine lumber from increased
shift signals have been shown to differ significantly between           quality is unknown but probably is in the billions of dollars.
normal and compression wood.
                                                                        GRADUATE STUDENTS: Two graduate students worked
FUTURE PLANS: International patents will continue to be                 on this project for two years.
pursued. Licensing of patents to commercial machine vision
companies has begun and will be continued.




                                        Development of a through-log density detector
P.H. Steele, J. Cooper                                         065360K                                   July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to develop               FUTURE PLANS: Researchers will pursue commercialization
an electrical impedance tomography knot detection device to             of the TLDD technology.
accurately detect knots in saw logs with electrodes.
                                                                        IMPACTS: Lumber value will increase an average of five
PROGRESS: Due diligence to support the patent for the                   percent from logs in which knots have been detected and
EIT log scanning device, known as the Through-Log Density               optimal sawing procedures are applied. The sawmilling industry
Detector (TLDD), has been pursued through our 2005 research             would produce five percent more value from the 45 billion
progress. Images of log cross sections scanned by the TLDD in           board feet sawn annually. If only 10 percent of operators
two logs were compared to sections crosscut at the scans and            adopted this technology the lumber value increase would be
imaged by camera. These images are currently being compared             $100 million annually.
statistically.
                                                                        GRADUATE STUDENTS: Two graduate students worked
                                                                        on this project for two and three years respectively.




                                                                   11

                                                   Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                       Mississippi State University
                         Development of machine vision technology for lumber and panel products
J. Zhang, P.H. Steele, M.G. Kim                         065390G                         April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were a)                     over the next year. Following log scanner development and
development of a device for detecting knots in logs moving at           testing, a research paper reporting results will be developed.
high speed through electrode sensors, and b) development of a           Inventors will begin to market the log scanner patent license as
real-time after-press radio-frequency device to detect moisture         soon as the laboratory prototype is successfully working.
content and specific gravity.
                                                                        IMPACTS: Lumber value will increase an average of 5% from
PROGRESS: Following patenting (U. S. Patent No. 6,784,672               logs in which knots have been detected and optimal sawing
for the Through-Log Density Detector), the log scanning device          procedures are applied. The sawmilling industry would produce
has been designed and the required parts obtained. Software             5% more value from the 45 billion board feet sawn annually.
has been developed to image knots in the cross-sectional                If only 10 percent of operators adopted this technology the
scans. The switching devices required to acquire data from the          lumber value increase would be approximately $100, million
electrodes have been investigated.                                      annually.

FUTURE PLANS: Experimental work will be completed                       GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student is working
by the end of August 2006. After completion, the student will           on this project.
work on his thesis writing, and also will prepare a paper for
journal submission. The log scanning device will be fabricated




                                     Wood drying research and breakthrough technology
R. Shmulsky                                              065430F              September 15, 2005 - September 15, 2007
OBJECTIVES:                                                             PROGRESS: A conceptual design for a high temperature
1. Research and develop commercially viable technology to               metallic catalytic reactor to reduce VOC emissions from lumber
   significantly reduce volatile organic compounds (VOC)                drying has been developed. A third iterative version of a lumber
   emissions from pine lumber drying such that major pine               restraint device has been designed. Improvements include better
   lumber producers would fall below major pollution source             rigidity and faster setup time.
   threshold levels, i.e., 100 tons per year.
2. Research and develop technology that vastly and                      FUTURE PLANS: Scientists will build the heated catalytic
   fundamentally improves dimensional stabilization during              reactor and hire a graduate student to test the reactor’s ability
   wood drying thereby eliminating costly warp especially as            to reduce air pollution versus no control. Scientists will also
   crook and twist.                                                     build the restraint device and hire a graduate student to assist in
                                                                        full scale testing of the device.




                                                                   12

                                                            2005 annual report
                                                   Center for Wood Utilization Research
                          Classification of hazardous air pollutants from drying southern pine lumber

R. Shmulsky, L.L. Ingram, Jr.                              Proposed for 2006                                  July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2008
It is well documented that there are significant volatile organic           these specific HAPs during drying of southern pine is needed
air pollution emissions associated with southern pine lumber                to comply with emission level limits from dry kilns. Emission
drying. The major compounds are tepenoids and to date,                      factors, typically as pounds of compound per thousand board
related air pollution research has generally focused thereon                feet lumber, for the specified Haps will be generated. These
and specifically targeted total volatile organic compound (VOC)             factors can then be used directly as a guide for permitting or be
emissions. Southern pine lumber production is a major industry              used as component data for regulatory-type data bases.
in the gulf south region. In 2004, approximately 18 billion board
feet of southern pine lumber were produced. At an estimated                 It is critical that this research begin without delay because
3.5 pounds VOC per thousand board feet, industry wide                       the information gap is significant between the current level of
approximately 30 thousand tons of total VOC are released every              knowledge and that which is required for commercial regulation.
year in the gulf south region from pine lumber drying.                      Mississippi State University is appropriately positioned to
                                                                            conduct this important fundamental research. Intellectually, this
EPA standards issued in 2004 require that dry kiln emissions                institution has a strong history of education and research related
of acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, formaldehyde, and phenol                to air pollution from wood drying. During the past 15 years
be determined. Significant amounts of methanol emissions                    a unique cadre of talent and equipment has been developed
from southern pine dry kilns have also been reported. These                 and maintained related hereto. Additionally Mississippi State
compounds are on the list of 189 compounds known as                         University is in the heart of southern pine production and thus
hazardous air pollutants (HAP) and are subject to regulation                has ready access to sample wood material and commercial
when emissions of individual or combinations of compounds                   issues.
exceeds levels set by the EPA. Terpenes occur naturally in pines
and their emission as volatile organic compounds during the                 OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research are to:
drying of southern pine has been well documented. Methanol                  1. Determine if methanol, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene,
can be produced by the destructive distillation of wood but is                 formaldehyde, or phenol occur in measurable concentrations
not normally listed as a naturally occurring compound in green                 in green southern pine.
wood. In a limited number of drying experiments the reported                2. Determine if there is a concentration difference of these
amount of methanol was about 10 percent of the amount of                       compounds in heartwood v. sapwood.
α-pinene. The occurrence of acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene,                3. Determine if storage duration or conditions impact these
formaldehyde, and phenol as natural components of southern                     compound emission during drying.
pine has not been reported in any of the available literature               4. Determine if drying schedule impacts the emission levels of
reviewed for this project. As such there is a gap in the scientific            these compounds.
literature between what is currently known and what is
required for current commercial level permitting and reporting.
Information relative to the natural occurrence or formation of




                                                                       13

                                                       Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                           Mississippi State University
                14

         2005 annual report
Center for Wood Utilization Research
 Wood-Based Composite Materials


Researchers of wood-based composite materials continue their work to improve
adhesive systems, gather data on fatigue damage and perform extensive tests on
engineered wood.

Research impacts include:

• A successful implementation of the TimTek technology will impact the economy of
  Mississippi and the pine belt of the South for many years.

• The development of new water repellents would allow manufacturing of treated
  lumber and wood composite boards with higher dimensional stability and durability.

Research accomplishments include:

• Prototype thermosetting resins based on biomass feed stocks were successfully
  synthesized in the laboratory and were shown to cure with improved strength and
  toughness and low formaldehyde emission.

• The last round of testing on TimTek was conducted at APA, The Engineered
  Wood Association and passed the long specimen testing at a level that will trigger
  commercialization of the technology.

• Two compounds were identified as a potential water repellent and stabilization agent
  in the study of functional water repellents for wood and wood-based composites.




                                               15

                               Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                   Mississippi State University
               Wood-Based Composite Materials
 Project                                                                                                    Project
                                   Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                    Duration

                Evaluation of substituted urea-formaldehyde (UF)
  065350E                                                                              M.G. Kim         6/01/01 - 5/31/05
                resins for durable particleboard

                                                                                     T. Sellers, Jr.,
  065350J       Tannin-based adhesives for oriented strandboard                                         6/01/01 - 5/31/05
                                                                                        G. Miller

                Urea-formaldehyde resins with extreme F/U1 mole
  065360E                                                                              M.G. Kim         7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                ratios as particleboard binders

                Strength performance of staple-glued mortise-tenon
  065360F                                                                               J. Zhang        7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                joints in wood composite panel products

                Physical/mechanical properties of TimTekTM
 065360G                                                                              T. Sellers, Jr    7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                composite lumber

                Development of functional water repellents for
                                                                                       M.G. Kim         4/01/04 - 3/31/06
 065390C        wood and wood composites
                                                                                       J. Zhang,
                                                                                      H. Toghiani,
                Mechanical property enhancement of wood-plastic
                                                                                      C. Pittman,
 065430H        composites using carbon nanotubes and ceramic                                           9/15/05 - 9/14/07
                                                                                        Y. Xue,
                nanoparticles
                                                                                         S. Shi,
                                                                                      M.G. Kim
                Effect of high temperatures on adhesive bond
                durability in engineered wood products as well                          S.Q. Shi,
  065430E                                                                                               9/15/05 - 9/14/07
                as its effect on the production of toxic chemical                    L.L. Ingram, Jr.
                compounds in the smoke emitted
                Development of novel wood-polyurethane                                  S.Q. Shi,
Proposed for
                composite foam products (wood-pu foam) for high-                        D. Seale,       7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006
                end applications                                                        J. Zhang




                                                          16

                                                   2005 annual report
                                          Center for Wood Utilization Research
                      Evaluation of substituted urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins for durable particleboard
M.G. Kim                                                   065350E                              June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to develop                thermosetting binder resins for wood composites with greater
several prototype wood binder resins from substituted urea               strength and toughness and also these partly based on biomass
that have durable chemical bonds and to evaluate them in the             feed stocks. The developed technology appears to be able
laboratory.                                                              to find some commercial uses if followed up correctly to
                                                                         make a significant impact to the wood composites industry. If
PROGRESS: The prototype thermosetting resins were                        implanted, the technology would allow $60 million dollars or
successfully synthesized based on biomass feed stocks in the             more worth of agricultural/renewable materials to be used in
laboratory. The resultant resins were shown to cure with                 wood composite adhesives alone.
improved strength and toughness and low formaldehyde emission.
                                                                         GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student and one
FUTURE PLANS: The resin technology will be submitted for                 postdoctoral research associate worked on this project.
a patent.

IMPACTS: The research showed a good possibility of providing




                                        Tannin-based adhesives for oriented strandboard
T. Sellers Jr., G. Miller                                       065350J                                    June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to replace              FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.
some or all PF resin solids in PF resin formulations for OSB
binder with tannin solids; and to manufacture laboratory OSB             IMPACTS: Evaluations of tannin-based adhesives currently
bonded with tannin adhesives to test physical properties in              are underway in Canada and Chile. Tannin-based adhesives are
comparison to PF-bonded panels.                                          currently in use by industry in Europe and South Africa.

PROGRESS: Project completed.




