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					                 Warm-ups
 Answer    the question:
     What is government?
     Why do we have it?
     What are its goals?
     Do we need it?
 James Madison: President #4, Drafter of The
           Constitution, The Bill of Rights, Etc.

 “What   is government but the greatest of all
  reflections on human nature?
 If men were angels no government
  would be necessary.”
     The Federalist Papers #51, 1788
        Warm up: Sept. 4, 2008
 Uselesslaws weaken the necessary laws.
 government should be set up so that no
  man need be afraid of another.
     Montesquieu (1689-1755)
     Montesquieu was the most widely quoted
      author of the writers of the Constitution.
 What   do these short quotes mean?
 What do they say about the types of laws
  that the Founders set out to create?
                         Warm-up: 9/5/2008
 “A  well regulated Militia, being necessary
  to the security of a free State, the right of
  the people to keep and bear Arms, shall
  not be infringed.”
      2nd Amendment to the Constitution
 Ifone of the goals of government is to
  make people not be afraid of each other,
  why would the government want to
  protect people’s right to carry
  weapons?
“They can have my gun when they
 pry it from my cold, dead fingers.”
           -Charlton Heston
               Warm up
 Lying
 First Amendment
 Candidate
 Freedom of speech
 Political campaign
 Governor
 False claims
                  Warm up: 9/8/2008
   Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
    prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
    speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
    and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
        The First Amendment of the Constitution


 Is freedom of speech important? Why?
 Should people be able to say whatever they
  want, whenever they want, where ever they
  want?
             Warm-up: 9/9/2008
   Congress shall make no law respecting an
    establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
    exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
    of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
    assemble, and to petition the government for a redress
    of grievances.
      The First Amendment of the Constitution


 Does Religion affect government?
  Should it?
 What do you want to know about a
  candidate’s religious beliefs? Why?
        Warm up: 9/10/2008
 Do  not write this down! Think about it.
 What would you do if you were the most
  powerful person in the world?
 You wake up in the morning and you
  discover that you have all the power in the
  world. What is the first thing you do?
                   Warm-ups
 “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts
  absolutely”
      Lord Acton, British Philosopher
 Is  this true?
 If this is true, what does it say about how
  we should structure our government?
 How should we distribute power?
       Warm-up: Sept. 11, 2008
 Itis seven years since the attacks on
  9/11/2001.
 How has the United States responded to
  the attacks?
 Have we done a good job? Are we safer?
            Guantanamo Bay
 Dothose accused of terrorism deserve, or
 qualify for, Habeas Corpus protection?
     “Enemy Combatants,”
     “Extraordinary Rendition”
               Habeas Corpus
 “Show    me the body”
     The government has to justify the
      imprisonment of a prisoner.
 “Theprivilege of the writ of habeas
 corpus shall not be suspended, unless
 when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the
 public safety may require it.”
     Article I, section 9, clause 2
       Warm up: 9/12/2008
 Shouldthe rights given in the Constitution
 be Universal?
         Warm up: 9/12/2008
 Whatare three policies or issues on which
 you would like the next president of the
 United States to agree with you?
                 In Groups, In class
 Study your assigned system of Government.
  (page 38-40)
 Create a poster and presentation with the
  following:
         •   The name of your system of Government
         •   A description of your system of Government
         •   A slogan for your system of government
         •   An illustration


   You will be graded as a group and on your
    participation:
       Total: __/20
        Warm up: 9/15/2008
 Government,   even in its best state, is but a
  necessary evil; in its worst state, an
  intolerable one.
      Thomas Paine
 What does T. Paine think about
  government?
 What kind of government would he like to
  see?
  T. Paine