                      Urea-formaldehyde resins with extreme F/U1 mole ratios as particleboard binders
M.G. Kim                                                 065360E                             July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to                        near 2.10 and 1.25-1.35, respectively. The results were reported
investigate the extreme formaldehyde/first urea (F/U1) ratio             in the Wood Adhesives 2005 Symposium.
parameters of resins synthesis that have been neglected thus
far in industry but have shown positive results in our recent            IMPACTS: The research results of cured resin’s strength and
studies. The goal is to improve the strength characteristics             stability performances would help increase the productivity of
and reduce the formaldehyde emission performances of                     particleboard and medium density fiberboard manufacturing
particleboard and medium density fiberboard.                             plants by carrying out adjustments of resin mole ratios with
                                                                         respect to resin loading levels and post-cure treatment
PROGRESS: Urea-formaldehyde resins synthesized with low                  parameters. If successfully followed, the saving in the board
and high F/U1 mole ratios were examined.Various analytical               manufacturing cost will be substantial.
methods were used for their curing and wood bonding
performances. It was found that cured resin strength and                 GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked
cured resins’ heat stability were greatly dependent on the               on this project.
beginning and final mole ratio with the optimum value being




                                                                    17

                                                    Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                        Mississippi State University
                  Strength performance of staple-glued mortise-tenon joints in wood composite panel products
J. Zhang                                                   065360F                            July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this proposed research were                   IMPACTS: Information generated from this research will
to a) evaluate static bending strength and stiffness of staple-             provide furniture manufacturers with strength and stiffness
glued mortise and tenon joints, b) develop a mechanics model of             performance data of mortise and tenon joints constructed of
staple-glued mortise and tenon joints in bending, and c) derive a           wood-based panel composite products. Therefore, the data can
general formula to estimate the bending strength of the joints.             assist them in reengineering their furniture frames with new
                                                                            or alternative joint constructions to achieve significant cost
PROGRESS: Experimental works such as static and fatigue                     reduction and still maintain super performance.
tests of joints were completed.
                                                                            GRADUATE STUDENTS: A graduate student worked on
FUTURE PLANS: Experimental data will be analyzed, and                       this project.
joint mechanics models will be developed to predict strength
properties.



                                  Physical/mechanical properties of TimTekTM composite lumber
T. Sellers, Jr.                                                   065360G                                     July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                        have been performed and used to analyze impacts on strength
1. perform physical/mechanical tests on TimTek structural                   due to various changes in manufacturing techniques. The
   lumber;                                                                  testing program has included three species, alternative resin
2. compare TimTek results with other known composites and                   formulations, and numerous changes to the production process.
   lumber products and                                                      Results of the testing have greatly improved product properties.
3. to conduct tests that will include adhesives-species                     The last round of testing (paid for from private funds) was
   evaluations as well as dimensional stability under varying               conducted at APA, The Engineered Wood Association and
   environmental conditions.                                                passed the long specimen testing at a level that will trigger
                                                                            commercialization of the technology.
RESULTS: Test results of the physical/mechanical properties
of TimTek, a new engineered scrim-based lumber product, have                IMPACTS: A successful implementation of the technology will
been determined on TimTek production from a demonstration                   impact the economy of Mississippi and the pine belt of the South
plant (pilot plant) located at Mississippi State University’s Forest        for many years to come. It will effectively replace markets lost
Products Laboratory. These results were collected on different              as older papermaking facilities close and paper making capacity
raw materials (wood species, binders, and other additives)                  moves offshore. The long term impacts will likely be in the
utilized for the new scrim-based lumber products. Many tests                billions of dollars.



                          Development of functional water repellents for wood and wood composites
M.G. Kim                                                  065390C                       April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2006

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                        FUTURE PLANS: The two compounds will be impregnated
1. Synthesize a series of potential functional water repellents for         in wood at various low loading levels and the treated wood
   wood composites;                                                         specimens tested for water repellency and stabilization effects.
2. Evaluate the effectiveness in OSB and particleboard using                They will be tested also in OSB and particleboard.
   southern wood species in the laboratory; and
3. Obtain optimum application parameters for industrial                     IMPACTS: The new materials would allow manufacturing
   implementation.                                                          of treated lumber and wood composite boards with higher
                                                                            dimensional stability and durability.
PROGRESS: Fifteen candidate materials were synthesized
and examined for functional reactivity and two compounds were
identified as a potential water repellent and stabilization agent.


                                                                       18

                                                               2005 annual report
                                                      Center for Wood Utilization Research
    Mechanical property enhancement of wood-plastic composites using carbon nanotubes and ceramic nanoparticles
J. Zhang, H. Toghiani, C. Pittman,Y. Xue, S. Shi, M. Kim        065430H                    September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this proposed research were                FUTURE PLANS: A detailed research plan including activities
1. to investigate the reinforcement effects of several nanosized         and milestones will be prepared. During the year 2006, the
   materials, including carbon nanotubes and nanofibers on the           post-doc under the guidance of the principal investigators will
   mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites, and                 conduct initial experimental work to obtain first hand data and
2. to develop processing methods to disperse properly these              identify critical issues, and develop a competitive research grant
   small reinforcing phases into the plastic and then produce            proposal for submission.
   wood-plastic products for structural applications. Organic
   resin/carbonfiber nanocomposites used in wood-plastic                 IMPACTS: This project will help the MSU initiative of
   materials may exhibit superior stiffness and creep resistance         pursuing establishment of a Nanotechnology Research Center in
   properties.                                                           fundamental research and development of innovative high-value
                                                                         added wood-based products and manufacturing processes.
PROGRESS: A post-doctoral researcher has begun working
on this project.




    Effect of high temperatures on adhesive bond durability in engineered wood products as well as its effect on the
                            production of toxic chemical compounds in the smoke emitted
S.Q. Shi, L.L. Ingram, Jr.                            065430E               September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES:                                                              FUTURE PLANS: Extensive research will be conducted on
1. To investigate the elevated-temperature behavior of the               these two tasks. A graduate student has been hired this summer
   adhesives used in EWPs.                                               to work on this project

2. To identify the chemical compounds in smoke contributed by            IMPACTS: This project addresses safety concerns and
   adhesives used in EWPs.                                               provides impact on the standard development to evaluate the
                                                                         heat resistant of adhesives
PROGRESS: Research has been conducted to evaluate
the cured adhesive performance at elevated temperatures. A               GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student has worked
nanoindentation technology was employed to conduct the                   on this project.
research. The preliminary study was conducted on the chemical
compounds of the adhesives at elevated temperatures using the
pyrolysis-GC/MS instrument.




                                                                    19

                                                    Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                        Mississippi State University
                                  Development of novel wood-polyurethane composite foam
                                     products (wood-pu foam) for high-end applications
 S.Q. Shi, D. Seale, J. Zhang                       Proposed for 2006                                         July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
Polyurethane (PU) foams can be made into a large variety of               in a foaming urethane resin to fill the cavities with a structural
products with different compositions, densities, and properties.          matrix of wood bonded at interstices by resin. Other patents
These products are usually produced through interaction                   have been issued in regard to the wood-PU foam composite
between polyols and polyisocyanantes by addition polymerization           products. However, further information is required for wood-
with other additives, such as catalysts, surfactants, and foaming         polyurethane foam products for high-end applications, such
agents. Sometimes, fillers may be used to enhance the strength            as aero space, transportation, etc. Also, a more fundamental
of the product, increase the product density, and reduce the cost.        understanding is necessary on the processing of polyurethane
PU products include high-density rigid and flexible polyurethane          foam products.
foams, high-performance polyisocyanurate foams, energy-
absorbing materials, structural products for composite core               Incorporating wood flours into polyurethane foam products may
applications, machined and molded parts, and other composite              have many advantages. Because of the low cost of wood flours,
products. The applications of these materials can be in the               the overall cost of the wood-PU foam product can be reduced.
areas of aerospace, transportation, and construction. Some                In addition, some properties, such as stiffness may be improved
specific applications include tooling boards used as models               through adding wood flours. The research project proposed
for automobiles and airplanes, building models with different             herein will investigate an appropriate process to fabricate wood-
densities, colors, as well as building blocks using high density          PU hybrid composites (wood-PU foam) for high performance
foams. Many of these applications require high performance                applications. Results could broaden the market for wood
from the products.                                                        utilization into a high value product and also reduce the overall
                                                                          cost of the existing polyurethane foaming products.
Wood flours are very low cost materials which are processed
from wood residues. The lingnocellulosic material contains                Objectives: The specific objectives of this research are:
natural polymers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and           1. To investigate an appropriate process to incorporate wood
tannins. Isocyanate functional groups have been shown to form                flours into the polyurethane foam products for high-end
strong linkage and interpenetrating networks with the hydroxyl               applications;
groups of wood. Isocyanate-based adhesives such as polymeric              2. To study the effect of incorporation of wood on the
diphenylemethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and polyurethane                       durability, flammability, and other properties required by
emulsion adhesive have successfully been used as binders for                 the high-end application for the developed wood-PU foam
oriented strand board (OSB), I-joist, and other types of wood-               products.
based composites. A process has been developed whereby
fibrillated wood particles of matchstick size that can be carried




                                                                     20

                                                             2005 annual report
                                                    Center for Wood Utilization Research
Protection and Preservation of Wood

 The Department of Forest Products is targeting research and development of safer and
 longer lasting preservatives that will enhance the marketability of lumber and wood
 composites.

 Research impacts include:

 • Research of treatments to improve the weathering of southern pine lumber has the
   potential to significantly improve the weathering performance of solid wood so that it
   can be more competitive with plastic lumber decking.

 • The feasibility of several new biocide systems for use in protecting engineered wood
   composites has been demonstrated.

 • Determining factors and their effect on the long-term serviceability of wood-based
   materials will result in better performance of US housing during man-made and natural
   disasters.

 Research accomplishments include:

 • Southern pine lumber samples treated with a pure compound and placed in a location
   for maximum weathering showed significantly lower moisture content after several
   weeks compared to untreated samples.

 • An accelerated method for evaluating new and modified formulations of soil contact
   decay test was developed. As a result of the favorable aspects of this research a
   standard method is being developed and will be submitted to the AWPA Technical
   Committee for standardization.




                                                21

                                Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                    Mississippi State University
        Protection and Preservation of Wood
 Project                                                                                                   Project
                                  Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                   Duration

               Factors influencing the treatability of southern                     H.M. Barnes,
                                                                                                       6/01/02 - 5/31/05
 065350A       yellow pine                                                           J. Winandy

  065350F      Development of accelerated soil contact decay test                   D.D. Nicholas      6/01/02 - 5/31/05

               Outdoor exposure (above ground) testing of
               biocide/antioxidant/metal chelator/water repellent
                                                                                     T.P. Schultz      6/01/02 - 5/31/05
 065350H       combinations as environmentally-benign wood
               preservatives

                                                                                    H. M. Barnes,
  065360I      Boron depletion in wood                                                                 7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                   T. L. Amburgey

               Further studies on developing effective totally-
                                                                                     T.P. Schultz,
  065360J      organic wood preservative systems for residential                                       7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                    D.D. Nicholas
               applications
                                                                                    H.M. Barnes,
               Increasing the durability of engineered wood
 065390A                                                                             R.D. Seale,       4/01/04 - 3/31/06
               composites
                                                                                   T.L. Amburgey

               Development of treatments to improve the                            D.D Nicholas,
 065390D                                                                                               4/01/04 - 3/31/06
               weathering of southern pine lumber                                   T.P. Schultz

                                                                                    H. M. Barnes,
               Defining moisture and temperature limits for decay
 065430A                                                                           T. L. Amburgey,
               in wood-based composites for use in developing                                          9/15/05 - 9/14/07
                                                                                         S. Shi,
               service-life models
                                                                                    J.E. Winandy
                                                                                      S.V. Diehl,
Proposed for   Molecular explorations into the expression and                       M.L. Prewitt,
                                                                                                       7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        inhibition of wood decay enzymes                                      D. Braasch,
                                                                                    D. Nicholas




                                                         22

                                                  2005 annual report
                                         Center for Wood Utilization Research
                                    Factors influencing the treatability of southern yellow pine
H.M. Barnes, J. Winandy                                          065350A                                     June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to                        evidence of pit aspiration in the transition wood was seen upon
evaluate the effect of kiln temperature, mill location and treating        microscopic examination but no trends could be established.
schedule on the treatability of southern pine and to examine
the relationship between chemical composition, permeability,               There was some indication that the shorter cycles used in
structure, and treatability.                                               today’s production could lead to improperly penetrated wood
                                                                           but this observation was not conclusive.
PROGRESS: Some 256 pieces of 2x4x16 No.2 prime
southern pine (without wane) were cut in half and one half of              FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005
each 2x4 was then treated with CCA. A 100 percent inspection
found 102 treatment failures (based on penetration) out of 256             IMPACTS: Unfortunately, this research did not greatly add to
assays evaluated.                                                          our understanding of the poor treatability of wood from some
                                                                           regions of the southern pine range. The hit-and-miss nature of
Lumber from several sawmills was sawn up into sub-blocks                   treatment problems made the problem difficult to research since
and chemical composition, anatomical characterization, and                 reliable matched samples were nearly impossible to find. There
treatability/permeability studies were performed to identify               were suggestions from the research observations that treatment
the impact of various chemical and anatomical characteristics              schedule might be one of the culprits in poor penetration.
on treatability and permeability. No relationship between the              There was little to suggest that the problem was one related
influences of various kiln-drying scenarios on treatability could          to drying schedules or the chemical nature of the wood even
be established. The relationship between chemical composition              though some chemical differences were noted.
and treatability proved to be nebulous although small increases
in pinosylvin in the transition wood were present. Some




                                        Development of accelerated soil contact decay test
D.D. Nicholas                                                    065350F                                    June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to                        Committee for standardization.
determine the effects of temperature, moisture, oxygen, and
nutrient levels in soil on microbial populations and wood decay            FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005
rates.
                                                                           IMPACTS: Due to environmental and health concerns
PROGRESS: An accelerated method for evaluating new                         there is a need to develop new environmentally friendly
and modified formulations was developed in this project.                   wood preservative systems. The total US market for wood
The method utilizes thin sticks that are exposed to unsterile              preservative chemicals is currently about $1.25 billion. The
soil in small cups which permit accurate control of the wood               treated wood products market is about $7 billion. Development
moisture content. The decay rates are monitored by periodically            of this test methodology will aid in accelerating the evaluation
removing and measuring the MOE of the test specimens.                      of new and modified wood preservatives and assist in
Further acceleration of the test was accomplished by adding                protecting the treated wood market. This market accounts for
composted wood to the soil. Microbial community analyses                   approximately 40 percent of the southern yellow pine produced
were carried out and indicated that the addition of composted              which contributes several billion dollars to the economy.
wood did not change the community profile, which suggests
that this is a satisfactory modification of the method. As a result        GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked on
of the favorable aspects of this research a standard method is             this project
being developed and will be submitted to the AWPA Technical




                                                                      23

                                                      Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                          Mississippi State University
                   Outdoor exposure (above ground) testing of biocide/antioxidant/metal chelator/water
                         repellent combinations as environmentally-benign wood preservatives
 T.P. Schultz                                          065350H                              June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to treat                   dramatically increase the efficacy of organic biocides in above-
southern yellow pine (SYP) lap-joint samples with combinations           ground outdoor exposure. Samples treated with the other
of an organic biocide and of antioxidant and/or metal chelator           antioxidant examined, propyl gallate, are showing less increased
and/or water repellent. Samples will be installed at high decay          efficacy than the BHT samples. Better results are obtained with
hazard field test sites and inspected yearly.                            propyl gallate when a water repellent is added, suggesting that
                                                                         propyl gallate is slowly leaching in outdoor exposure.
PROGRESS: The lap-joint samples were inspected after
three years of exposure. All lap-joint samples treated with the          FUTURE PLANS: This project was terminated.
combination of the biocide (a quat formulation)/antioxidant
(BHT)/metal chelator (phenanthroline)/water repellent (wax)              IMPACTS: Economical and safe additives which, when mixed
had perfect (10) ratings. In contrast, samples treated with the          with organic biocides, greatly enhances a biocide’s efficacy–
antioxidant (BHT) alone had an average rating of 8.4, the average        thus reducing the overall cost and environmental impact of
ratings for the three sets treated with the quat biocide alone           a totally-organic wood preservative system. At the present
ranged from 8.0 to 8.5, and the average ratings for samples              time seven companies have expressed an interest, to varying
treated with the quat biocide and BHT ranged from 8.9 to 9.5.            degrees, on the antioxidant technology which was licensed to an
Samples treated with the metal chelator alone had an average             international corporation about six years ago.
rating of 9.6, suggesting that metal chelators may help to



                                                     Boron depletion in wood
H. M. Barnes, T. L. Amburgey                                      065360I                                  July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to                        This has made them unusable for experimentation. Any data
characterize boron depletion and movement in wood for two                from the remaining samples will be insufficient for drawing
exposure conditions using two borate systems and a variety of            conclusions.
superficial envelope treatments.
                                                                         FUTURE PLANS: We plan to request permission to repeat
PROGRESS: The project was initiated and samples selected,                this study if the terms and conditions of the Wood Utilization
treated, and installed. Unfortunately, wind & water damage as            Research Special Grant has a provision for natural disaster
well as fallen trees as a result of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita          and will allow this. New samples will need to be treated and
caused samples to be destroyed, lost, scattered, and damaged.            exposed.


                   Further studies on developing effective totally-organic wood preservative systems for
                                                  residential applications
T.P. Schultz, D.D. Nicholas                               065360J                             July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                     Some mini lap-joint samples had been treated with
1. Evaluate the ground contact performance of southern yellow            various combination of the organic biocide DDAC, the
   pine field test stakes treated with didecyldimethyl ammonium          antioxidant BHT, the metal chelator 1,10-phenanthroline, and the
   chloride and an anti-oxidant (propyl gallate).                        water repellent paraffin wax, and exposed under extremely
2. Determine the amount of BHT remaining in ground contact               severe deterioration conditions. These samples were inspected
   exposed field test stakes.                                            after 36 months of exposure. The samples with BHT/DDAC
                                                                         performed better than the samples treated with only the biocide,
PROGRESS: BHT/Chlorothalinol field stakes were inspected                 with the best results obtained with all four components.
after 74 months of exposure. The results continue to show
that the co-addition of the non-biocidal antioxidant BHT gives           FUTURE PLANS: The outdoor BHT-treated samples will
enhanced efficacy against fungal decay and termite degradation.          continue to be inspected, but the propyl gallate-treated samples
The propyl gallate/DDAC field stakes were also inspected. The            may be discarded. A review article is being prepared on this and
combination of propyl gallate with organic biocides was very             other non-biocidal additive work.
promising in short-term laboratory decay tests, but the outdoor
efficacy tests have proved disappointing. Better results were            IMPACTS: We are working with two companies who are
obtained when a water repellent was added to the mixture.                interested in commercializing this concept.

                                                                    24

                                                            2005 annual report
                                                   Center for Wood Utilization Research
                                 Increasing the durability of engineered wood composites
H.M. Barnes, R.D. Seale, T.L. Amburgey                    065390A                        April 1, 2004 – March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                     FUTURE PLANS: Publications of the final results are being
1. Evaluate methods for applying new generation biocides/                prepared in a series of papers. A termination report will be
   additives to engineered wood composites;                              written.
2. Evaluate the impact of biocide addition and methods of
   addition on the properties and processing of engineered               IMPACTS: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of
   composites;                                                           several new biocide systems for use in protecting engineered
3. Evaluate the durability in and suitability for components used        wood composites. Bifenthrin, copper betaine, and waterborne
   in the housing market.                                                copper naphthenate showed no deleterious effects on board
                                                                         properties.
PROGRESS: The experimental work has been completed, and
final data are currently being analyzed.                                 GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked on
                                                                         this project.




                      Development of treatments to improve the weathering of southern pine lumber
D.D. Nicholas, T.P. Schultz                           065390D                          April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: Develop cost effective treatments to impart                  The above samples were treated with a pure compound, and
dimensional stability to wood. A model for this objective is             were placed on top of a black roof, slanted and facing to the
redwood which weathers well even though it has only limited              south for maximum weathering and potential for cracking/
natural dimensional stability.                                           splitting. After several weeks exposure the moisture content of
                                                                         the treated boards was significantly lower than the untreated
PROGRESS: Southern yellow pine swelling samples, cut                     control boards.
from defect free sapwood, were prepared and treated with
the compound we are examining using both waterborne and                  FUTURE PLANS: The swelling samples were dried and will
solventborne (toluene) formulations. The ability of a natural            be re-run to ensure that the water repellency remains upon
compound to inhibit swelling and water sorption when                     multiple immersions in water. If possible, some microscopy work
formulated in a waterbased system was about 65 to 100%                   will be conducted to determine the reason for the differences
equivalent to a petroleum-derived wax repellent. However, the            in water repellency between the solventborne and waterborne
solventborne system had only about one-third of the water                formulation. The outdoor exposed samples will be inspected
repellency efficacy as the waterborne system.                            periodically.

Small decking samples were inspected after 16 months of                  IMPACTS: This research has the potential to significantly
exposure. Untreated boards had severe cracking in comparison             improve the weathering performance of solid wood so that
to treated boards which provided improved performance.                   it can compete more effectively with the relatively expensive
                                                                         plastic lumber decking.




                                                                    25

                                                    Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                        Mississippi State University
                 Defining moisture and temperature limits for decay in wood-based composites for use in
                                                 developing service-life models
H. M. Barnes, T. L. Amburgey, S. Shi, J.E. Winandy           065430A            September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007

OBJECTIVES: The overall objective of this research was to                 will be completed and Phase II initiated.
develop data to understand and predict the relationship between
moisture content and temperature and their interactive effect on          IMPACTS: This research addresses a major national need for
the long-term serviceability of wood-based materials.                     improving long-term service-life of wood products and homes.
                                                                          It will also result in better performance of U.S. housing during
PROGRESS: Sample preparation has been completed and all                   man-made and natural disasters, such as inappropriate humidity
samples are being conditioned for testing. Moisture cycling tests         control, moisture leaks or ingress, and floods.
have been initiated (Phase I).
                                                                          GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student has
FUTURE PLANS: Study plan will be implemented. Phase I                     participated in this study.




               Molecular explorations into the expression and inhibition of wood decay enzymes
 S.V. Diehl, M.L. Prewitt,
                                                         Proposed for 2006                                    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
 D. Braasch, D. Nicholas
Wood preservatives have been protecting wood from decay                   Gene knock down technology is a means to study pathways
fungi and termites for over 100 years. Newer preservative                 through a temporary reduction of a specific gene or set of genes
systems must target specific key enzyme pathways in microbial             in order to establish their relationship to one another. One
metabolism or the decay process, rather than act as a broad               of the earliest methodologies for this approach was antisense
spectrum biocide. In order to develop effective, highly specific,         technology in which a small (<30 nucleotides) oligonucleotide
wood protection systems, there must be a better understanding             would bind by Watson-Crick base pairing to messenger RNA
of enzymes that are expressed during the decay process, the               (mRNA), interfere with translation and thus prevent the coded
regulation of these enzyme systems, how these systems vary                protein/enzyme from being produced.
among and within species, and the mechanisms of enzyme
shut down. These types of studies apply not only to wood                  Though simplistic in thought, the delivery of this technology
preservation, but can also be expanded to any type of biomass             has proven to be less than straight forward. The targeting of
conversion or bioremediation system that relies on bacterial or           antisense molecules is complicated by a number of components
fungal enzymes for the process to work.                                   including mRNA secondary structure, bound proteins, molecular
                                                                          stability and the delivery of the antisense agent into cells.
Gene expression profiling to identify differentially regulated            It is likely that one of the problems for this technology has
genes has become possible through the development of new                  been the complexity of a vascularized organism. A less complex
techniques or modifications of older techniques. Some of the              system such as fungi may prove to be a much more viable system
current techniques include microarrays, reverse transcription             to reap the benefits of this technology.
real-time PCR (RT2-PCR), cDNA-AFLP, differential display reverse
transcription PCR, introduced AFLP (iAFLP). Hardware systems              OBJECTIVES:
to drive and support advances include the GenomeLab GEXP                  Our overall objective is to develop the expertise to track the
system (Beckman-Coulter). These methods all have different                differential expression of genes involved in wood decay on
advantages and limitations. Sequences or partial sequences                treated and untreated wood in the complex soil environment.
are known for many of the desired wood decay genes and are                Our immediate objectives are to 1) develop the methodology for
available on the web at GenBank (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). These                 detection and quantification of the wood decay genes by reverse
sequences will be compared and aligned prior to development               transcription real-time PCR; 2) evaluate the Beckman-Coulter
of inhibitory molecules. However, this system has never been              GenomeLab GEXP system for use in expression profiling of
tested with genes from fungi, thus one component of this study            wood decay genes; and 3) to test one expression profiling
is to simply test the GenomeLab system against fungal gene                technique in a more complex, yet controlled environment such
sequences. If this system does work with fungal sequences, the            as the laboratory accelerated decay test system.
possibilities are limitless for exploration into the expression of
fungal genes during any type of biomass or biocide breakdown              An additional objective is to evaluate knock out technology
project.                                                                  as a plausible means for reducing wood decay caused by
                                                                          basidiomycete wood decay fungi.
                                                                     26

                                                             2005 annual report
                                                    Center for Wood Utilization Research
                             Wood Chemistry

The Department of Forest Products is implementing advanced technology in their search for solutions
to environmental issues generated by wood production, protection and disposal. As consumers have
voiced concern over the use of metal-based wood treatments, researchers have reacted by making
it their priority to seek ways to develop new environmentally benign organic-based wood treatment
systems. Other research objectives include effective ways to deal with contaminated groundwater and
measures to control bark beetles and the Formosan termite.

Research impacts include:

• The development of rapid methods of identifying industry-important bacteria and fungi which will
  promote the development of new wood preservatives;

• The identification and use of biocontrol agents to help eradicate the Formosan subterranean termite;

• Information on the feasibility of implementing phytoremediation as an alternative clean-up option for
  wood industry wastes;

• Better methods of studying the effect of temperature on the decomposition of wood.

Research accomplishments include:

• Researchers evaluated microbial populations on preliminary wood samples treated with IPBC or PCP
  by using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (tRFLP). After performing
  preliminary screening of wood samples exposed in Saucier, MS, they found that the tRFLP is effective
  in providing valuable information on the microbial diversity of wood. Researchers expect to gain
  insight into the use of this technique in developing accelerated wood decay test methodology, which is
  vital to the development of new wood preservatives.

• Results from the study of trees susceptible to southern pine beetle attack indicate that further
  exploration and development of testing methods may provide a method for early identification of pine
  trees that are susceptible to attack by bark beetles.




                                                      27

                                      Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                          Mississippi State University
                                 Wood Chemistry
 Project                                                                                                   Project
                                  Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                   Duration

               In-situ biosparging: A new technology for                            H. Borazjani,
 065350B       remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated                          S. Diehl,        9/15/01 - 5/31/05
               groundwater                                                          M. Lybrand
                                                                                      S. Diehl,
               Phytoremediation of soils and water contaminated
 065350C                                                                            M.L. Prewitt,      6/01/02 - 5/31/05
               with wood industry wastes
                                                                                    H. Borazjani
               Measurement of VOC emissions from drying wood                       L.L. Ingram, Jr.,
 065350D                                                                                               6/01/02 - 5/31/05
               by direct sample analysis                                             W. Holmes
               Application of molecular-based methods to detect                      S.V. Diehl,
 065360H       and quantify microbial community patterns during                     T. McElroy,        7/15/03 - 7/14/05
               the decay process                                                    M.L. Prewitt
               Predicting the rates of volatilization of organic
                                                                                   L.L. Ingram, Jr.,
  065360L      compounds from the surface of wood using                                                7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                     W. Holmes
               thermodynamic parameters of individual compounds
               Effects of composting on leaching of nitrogen,
                                                                                    H. Borazjani,
 065360M       phosphorus and potassium from furniture                                                 7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                     S.V. Diehl
               woodwaste amended with chicken manure
                                                                                   M. L. Prewitt,
               Microbial populations associated with accelerated                    T. McElroy,
  065390E                                                                                              7/01/04 - 6/31/06
               soil contact decay test                                             D.D. Nicholas,
                                                                                     S.V. Diehl
                                                                                    P.H. Steele,
                                                                                    L.L. Ingram,
               Chemical characterization and separation of
  065390F                                                                          D.D. Nicholas,      4/01/04 - 3/31/06
               bioproducts from wood-based BioOil
                                                                                     S.V. Diehl,
                                                                                     M.G. Kim
               Development of immobilized sequence-specific                          S.V. Diehl,
 065430B       oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) for rapid                            M.L. Prewitt,       9/15/05 - 09/14/07
               identification of important wood-inhabiting fungi                     W.J. Diehl

               Development of fuels and value-added chemicals                        P.H. Steele,
 065430G                                                                                               9/15/05 - 9/14/07
               from pyrolysis of wood/waste-plastic mixtures                        L.L. Ingram, Jr.

                                                                                       P. Steele,
Proposed for   Fuels and chemicals from catalytic                                     L. Ingram,
                                                                                                        7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils                                     M. Kim,
                                                                                     S. Fernando




                                                         28

                                                  2005 annual report
                                         Center for Wood Utilization Research
                       In-situ biosparging: A new technology for remediation of pentachlorophenol
                                                contaminated groundwater
H. Borazjani, S.V. Diehl, M. Lybrand                     065350B                     September 15, 2001 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness             2002, 2003, and 2004 were 3.60 mg/L, 3.05 mg/L and 1.60 mg/L
of air sparging and addition of selected bacterial systems              respectively. The second most contaminated well showed
and nutrients on the biodegradation of pentachlorophenol                PCP levels of 1.16 mg/L, .688 mg/L, and .213 mg/L for the same
contaminated groundwater.                                               time period respectively. No consistent correlation between
                                                                        tetrachlorophenol (PCP by-product) increase and PCP reduction
PROGRESS: Seven biosparging wells were installed in an                  was observed for 2002-2004 sampling periods. PCP acclimated
area of concern at a wood-site. These wells were located along          bacteria counts were 9,500, 10,700, and 46,000 colonies per
a transect about 60 feet south of and parallel to the property          mL for the three most contaminated wells indicating a good
boundary, along a line perpendicular to the general groundwater         biosparging environment. No migration of PCP to adjacent
flow direction. Exogenous, commercially available bacteria that         property’s groundwater was detected.
are known to degrade chlorophenol, were injected into the
sparging wells on bimonthly intervals for 18 months. Nitrogen           FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.
and other required nutrient sources were also added to the
system to enhance biodegradation of PCP. Samples were                   IMPACTS: In-situ bio-sparging is economically competitive
collected on quarterly intervals for chemical and biological            and in many cases a superior alternative to other widely
monitoring of this remediation project. All analyses were               used technologies such as pump and treat and activated
conducted according to EPA and Standard Method for the                  carbon filtration. Capital Cost savings alone versus these two
examination of water and wastewater.                                    technologies are estimated to be around $200,000 and $275,000
                                                                        respectively. The operation and management cost savings could
PCP concentrations for the most contaminated well during                be between $25,000 and $30,000.




                                                                   29

                                                   Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                       Mississippi State University
                       Phytoremediation of soils and water contaminated with wood industry wastes
S.V. Diehl, M.L. Prewitt, H. Borazjani                   065350C                           June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                     number of plants into natural lake water. Plants that survived
1. Evaluate different types of wetland plants for the enhanced           in the OSB process water were used for the next constructed
   breakdown of organic pollutants in different process waters           wetland study. These plants were Water hyacinth, soft rush,
   from an OSB facility in northeast Mississippi and from a log          small duckweed and Chinese water chestnut. Two treatments
   yard,                                                                 were evaluated, floating plants and emergent plants. This batch
2. Evaluate if certain plants can stimulate the biological               of OSB water contained an initial BOD of 3000 mg/L and all
   degradation of PCP and PAHs in weathered contaminated                 plants rapidly died. When the BOD decreased to 1000 mg/L the
   soil from wood treating facilities in Mississippi and to              plants were added. After 75 days the BOD was reduced by 84%
   determine if these contaminants accumulate within the tested          in the floating plant treatment and by 96% in the emergent plant
   plants.                                                               treatment. Toxicity was reduced in both treatments, but to a
                                                                         greater extent in the emergent plant treatment.
PROGRESS: The OSB manufacturing process is waste-
intensive, emitting large amounts of wood, water, resin and wax          The use of plants to stabilize, degrade or concentrate
wastes and volatile compounds. OSB process water contains                contaminants, known as phytoremediation, is a feasible option
many byproducts. Discharge of this water is limited by the high          for such sites since it is a relatively low-cost in situ technology.
levels of organic matter as measured by the biological oxygen            Pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soil came from a
demand (BOD). OSB process wastewater was collected from                  test site located in the Southeast and contained very high
an OSB manufacturing facility. The initial BOD was 1600                  concentrations of PCP. Very few of the trees and grasses
mg/L. The first series of studies evaluated the use of free              evaluated were able to survive in this soil, even when it was
cell bioreactors with four treatments, three replications per            diluted to 1,250 ppm of PCP.
treatment: 1. no treatment control; 2. aeration; 3. aeration plus
the addition of a microbial consortium native to the wastewater;         FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.
4. aeration, addition of a native microbial consortium, and a
nutrient addition in the form of a nitrogen-phosphorous based            IMPACTS: This project yielded information on the feasibility
fertilizer. After 30 days there was a 57 percent reduction of            of field testing phytoremediation at existing wood products
BOD in treatment 1, 72 percent in treatment 2, 73 percent                sites. Phytoremediation could potentially provide an alternative
in treatment 3 and 84 percent in treatment 4. By day 105                 clean-up option that would be as simple as growing plants in a
all treatments showed over a 93 percent reduction in BOD.                field or pond or as complex as constructed wetlands, but still
Treatment 2 had the lowest toxicity at day 105 as measured               enhance the degradation of the contaminants. Both systems
by Microtox. Treatments 3 and 4 had the greatest numbers of              would further protect groundwater systems from the risk of
bacteria.                                                                contamination and help the industry meet water discharge
                                                                         standards. The total remediation market in the United States
A constructed wetland pilot-study determined which plants                is estimated at $33-50 billion per year. The phytoremediation
could best acclimate to OSB process water containing an initial          market is estimated to grow from $30-50 million per year up to
BOD of 1600 mg/L. Plants were selected for their affinity                $235-400 million per year by 2005.
for survival in low oxygen environments. Species selected
were: Water hyacinth, Chinese water chestnut, Azolla, Small              GRADUATE STUDENTS: There were two master of
duckweed, Bullrush, Beak-rush, soft rush, Bald Cypress and               science students and two high school students working on this
Black Willow. A control was established by placing an equal              project.




                                                                    30

                                                            2005 annual report
                                                   Center for Wood Utilization Research
                         Measurement of VOC emissions from drying wood by direct sample analysis

L.L. Ingram, Jr., W. Holmes                                   065350D                                    June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this project was to                furfural type compounds were some of the initial decomposition
develop a method for directly measuring the concentration of            products.
volatile material from solid samples such as wood. A secondary
objective will be to develop a mathematical model that describes        In experiments with green southern pine lumber, samples, the
the relation between concentration of volatile compounds in             distribution of terpenes within the tree bole were found to
wood and the concentration in the surrounding air.                      affect the amounts of VOC emitted during drying. Samples
                                                                        of lumber that were sawn from the heartwood portion of a
PROGRESS: Three different methods were used to measure                  tree had higher levels of emissions than samples sawn from
the volatilization of volatile or semivolatile compounds from           the sapwood portion of the same tree. The distribution and
solid wood: solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), dynamic                occurrence of terpenes was very similar in both types of
headspace analysis and VOC emissions from a laboratory scale            samples. Two publications have been submitted.
kiln. Adsorption of volatile compounds was completed in a
few minutes and the sample was injected directly into the inlet         FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.
of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer for analysis. This
technique was well suited for small samples with a variety of           IMPACTS: Results from this research will lead to a better
shapes and sizes.                                                       understanding of how temperature affects the release of
                                                                        volatile and semivolatile compounds from solid wood during
Samples of southern yellow pine tissue were evaluated over a            drying. Control and limiting VOC emissions without the use of
wide range of temperatures using both the SPME and dynamic              regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTO) can each save the industry
head space analysis techniques. Α-Pinene, camphene, ß-pinene,           approximately $1 million in equipment costs plus operating costs
myrcene, and 4-allylanisole were observed with all types of             for each source of emissions on a plant site.
tissue. SPME was best suited for collecting samples in the
20 to 40oC temperature range and the dynamic head space                 GRADUATE STUDENTS: One PhD student worked on
analysis technique was better suited for temperatures up to             this project.
the decomposition point of wood components. Water and




                                                                   31

                                                   Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                       Mississippi State University
                    Application of molecular-based methods to detect and quantify microbial community
                                             patterns during the decay process
S.V. Diehl, T. McElroy, M.L. Prewitt                     065360H                             July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The specific objectives were:                                 Fragment analysis with the CEQ software is currently underway
1. To adapt current molecular methods to the types of microbial           and approximately 25 samples (both above and below ground)
   community structure found on wood;                                     have been completed.
2. To build a database of wood-associated microbial populations
   based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP);             FUTURE PLANS: The field studies are set to run for two
3. To develop molecular probes for certain indicator species              years with sampling every 90 days. Sampling will continue. All
   characteristic of the different stages of decay; and                   samples will be run for t-RFLP analysis, visual decay ratings, and
4. If time permits, to compare changes in the microbial                   preservative analysis. Microbes of interest may also be isolated
   community patterns when wood is treated with a                         and further evaluated in the laboratory.
   preservative or other treatment important to the decay
   process.                                                               IMPACTS: It is anticipated that use of the more powerful PCR/
                                                                          RFLP technique will be a major advancement in utilization of this
PROGRESS: Field stakes were sampled at three, six, nine,                  approach toward development of new wood preservatives.
12, and 15 month intervals at two field test sites. Field stakes
were visually rated for decay and termite attack. Above and               GRADUATE STUDENTS: One PhD student worked on this
below ground wood samples were obtained from the field stakes             project.
and stored in a -20ºC freezer while awaiting DNA extraction.



                     Predicting the rates of volatilization of organic compounds from the surface of wood
                                  using thermodynamic parameters of individual compounds
L.L. Ingram, Jr. , W. Holmes                                  065360L                           July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this research was to                 FUTURE PLANS: This model needs to be expanded to
generate sufficient data to develop a computer model capable              include all terpenes and 4-allylanisole.
of predicting relative rate of vaporization of volatile and semi-
volatile organic compounds from the surface of wood.                      IMPACTS: Kilns used to dry southern pine lumber emit both
                                                                          VOC’s and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). As a result of
PROGRESS: A model using the concentration of semivolatile                 previous work in this Department, dry kilns are exempt from the
compounds in wood, the boiling point of the compound, the                 EPA’s maximum available control technology (MACT) rule and
heat of vaporization and the temperature of the sample was                dry kilns only need to report the amount of VOCs based on the
explored. The equation –ln(Ca/Cw) = ΔHvap/R(1/Tex -1/Tb) +                annual drying rate. The cost of a control device (regenerative
c is the basis for the model. In this equation Ca = concentration         thermal oxidizer, for example) for each dry kiln is estimated at
of compound in air, Cw = concentration of compound in air,                $1.5 million plus operating expenses. Understanding how drying
ΔHvap = molar heat of vaporization, R = universal gas constant,           temperature and venting rates affect VOC emissions is important
Tex = temperature of wood, Tb = boiling point of the compound,            relative to emissions rates. This model has addressed the effect
and c = a constant value. When the relative rate of vaporization          of temperature on naturally occurring terpenes relative to VOC
was calculated at different drying temperatures for α-pinene, the         emissions rates.
simulated volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions profile
was similar to actual measurements.                                       GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked on
                                                                          this project.




                                                                     32

                                                              2005 annual report
                                                     Center for Wood Utilization Research
                  Effects of composting on leaching of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from furniture
                                        woodwaste amended with chicken manure
H. Borazjani, S.V. Diehl                                  065360M                            July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: Specific objectives of this study were:                       The luminescence reduction of marine bacteria challenged with
1. Leaching of mentioned nutrients at different stages of                 the sample solution to determine relative toxicity was measured.
   composting;                                                            All composted wood wastes showed significant reduction in
2. Toxicity level and correlation to each nutrient at each stage;         toxicity after 90 days.
   and
3. Maturity of compost or when the compost is completely                  FUTURE PLANS: A publication is being prepared.
   mature.
                                                                          IMPACTS: Sales of sawdust wastes to other firms typically
PROGRESS: This study found that sawdust amended with                      result in a negative cash flow as the cost of transportation is
chicken litter and then composted reduces the leaching potential          usually higher than the price received. Incineration on-site is
of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K), using Toxic Characteristic             very expensive and the incinerator must meet Environmental
Leaching Procedure (TCLP) method which mixes compost and                  Protection Agency (EPA) emission regulations. Disposal in
acidic water for 16 hours. The leachability of phosphorus (P),            landfills is also becoming prohibitive. One small Mississippi
however increased.                                                        company located in the Mississippi Delta estimates spending
                                                                          $6,000 per month for land filling their wood waste residue.
To determine whether or not the compost had matured a                     Alternative disposal options would greatly benefit many different
compost maturity test was administered. The test compared                 wood products industries. Composting of wood waste clearly
the germination rate of fast growing radish seeds in composted            can impact landfill situations in most problem areas of USA.
material vs. potting soil. The radish seed maturity test showed
that even partial composting of sawdust and chicken litter had an         GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked on
advantage over uncomposted raw material.                                  this project.




                           Microbial populations associated with accelerated soil contact decay test

M. L. Prewitt, T. McElroy, D.D. Nicholas, S.V. Diehl            065390E                                      July 1, 2004 - June 31, 2006

 OBJECTIVES: Monitor microbial populations and community                  FUTURE PLANS: Continue sampling and analysis work.
dynamics within an accelerated soil contact decay test method,
using soil taken from field test sites. Identify microbes using a         IMPACTS: Results from this research will provide information
molecular database and a fatty acid identification system.                on the use of accelerated wood decay tests to provide
                                                                          information on wood decay fungi. This information can be used
PROGRESS: Soil exposed wood was sampled and tested for                    to support research activities for wood protection.
residual strength. Wood was extracted for DNA and analyzed
for the presence and identification of microbes.                          GRADUATE STUDENTS: One PhD student worked on this
                                                                          project.




                                                                     33

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                      Chemical characterization and separation of products from wood-based Bio-Oil

P.H. Steele, L.L. Ingram, D.D. Nicholas, S.V. Diehl, M.G. Kim 065390F                                   April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to identify              FUTURE PLANS: A paper will be prepared to report these
and separate chemical products from bio-oil produced from               results. The pretreatments to apply to other feed stocks have
softwood woody biomass.                                                 been selected and will be applied and results reported. Feed
                                                                        stocks will be pretreated microbially and chemically, prior to
PROGRESS: Investigators have pyrolyzed 16 bio-oils based                pyrolysis, followed by complete chemical and physical analysis to
on four feed stock types (loblolly pine clear wood and bark; red        determine influence of treatments on bio-oils.
oak clear wood and bark), two temperatures and two reactor
residence times. The resulting bio-oils and the by-product chars        IMPACTS: The production of bio-oil from wood offers a
are now being characterized by chemical and elemental analysis.         potential market to the forest-based marketplace. Development
These characterizations will determine the interaction of feed          of alternative markets for small diameter timber is a high priority
stock type and reactor conditions on the production of bio-oil          in the south.
and char.
                                                                        GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked on
                                                                        this project.



    Development of immobilized sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) for rapid identification of important
                                                wood-inhabiting fungi
S.V. Diehl, M.L, Prewitt, W.J. Diehl                  065430B              September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives are to:                              to sequence the clones and identify the different fungi present. If
1. Align and design species-specific oligonucleotide probes             this method works, it will be used to identify fungi on wood from
    (SSOPs) for important wood decay fungi based on ITS                 two test sites. In addition, wood has been collected and fungi are
    sequences,                                                          being isolated using traditional media methods. This same wood
2. Develop identification membranes for specific field sites            will be extracted for DNA for molecular identifications.
    containing the SSOPs for fungi important to that site and
3. Develop functional gene specific oligonucleotide probes              FUTURE PLANS: Once the procedures and methods are
    for important enzymes associated with decay or biocide              established, wood stakes from Dorman and Saucier will be
    deactivation for specific fungal species.                           collected and all possible fungi isolated and DNA sequences
The secondary objective of this project is to continue to train         obtained.
research personnel in new molecular procedures, so that
biodeterioration research can expand into new and progressive           IMPACTS: Detailed knowledge on colonization of wood by
directions.                                                             wood decay fungi will lead to the successful development of new
                                                                        wood protection systems.
PROGRESS: Wood was inoculated with three different wood
decay fungi. After four weeks of incubation, DNA was extracted          GRADUATE STUDENTS: One master’s student worked on
from the inoculated chips. The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)        this project.
region was amplified. The ITS bands are being cloned in order




                                                                   34

                                                            2005 annual report
                                                   Center for Wood Utilization Research
                    Development of fuels and value-added chemicals from pyrolysis of wood/waste-plastic
                                                        mixtures
P.H. Steele, L.L. Ingram, Jr.                            065430G              September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research project is to                  FUTURE PLANS: Over the next 1.5 years the student will
develop improved fuels and value-added chemical products from             perform detailed experiments to elucidate the reactions and
the co-pyrolysis of plastic and wood mixtures.                            product characteristics of fast co-pyrolysis of the three plastics
                                                                          and two wood types.
 PROGRESS: A Master of Science chemistry graduate student
has been recruited and has performed a detailed literature                IMPACTS: The liquid bio-oil products of co-pyrolyzed wood
search of the subject area over the last year. Past research has          and plastics have been shown to improve the bio-oil properties
focused on slow, rather than fast, co-pyrolysis in batch reactors.        of viscosity, stability, acidity and odor. These negative properties
This approach is not economical due to the large capital and              have slowed the development of fuels and chemical products
variable investment required for operation of large batch reactor         from bio-oils. Our hypothesis is that the bio-oil properties
vessels. Plastic types polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene        have been improved by deoxygenation provided by the large
have been selected as the three plastics for the study. Loblolly          percentage of hydrogen released during the pyrolysis of the
pine and red oak will be the wood co-pyrolysates. A py-GC/MS              plastics. If this hypothesis is correct, this method may provide
has been acquired to efficiently conduct the initial research             a low-cost means to improve bio-oil properties. Considerable
required to determine larger pyrolysis reactor conditions with            research has been performed to develop catalytic means to
which to best perform co-pyrolysis of plastics and biomass. A             deoxygenate the bio-oils, but with only limited success.
flue-gas filter has been ordered for air quality protection during
the co-pyrolysis of wood and plastics by our laboratory scale             GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student is working
auger-fed reactor.                                                        on this project.




                                                                     35

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                  Fuels and chemicals from catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils

P. Steele, L. Ingram, M. Kim, S. Fernando                   Proposed for 2006                                    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
Changes in global trade in wood products have resulted in                    As a fuel bio-oil has environmental advantages when compared
reduced demand for both softwood and hardwood pulpwood in                    to fossil fuels because combusted bio-oil produces half the
the U. S. Numerous pulp and paper mill closures have occurred                NOX and no SOX when compared to petroleum fuels. As a fuel
and this trend continues. While demand for pulp has steadily                 derived from a renewable resource bio-oil is considered to
declined the supply of pulp has dramatically increased. Over the             be CO2 neutral. Bio-oil can be burned directly in engines and
period between 1987 and 1994 the rate of pine growth in the                  electricity has been produced by bio-oil fueled diesel engines and
south increased by 22 percent south wide and by 34 percent                   turbines have been specially modified to successfully burn bio-
in Mississippi. Over this 8-year period plantation pine stands in            oil. However, some properties of bio-oil such as lower octane,
Mississippi increased by 92 percent to comprise 52 percent of                acidity, immiscibility, viscosity change over time and a distinctive
total pine acreage.                                                          odor have prevented its commercial use to date for other than
                                                                             pilot and demonstration projects.
Bio-oil is a product that can be manufactured from forest-based
resources. Bio-oil is produced by flash pyrolysis of small biomass           It is desirable that the mild hydrogenation step currently
particles at 400 to 650 degrees C in the absence of oxygen. The              required prior to hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils be
yield of bio-oil is relatively high at 60-percent dry weight basis or        eliminated to reduce the final industrial cost of such a process.
higher depending on the production process. Bio-oil chemical                 We will attempt to accomplish this by addition of low-cost
properties vary with the feedstock but woody biomass typically               hydrogen donor compounds such as tetralin, methanol or other
produces a mixture of 30 percent water, 30 percent phenolics,                similar compounds. This approach may require a two-stage
20 percent aldehydes and ketones, 15 percent alcohols and 10                 application of temperature and pressure levels to the reactor.
percent miscellaneous compounds.
                                                                             OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this project are to:
Nearly all pyrolysis reactors employed world wide are fluidized-             1. Develop techniques for both mild hydrogenation and HDO
bed reactors. However, these reactors are known to have                         treatments of bio-oils to a quality suitable for refining.
relatively high capital requirements. The Department of Forest                  Various catalysts and temperature and pressure regimes will
Products at Mississippi State University houses a 0.5 kg/hr auger               be tested.
pyrolysis reactor. Auger reactors are estimated to require                   2. Refine the hydrogenated bio-oils to develop light, medium
approximately 30 percent of the capital required for fluidized-                 and heavy distillate fractions suitable as fuels or value-added
bed technology for equivalent production capacity. The MSU                      products.
auger reactor utilizes a novel pyrolysis vapor condensation                  3. Test the fuel values and analyze and explore the potential for
system that produces very high quality bio-oil in that the water                producing value-added chemicals from the distillate fractions.
content is approximately 20 percent or lower versus 25 to 30
percent for bio-oils produced by fluidized bed reactors.




                                                                        36

                                                               2005 annual report
                                                      Center for Wood Utilization Research
Economic Evaluation and Technology Transfer

  The Forest and Wildlife Research Center is a significant channel transferring technical and economic
  information to the diverse members of the wood industry enabling them to become more efficient and
  more profitable.

  Research impacts include:

  • A reduction in loss of life and the adverse economic impact of natural hazards and biodegradation of
    wood materials can be realized by utilizing research findings in biodegradation effects of sheathing-to-
    framing connections in shear walls.

  • The study of the economic impact of the forest products industry on key industrial sectors provides
    information needed to ensure that legislation and regulations pertaining to these lands and industries
    recognize their true values.

  • Using bar coding technology in plants producing furniture dimension parts can favorably impact the
    company by reducing holding costs by individual manufacturers.

  Research accomplishments include:

  • The dimension part manufacturer who participated in the analysis of productivity response to bar
    coding technology has made additional requests for items to be added to the program and has
    implemented bar code technology to assist with physical inventory.

  • The structural modeling and simulation analysis of a sofa frame has been completed.




                                                         37

                                         Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                             Mississippi State University
Economic Evaluation and Technology Transfer
 Project                                                                                                   Project
                                  Project Title                                 Project Investigator
 Number                                                                                                   Duration


               Determine biodegradation effects of sheathing-to-
 065350G                                                                           A. Salenikovich     6/01/02 - 5/31/05
               framing connections in shear walls

               Strategies for market development and evaluation of                  R.D. Seale,
  065350I      product acceptance factors for SCRIMBER process                     A.W. Garrard,       6/01/02 - 5/31/05
               produced engineered wood products                                      J. Leng

  065350L      Finite element modeling of sofa frames                                 J. Zhang         6/01/02 - 5/31/05

               The economic impact of the forest products
 065360C                                                                             I. A. Munn        7/15/03 - 7/14/05
               industry on key industrial sectors

               Analysis of productivity response to bar coding
                                                                                     R. D. Seale,
 065360D       technology in plants producing furniture dimension                                      7/15/03 - 7/14/05
                                                                                       J. Leng
               parts
               Enhanced utilization technologies for increased
               productivity and profitability: Lean manufacturing
 065390B                                                                             S.L. Hunter       4/01/04 - 3/31/06
               initiative for the American furniture and wood-based
               industries
                                                                                    D. Grebner,
  065390I      Analysis of BioOil as an emerging wood use                               C. Sun,        4/01/04 - 3/31/06
                                                                                       P. Steele
                                                                                      R. Grala,
               An analysis of the structure, performance, capacity
                                                                                    R. Shmulsky,
               and future of the production forestry economic
 065430D                                                                              L. Grace,        9/15/05 - 9/14/07
               sector of Mississippi: A tool for economic
                                                                                     R.D. Seale,
               development
                                                                                     W. Stuart
                                                                                      J. Zhang,
Proposed for   Development of design loads for upholstered
                                                                                       Y. Xue,         7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        furniture frames
                                                                                     S. Hunter
                                                                                    E.B. Schultz
                                                                                    T.G. Matney
Proposed for   Development of large-area inventory techniques for
                                                                                    R.C. Parker        7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006        measuring forest landscape change
                                                                                     D.L. Evans
                                                                                      K.L. Belli
               Domestic and global competitiveness of the U.S.
Proposed for                                                                         I.A. Munn,
               wood products industry: A general equilibrium                                           7/1/06 - 6/30/08
   2006                                                                              A. Hussain
               analysis




                                                         38

                                                  2005 annual report
                                         Center for Wood Utilization Research
                                   Determine biodegradation effects of sheathing-to-framing
                                                 connections in shear walls
A. Salenikovich                                          065350G                                             June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to                       found that the OSB units decayed much more rapidly than the
determine experimentally the performance characteristics of               plywood units. As a consequence, the strength of the OSB units
sheathing-to-framing connections subjected to wetting and                 was reduced considerably more after a given exposure time than
biodegradation and compare these characteristics with those               the plywood units.
obtained for non-degraded connections.
                                                                          FUTURE PLANS: The project was terminated on May 31,
PROGRESS: The following variables were used in this study:                2005.
1) Structural sheathing: 17/16” oriented strand board (OSB)
and 15/32” plywood; 2) Framing lumber: Southern pine and                   IMPACT: This study shows that under wet conditions, with
Spruce-pine-fir (SPF); 3) SENCO power-driven fasteners: Bright            and without biodeterioration, OSB does not perform as well as
common 8d nails; 4) Edge distance: 3/4”; 5) Load regimes: Static          plywood. This information will be used to educate architects,
monotonic (non-reversed) per ASTM D1761 and reversed                      builders, building officials, and others on creating durable and
cyclic (CUREE protocol); 6) Directions of loading: Parallel to            safe housing for the 21st century. Consequently, this factor
the grain of framing member and perpendicular to the grain of             needs to be considered in building designs. Improvements in
framing member; and 7) Condition of the specimens: dry, wet,              the performance of housing will result in a reduction in loss
and biodegraded. A total of 480 specimens were used with 10               of life and the adverse economic impact of natural hazards and
replications per variable. In comparing the wet to dry assemblies,        biodegradation of wood materials.
the strength of OSB units decreased 32 percent, whereas the
plywood units decreased 23 percent. When the assemblies                   GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked
were inoculated with the brown-rot fungus G. trabeum it was               on this project.




                  Strategies for market development and evaluation of product acceptance factors for
                                  SCRIMBER-process produced engineered wood products
R.D. Seale, A.W. Garrard, J. Leng                      065350I                             June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to                         as the door header. Overhead on the booth, SCRIMBER was
determine what bundle of attributes a new engineered wood                 installed to simulate a floor joist with traditional 2 x12 lumber or
product will need to successfully enter and compete in                    laminated veneer lumber. At the very front of the booth, a large
today’s building environment. This bundle may include factors             SCRIMBER beam simulated a garage door header. One of the
associated with product performance, service, value, delivery,            highlights of the booth was a 2 x12 SCRIMBER sample placed
and consumer acceptance at the wholesale and retail level.                horizontally across the back wall for use as a table in the display.
                                                                          The table piece was sanded and two coats of polyurethane
PROGRESS: The project goal was to determine the                           sealant were applied.
marketability of an engineered wood product that would
compete with existing wood products with similar stiffness                Representatives of a company in due diligence to build a first
(MOE) and strength (MOR) values. The study plan was to                    plant to make the new product were invited to attend the show
exhibit the product at a trade show and develop a contact list            and spend some time in the booth to gauge reaction to the new
for a follow-up survey.                                                   product. Visitors to the booth included producers of wood
                                                                          products seeking information on becoming a manufacturer of the
A booth was rented in a national homebuilders trade show in               product, distributors of wood products wanting new products
Las Vegas, Nevada. The booth was fabricated to occupy a ten               to add to their portfolios, and contractors who would be end
foot square exhibit space. The booth was fabricated with three            users of the product. Contractors’ reaction to the booth and
sides and an open front. Each side was representative of a stud           new material were very positive.
wall in a site built house that would exist over conventional or
concrete slab foundations. Typical uses of the new engineered             A contact list was compiled after the trade show and a packet
SCRIMBER-process product were displayed in prominent places               of information was sent to each person who visited the booth.
in the display. The left sidewall was framed for a large window           Response to the mail survey was not sufficient to tabulate
and used SCRIMBER as header stock. The right sidewall was                 results.
framed for a standard six-foot door and utilized SCRIMBER
                                                                          FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.


                                                                     39

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                                              Finite element modeling of sofa frames
J. Zhang                                                        065350L                                      June 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were:                         obtained and analyzed based on developed frame models using
1. to develop structural models of sofa frame systems;                    GSA performance test loading and boundary conditions.
2. evaluate different finite element modeling techniques (beam
    element, solid element or plate element);                             FUTURE PLANS: This project terminated May 31, 2005.
3. obtain critical joint internal forces and member stress based
    on loading schedules of furniture frame performance tests;            IMPACTS: The forces and stresses data about key
4. evaluate effects of critical members such as stretchers on             components of a sofa frame obtained from this study can assist
    joint internal forces and member stresses.                            furniture manufacturers to carry out optimum design of their
                                                                          frame products to achieve maximum ratio of product durability
PROGRESS: The structural modeling and simulation analysis                 performance to cost.
of a sofa frame has been completed. Internal force information
on key joints and stress information on key members were                  GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked
                                                                          on this project.




                        The economic impact of the forest products industry on key industrial sectors
I.A. Munn                                                065360C                               July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The three primary objectives were to:                            of forest outputs which would result from changes in other
1. Determine the extent to which other industrial/agricultural               sectors of the state’s economy.
   sectors of the state’s economy benefit from economic
   activities related to the forest resource. Identifying these            PROGRESS: The analysis was completed in 2004. One thesis
   sectors and the degree to which they benefit, will help                and three manuscripts were prepared in 2005.
   generate support in the state legislature for forest resource
   management and research from the identified sectors.                   FUTURE PLANS: Submit final publications to the appropriate
2. Determine the contribution of forest resource-based                    outlets.
   industries to the public revenues of the state, county, and
   local governments of Mississippi.                                      IMPACTS: By demonstrating the importance of the forest
3. Update the measures of the contributions of Mississippi’s              products industry to the state economy, this study will impact
   forest resources to the state’s economy. These measures                the support for the industry in various arenas, both political and
   will include total employment, income, value added and value           social. The economic contributions of rural forestland and the
   of shipments as well as the corresponding Type I (direct               industries that utilize the raw materials produced from these
   effects) and Type II (direct, indirect and induced effects)            lands are often undervalued by policymakers because these
   multipliers. These multipliers will be used to evaluate the            contributions are dispersed throughout the state. By providing
   incremental contribution to the state economy from per                 this essential baseline information about the industry, this study
   unit changes in the forest products and forestland resources           will ensure that legislation and regulations pertaining to these
   sectors. Other economic issues related to the forest                   lands and industries recognize their true values. Trade-offs
   resource base include the impact of exports (out-of-state)             with other competing uses, both social and economic, will be
   of forest products, how well secondary industries support              balanced accordingly
   forest resource activities (i.e., how much of the required
   inputs are generated in state and how much must be                     GRADUATE STUDENTS: One graduate student worked
   imported) and finally, identifying changes in the overall level        on this project.




                                                                     40

                                                             2005 annual report
                                                    Center for Wood Utilization Research
                   Analysis of productivity response to bar coding technology in plants producing furniture
                                                       dimension parts
R. D. Seale, J. Leng                                       065360D                             July 15, 2003 – July 14, 2005
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to:                      bar code technology is particularly well suited for this purpose
1. Identify a dimension part manufacturer that wanted to                  because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to implement. The
    explore bar code technology from a manufacturing efficiency           manufacturer has made additional requests for items to be added
    perspective.                                                          to the program and has implemented bar code technology to
2. Implement a bar code scheme that would track individual                assist with the physical inventory.
    part batches through the plant.
3. Implement an information display system within the                     FUTURE PLANS: Since the company has asked for additional
    plant to measure the effectiveness of information on the              features to the system, resource requirements necessary to
    manufacturing process.                                                modify the program are being analyzed along with obtaining a
4. Make the information available to downstream manufacturers             better understanding of the exact requirements.
    via a standard information access format.
                                                                          IMPACTS: The technology has demonstrated that major
PROGRESS: A dimension part manufacturer was identified                    reductions in physical inventory are attainable with accurate
and agreed to participate with the project. The manufacturer              inventory figures. The manufacturer now has the capability to
participated in the project by purchasing bar coding equipment            use leftover parts from previous runs to reduce the number
for the production environment. A free bar code scheme                    of parts necessary to fill current orders. This information has
recognized by most barcode readers was utilized in the study.             reduced work in process by over $100,000 and reduced the
Once materials were manufactured, the barcode tags were                   warehouse space requirements by more than 50,000 square
used to correctly identify each part added into warehouse                 feet. These cost reductions and savings help make the company
inventory. The barcode technology facilitated ease of use                 competitive with imported parts.
but the real benefits were the data of accurate inventory and
the impact it can have on reduced holding costs by individual
manufacturers. Other technologies could also be employed but




                      Enhanced utilization technologies for increased productivity and profitability: Lean
                        manufacturing initiative for the American furniture and wood-based industries
S.L. Hunter                                                065390B                            April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: Determine increased productivity and
profitability of manufacturing processes when using lean                  FUTURE PLANS: Continue to gain skills in simulation and
manufacturing systems.                                                    analysis. Apply skills to study productivity and ergonomic factors
                                                                          of the new systems compared to current manufacturing systems.
PROGRESS: Introduction of new lean manufacturing systems
in a furniture manufacturing facility allowed employees to obtain         IMPACTS: The furniture manufacturer had a lean production
skills in using high level computer modeling, simulation and              derived factory benefit of $3.8 mm, with the new system
analysis software.                                                        contributing $300,000.




                                                                     41

                                                     Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                         Mississippi State University
                                            Analysis of BioOil as an emerging wood use
D. Grebner, C. Sun, P. Steele                                     065390I                                  April 1, 2004 - March 31, 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research are:                           PROGRESS: We are currently conducting a more
1. evaluate potential demand for BioOils as a potential energy             comprehensive literature review for the project. We have
   source for heating in Mississippi;                                      recruited a graduate student for this project who will enroll in
2. evaluate potential supply for BioOils as a potential energy             the summer of 2005.
   source for heating in Mississippi;
3. compare alternative forest management regimes that                      FUTURE PLANS: With the coming graduate student, we plan
   produce BioOil outputs; and                                             to work more intensively on the project. Data collection will
4. assess the impacts of existing state and federal tax and cost           start in late 2005. Detailed analyses toward the final objectives
   share incentive structures on managing timberland for BioOil            will follow.
   outputs and alternative management regimes.




                  An analysis of the structure, performance, capacity and future of the production forestry
                              economic sector of Mississippi; a tool for economic development
R.K. Grala, R. Shmulsky, L. Grace, R.D. Seale, W. Stuart         065430D                     September 15, 2005 - September 14, 2007
OBJECTIVES: Specific objectives of this research will be to:               of wood raw materials used by the forest products industry in
1. Assess the capacity, capabilities, and constraints of wood              the Gulf south. By August 29, the survey was obsolete due to
   using manufacturing facilities in current (and planned)                 the devastation caused by hurricanes Katrina (August 2005) and
   operation in the state, including raw material requirements;            Rita (September2005). Consequently, the survey was modified
2. Evaluate the capacity, capabilities, and constraints of the             and approved in December 2005. Very early results indicate
   marketing raw material supply systems and production                    a serious and growing concern regarding the ability of wood
   forces needed to procure that raw material, routing it to the           supplying firms to stay operational over the next 2-5 years as
   appropriate manufacturing facility; and                                 a direct result of forest damage (and subsequent inventory of
3. Describe the sourcing and legal constraints concerning the              downed and damaged roundwood) caused by Hurricane Katrina.
   type, quality and availability of woody raw materials needed
   by the forest-products industry.                                        FUTURE PLANS: Plans for 2006 include full implementation
4. Integration of these into structural models of the material,            and preliminary analysis of the survey for wood suppliers.
   financial, information, and influence flows within the wood             Wood manufacturers will also be asked to participate in a survey
   using sector.                                                           which will be designed during the Spring of 2006.

PROGRESS: A survey was designed and submitted to IRB in                    IMPACTS: It is too early to determine realized impacts at this
early August 2005. This initial survey was designed to evaluate            point.
the capacity, capabilities, and constraints of the raw material
supply systems as well as attempting to describe the sourcing              GRADUATE STUDENT YEARS: Two masters students
and legal constraints concerning the type, quality and availability        and one PhD student worked on this project.




                                                                      42

                                                              2005 annual report
                                                     Center for Wood Utilization Research
                                 Development of design loads for upholstered furniture frames

J. Zhang, Y. Xue, S. Hunter                               Proposed for 2006                                     July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
Loads for strength and durability design of upholstered furniture          properties of frame materials and structural components into
frames have not been fully developed. A systematic scientific              full size frame structural analysis and modeling, especially fatigue
investigation of the loads that act on an upholstered furniture            properties. The effort to relate component experimental data
frame has never been undertaken. Furniture engineers need this             to frame structural analysis can yield engineering information
information to optimize their design and achieve desired product           such as design loads for optimum design of individual
performance and quality requirements with minimum material                 components in a furniture frame.
and manufacturing cost.
                                                                           OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this proposed research
Research at MSU has shown that 10 to 20 percent material                   is to develop frame structural design loads for upholstered
savings can be achieved through product engineering with                   furniture industries.
current simulation technology by knowing engineering data such
as product design loads. Unfortunately, such design loads are              The detailed objectives are:
not available for the furniture industry.                                  1. development of analysis methods and procedures,
                                                                           2. frame structural modeling and analysis,
Previous research work has focused on development of                       3. derive cycle load schedules for all structural components,
furniture frame performance tests, furniture frame modeling                4. deriving fatigue life curves based on available experimental
techniques and numerical analysis methods, and joint static and                data for structural components,
fatigue properties. Also, the material static, impact, fatigue, and        5. deriving design loads, and
creep properties of furniture frame stock, and individual fastener         6. performing structural design and carrying out frame
withdrawal capacities have been studied.                                       performance tests for verifications.

Limited research work has been carried out to integrate
experimental data obtained from evaluating mechanical


                   Development of large-area inventory techniques for measuring forest landscape change
E.B. Schultz, T.G. Matney, R.C. Parker,
D.L. Evans, K.L. Belli                                    Proposed for 2006                                    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008
Large-area forest inventories provide a comprehensive view                 Objectives: The proposed geospatially based research will
of the level and spatial arrangement of rapidly changing forest            address the detection and quantification of changes in the forest
resources over time. They allow planners to alter resource                 landscape due to stand development, natural disaster, and
availability and consumption to 1) avoid catastrophic depletions,          utilization. MIFI 2004 - 2006 data will provide the foundation
2) assess resource availability for economic development,                  for modeling and estimation. Ultimately, the objective of the
3) plan reforestation and land use strategies, and 4) mitigate             research is to reduce the cost while improving the estimates of
environmental and climate change. Remote sensing and other                 current and future inventory estimates of timber volume and
geospatial technologies are the only cost effective/feasible               biotic carbon.
ways of conducting large-area inventories, and data from
remote sensing sensors, such as Landsat TM and LiDAR,                      The specific objectives are to:
provide the opportunity for quantifying and visualizing rapid              1. Investigate multi-spectral and Light Detection and Ranging
changes. Methods must be developed for timely monitoring to                   (LiDAR)-based change detection procedures that will
determine where resources are being depleted by harvest or                    generate statistically efficient strata based on age and stand
natural disaster or accumulated for economic development and                  density classes for optimally allocating a random sample in a
carbon sequestration. The proposed research will address the                  large-area inventory.
development of change detection techniques for forest strata
and storm damaged areas and methods for assessing carbon                   2. Develop models to accurately predict change caused by
storage for mitigating climate change. Because of previous                    hurricane damage and describe its spatial extent using
cooperatively funded CSREES research and development efforts                  analyses of pre- and post-storm remotely sensed and GIS
between Mississippi Institute for Forest Inventory (MIFI) and                 data.
the FWRC, the results of this proposed work will be uniquely
positioned to have direct impact on a large-area forest inventory          3. Estimate below- and above-ground forest carbon
and the forest products economic sector of Mississippi.                       sequestration for the promotion of carbon management as
                                                                              it relates to mitigating CO2 omissions and influencing global
                                                                              climate change.

                                                                      43

                                                      Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                          Mississippi State University
                    Domestic and global competitiveness of the U.S. wood products industry: A general
                                                   equilibrium analysis
I.A. Munn, A. Hussain                                     Proposed for 2006                                    July 1, 2006 - June 30, 2008

The U.S. forest products sector, involving wood products and               and ranks among the top ten manufacturing employers in 42
lumber, pulp and paper, and furniture industries, is going through         states. In over 150 counties in 30 states, the sector provides
a tough transition. The rising costs of wood fiber, because of             more than 10 percent of total employment. In addition, it
the reduced access to public forest lands, lack of entry-level             generates more than $230 billion in sales and ranks eighth
skilled labor, higher corporate taxes and stricter environmental           among domestic manufacturing sectors in contribution to gross
regulations, are undermining its competitiveness at home. At               domestic product (GDP). Given that forest-based industries
the same time it is faced with challenges in markets abroad given          have an above average multiplier impact on the local and regional
the advantageous position of competitors. In particular, low               economies in which they operate suggests that a contraction or
wages and cheap wood supplies, and trading nations’ policies               expansion of the forest products sector is more likely to induce
(e.g., trade barriers, lax environmental regulations, foreign              contraction or expansion in the remainder of the economy. This
exchange and other market distortions) are positioning foreign             implies that strategies to further its competitiveness have to be
competitors to erode the sector’s advantage. For instance, the             sought recognizing these economy-wide interrelations. This
U.S. furniture industry has been losing market share to imports            also means that, to have a better understanding of the issues
from China, Indonesia, and Malaysia for the past few decades               facing the forest products sector, an applied general equilibrium
primarily due to wage cost advantages, cheap wood fiber, and               analysis—a modeling approach that simultaneously takes account
favorable exchange rates.                                                  of inter-industry transactions—should complement earlier
                                                                           analyses of the forest products sector.
The past decade has also seen the closing of over 100 pulp and
paper mills and the resulting loss of thousands of jobs in the             OBJECTIVES:
U.S. At the national level, the consequences of these trends               The goal of the proposed research is to contribute to a sound
are reflected in a widening forest products trade deficit. Many            basis for the revival and recovery of the forest products sector
argue that if the challenges facing the sector are not addressed,          while conserving the natural resource base. The overall
there might be even more serious consequences. Thus, the                   objective of the research is to analyze factors determining
government must work with foreign countries to reduce tariff               the sector’s international competitiveness and prospects for
and non-tariff barriers and with U.S. industries to reduce the tax         development. To achieve this overall objective, we will focus on
burden and enormous cost of regulations, where the latter does             the following specific objectives:
not mean weakening environmental regulations but just making
them more manageable and affordable.                                       Objective #1-Formulate a general equilibrium model of U.S.
                                                                           major regions (e.g., PNW, Southeast, Southwest, Northeast,
Yet while the U.S. manufacturing in general and the wood                   Midwest) juxtaposed in relation to the world’s major trading
products sector in particular is under economic pressure, many             regions (e.g., Pacific-Asia, Scandinavia-Russia, Europe, Canada,
argue that given a proper strategic response it has the potential          South America, Rest of World), that allows for appropriate
to turn around and compete in the emerging markets. In                     representation of inter-industry linkages and associated
particular, this response must involve the appropriate mix of              transactions.
incentives, value-added development programs, and a holistic
approach that recognizes the role of management and marketing              Objective #2-Simulate the impact of a set of policy scenarios
strategies at the individual firm level, country specific economic         including changes in corporate taxes, technological change,
and institutional constraints (e.g., environmental regulations, tax        environmental regulations, and trade liberalization on U.S. forest
codes, availability of skilled labor) and an understanding of where        products competitiveness.
the sector’s trading advantage exists.
                                                                           Objective #3-Construct indices of net regional welfare, and
Analysis of the competitiveness of the U.S. forest products                discuss alternative management and marketing strategies
sector is important because it is a key part of the U.S.                   that would optimize economic gains from forest products
manufacturing base. According to the American Forest and                   international trade.
Paper Association (2004), the sector employs 1.5 million people




                                                                      44

                                                             2005 annual report
                                                    Center for Wood Utilization Research
                                                   Publications
Refereed Publications                                                        Hatten, N. 2005. Leaching of nitrogen, phosphorus, and
 Binbuga, N., K. Chambers, W.P. Henry, T.P. Schultz. 2005.                   potassium from composting sawdust amended with chicken
 Metal chelation studies relevant to wood preservation. 1.                   litter. M.S Thesis, Department of Forest Products, Mississippi
 Complexation of propyl gallate with Fe2+. Holzforschung 59:                 State University.
 205-209.
                                                                             Stewart, L.D. 2004. Early development of the Mississippi
  Grebner, D.L., L.A. Grace, W. Stuart, D.P. Gilliland. 2005. A              wood supply system: 1699-1930. M.S. Thesis. Department of
  practical framework for evaluating hauling costs. International            Forestry, Mississippi State University.
  Journal of Forest Engineering 16(2):115-128.
                                                                             Turner, K.D. 2005. Evaluation of phytoremediation of
  Londo, A.J., G.D. Bales, L.A. Grace, T. Traugott, A. Bailey, T.            pentachorophenol using eleven tree and three native
  DeLoach, B. Hatcher, S. Dicke, G. Hughes, J, Kushla, R. Carter.            grass species. M.S. Thesis, Department of Forest Products,
  2005. The impacts of Public Law 106-393 Title III programming              Mississippi State University. 53 pp.
  on the forestry extension program at Mississippi State
  University. Journal of Extension.                                        Other Publications
                                                                            Altizer, C.A, W.B. Stuart. 2004. Trends in workers’
  Schultz, T.P., D.D. Nicholas, W.P. Henry. 2005. Efficacy of a             compensation insurance costs in the logging industry.
  Copper(II)/oxine copper wood preservative mixture after 69                Proceedings of the 2004 SOFEW Conference, St. Augustine, FL.
  months of outdoor ground-contact exposure and a proposed
  mechanism to explain the observed synergism. Holzforschung                 Barnes, H.M., J.W. Kirkpatrick. 2005. Biocide treatments for
  59:370-373.                                                                composite panels. Pages 225-234 in R. Tichy,V. Yadama, editors,
                                                                             Proceedings of the 39th International Wood Composites
  Schultz, T.P., D.D. Nicholas, W.P Henry, C.U. Pittman, D.O.                Symposium, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.
  Wipf, B. Goodell. 2005. Review of laboratory and outdoor
  exposure efficacy results of organic biocode:antioxidant                   Borazjani, H., R. Britto, S.V. Diehl, M. Lybrand. 2005. In-Situ
  combinations, and initial economic analysis and discussion of a            biosparging of pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated
  proposed mechanism. Wood and Fiber Science 37(1):175-184.                  groundwater. Proceedings of the First International
                                                                             Environmental Scientific and Technological Conference, New
  Sellers Jr., T., G.D. Miller, Jr. 2004. Laboratory manufacture of          Orleans, LA.
  high moisture southern pine strandboard bonded with three
  tannin adhesive types. Forest Products Journal 54(12):296-301.             Collins, C.A., D.W. Wilkinson, D.L. Evans. 2005. Multi-temporal
                                                                             analysis of Landsat data to determine forest age classes for the
  Sridhar, G.G., S.V. Diehl, F.X. Han, D.L. Monts,Y. Su. 2005.               Mississippi statewide forest inventory – preliminary results.
  Anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of Zn                    Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the
  and Cd in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea). Environmental and              Analysis of Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Images, Biloxi, MS.
  Experimental Botany 54(2005):131-141.
                                                                             Cooper, J. E., P. H. Steele, B. Mitchell. 2005. Detecting
Patents                                                                      juvenile wood in southern pine lumber by measuring phase
  Nicholas, D.D., E.M. Ivankoe, M.G. Kim, C.U. Pittman, L. Wang,             shift. Proceedings of the Review of Progress in Quantative
  A. Kabir, T.P. Schultz, L.L. Ingram. 2003. Modified wood with              Nondestructive Evaluation,Vol. 24A, Golden, CO. American
  surface coatings. U.S. Patent #6,602,605.                                  Institute of Physics.

Theses/Dissertations                                                         Cooper, J. E., P. H. Steele. 2005. Knot detection with the
 Altizer, C.H. 2005. Evaluation of Project XL: A case study                  through-log density detector. Proceedings of Scan Tech 2005,
 of Weyerhaeuser’s Flint River Mill stakeholder process. M.S                 Las Vegas, NV. The Wood Machining Institute, Berkeley, CA.
 Thesis, Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University.               181 p.

  Chen, B. 2003. Fatigue performance of wood-based composites                Diehl, S.V., T.C. McElroy, M.L. Prewitt. 2004. Development and
  as upholstered furniture frame stock. Thesis, Department of                implementation of a DNA RFLP database for wood decay and
  Forest Products, Mississippi State University.                             wood associated fungi. International Research Group on Wood
                                                                             Preservation, IRG/WP 04-30350. 24 p.



                                                                      45

                                                      Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                          Mississippi State University
Other Publications (continued)                                                Schultz, T.P., D.D. Nicholas, W. Henry, C. Pittman, D. Wipf, B.
 Evans, D.L. , W.H. Cooke III. 2004. LiDAR - the future of                    Goodell. 2004. Environmentally-benign wood
 remote forest assessments? Proceedings of the 10th Biennial                  preservatives based on organic biocide: antioxidant
 Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Conference. Salt                  ombinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure
 Lake City, UT. USDA Forest Service.                                          results and discussion of a proposed mechanism. The
                                                                              International Research Group on Wood Preservation,
  Fujisaki, I., P.D. Gerard, D.L. Evans. 2005. Classification of              Document #IRG/WP 04-30335. 11pp.
  forest growth stage using Landsat TM data. SPIE Proceedings
  of Optics and Photonics: Remote Sensing and Modeling                        Snow, R.D., D.L. Grebner, K.L. Belli, R. Shumlsky, T.P. Schultz.
  Ecosystems for Sustainability II, San Diego, CA.                            2005. Existing knowledge levels of silvicultural impacts on
                                                                              wood properties for developing engineered wood. Society of
  Fujisaki, I., D.L. Evans. 2004. Forest stand type classification            American Foresters National Convention, Fort Worth, TX.
  using airborne LiDAR and Landsat data: Comparison of
  supervised classification and rule based classification using               Steele, P. H., J. E. Cooper, B. Mitchell. 2005. Utilization of
  logistic regression. Proceedings of the American Society for                impedance tomography to detect internal anomalies in
  Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Denver, CO.                              southern pine logs. Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual
                                                                              Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation.
  Hunter, S.L. 2005. Parallel Pull Flow: A New Lean Production                Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Ames, IA.
  Design. Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference,
  Huntsville, AL.                                                             Stuart, W. B., L. A, Grace, L. Stewart. 2005. Hurricane damaged
                                                                              timber overview. Management Technical Note 10e, Mississippi
  Hunter, S.L. 2005. Parallel Pull Flow: A Lean Production                    State University Extension Service. 4pp
  Design. Proceedings of International Journal of Industrial
  Engineering Conference, Clearwater Beach, FL.                               Stuart, W. B., L. A. Grace. 2005. Tips for landowners attempting
                                                                              to salvage hurricane damaged timber. Management Technical
  Kirkpatrick, J. W., H.M. Barnes. 2005. A preliminary                        Note 12e, Mississippi State University Extension Service. 3pp
  investigation of the properties of engineered wood composite
  panels treated with copper naphthenate. International                       Stuart, W. B., L. A. Grace, I. A. Munn, J. Smith. 2005. Hurricane
  Research Group on Wood Protection, Document No. IRG/WP                      Katrina and private forest ownerships. Management Technical
  05-40294, 8 pp.                                                             Note 13e, Mississippi State University Extension Service. 5pp

  Leightley, L.E., P. H. Steele. 2005. Energy and chemicals from              Stuart, W.B., L.A. Grace, C.B. Altizer. 2005. Final 2003 Logging
  wood biomass–an industry of the future for Mississippi. Tree                cost indices. Wood Supply Research Institute. 15 pp.
  Talk 27(4):15-16.
                                                                              Stuart, W.B., L.A. Grace, C.B. Altizer. 2005. Final 2004
  Motsenbocker, W.D., P.H. Steele, S.L. Hunter, S.H. Bullard, A.              preliminary logging cost indices. Wood Supply Research
  Schuler. 2005. Wood furniture components: Implementation of                 Institute. 15 pp
  flow-line technology based on lean manufacturing concepts.
  Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Research Bulletin,                     Stuart, W.B. 2005. Ultimate objective. Timber Harvesting
  Mississippi State University. 15 p.                                         53(4):16-22.

  Munn, I.A., B.K. Tilley. 2005. Forestry in Mississippi–The impact
  of the forest products industry on the Mississippi economy:
  An input-output analysis. Forest and Wildlife Research Center,
  Research Bulletin, Mississippi State University. 27p.

  Parker, R.C., P.A. Glass, H.A. Londo, D.L. Evans, K.L. Belli, T.G.
  Matney, E.B. Schultz. 2005. Mississippi’s forest inventory
  pilot program: Use of computer and spatial technologies in
  large area inventories. Forest and Wildlife Research Center,
  Research Bulletin, Mississippi State University. 22p.




                                                                        46

                                                                 2005 annual report
                                                        Center for Wood Utilization Research
                47

Forest and Wildlife Research Center
    Mississippi State University
                                               FWRC
    Dr. Liam Leightley                                                 Dr. James Shepard
     Department Head                                                     Department Head
Department of Forest Products                                          Department of Forestry
            Box 9820                                                           Box 9681
 Mississippi State, MS 39762                                          Mississippi State, MS 39762
         662-325-4444                                                        662-325-2949
  lleightley@cfr.msstate.edu                                          jshepard@cfr.msstate.edu




                                                   Dr. George M. Hopper
                                                       Director
                                          Forest and Wildlife Research Center
                                                       Box 9680
                                              Mississippi State, MS 39762
                                                     662-325-2969
                                               ghopper@cfr.msstate.edu




www.cfr.msstate.edu

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