                 Yeah!
The
Government
that governs
least, governs
best!
         Common Sense: 1776
   120,000 books sold (out of two million
    residents) best selling book of the
    century in the Western Hemisphere.
   King George III: a “Royal Brute.”
   “…in America the law is king”
   “there is something very absurd in
    supposing a continent to be
    perpetually governed by an island.”
   John Adams: this book is a
    “Crapulous Mass.”
          Warm up: 9/16/2008
 “The great and chief end of men uniting
 into commonwealths, and putting
 themselves under government, is the
 preservation of property.”
     John Locke, Enlightenment Thinker
       • 1632-1704
             Warm up: 9/16/2008
   People join governments only “for the mutual
    preservation of their lives, liberties, and estates,
    which I call by the general name-property.”
       John Locke, Enlightenment thinker
         • 1632-1704
 What does this mean? Put it in your own words.
 If this is true, what implications does it have for
  government? Who has the power to change
  government?
        Warm up: 9/17/2008
 How do you think the first government
  began? What makes you think that?
 What are the four theories of the origins of
  government?
              Warm up: 9/18/2008
   Name 3 principles by which you lead your life, or
    would like to lead your life.
       How do these affect your life?
       Where do you get them?

       the ethics of someone may be seen as a set of
        principles that the individual obeys in the form of
        rules, as guidance or law.
         • Treat every child as a unique genius.
         • Teach people as you would like to be taught.
         • Teach like there is no tomorrow.
          Warm up: 9/22/2008
 Why  do people use violence?
 What would it take for you to use violence
  against your government?
     Name three actions your government would
      have to take.
                 John Locke
       Rights: given by God, not by
 Natural
 Government.
     Life
     Liberty
     Property
          Warm up: 9/24/2008
 “Greed,   for lack of a better word, is good.”
     Gordon Gecko (played by Michael Douglas)
      based on Ivan Boesky

     What is greed?
     Is it good? Why?
     Is it greed that has made America powerful?
America: Path to Independence
 First   English Colonies on the New World:
     Jamestown, 1607
       • Tobacco, Sugar, Rice, eventually Cotton
     New England, 1621
       • Fish, Tar, Gold, Timber, Furs

     The Settlers went seeking Economic,
      Religious, and Legal freedoms.
       • The Reasons for independence would be
         Economic and Ideological.
Taxation without Representation
   The Seven Years War, AKA the French and
    Indian War (1756-1763)
       The Sugar Act, 1764
       The Quartering Act, 1765
       The Stamp Act, 1765
   The Boston Tea Party (1773)
       The “Intolerable” Coercive Acts, 1774
         •   The Boston Port Act
         •   The Administration of Justice Act
         •   The Quartering Act
         •   The Quebec Act
          The Revolutionary War
               1776-1783




General George Washington led a successful Guerilla war
against a stronger, but less determined adversary.
  The Articles of Confederation
 1781-1787
 No  Balance between large and small
  states.
 No Supremacy Clause, central
  government could not force the states to
  obey it.
 No power to raise taxes.
 No money=no army
 No army=little power
               Shays’ Rebellion
                 1786-1787

   "I have been greatly abused, have been obliged
    to do more than my part in the war; been loaded
    with class rates, town rates, province rates,
    Continental rates and all rates...been pulled and
    hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors,
    and had my cattle sold for less than they were
    worth...The great men are going to get all we
    have and I think it is time for us to rise and
    put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor
    sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers."
             George Washington
 “Thereare combustibles in every state
 which a spark might set fire to…If
 government cannot check these disorders,
 what security has a man for Life,
 Liberty, and Property?”
     1787
               In Groups of 2-3
 Inyour opinion, was the Articles of
  Confederation adequate to govern the
  United States?
      Three (3) reasons (facts, arguments) to
       support your thesis.
      Three (3) specific changes that should be
       made to the Articles to help secure Life,
       Liberty, and Property.
        • Answer in complete sentences.
        • One paper per group
  Constitutional Convention, 1787
     Compromises all around
 VirginiaPlan
 New Jersey Plan
 The Great Compromise
 The 3/5th Compromise
 The Sectional Compromise
         Warm up: 9/23/2008
 When   the Colonists rebelled against
  Britain, they faced a stronger, richer, better
  organized military force. They lost most of
  the battles that they engaged in.
 Why do you think they ended up winning
  the War for Independence?
         Warm Up: 9/25/2008
A little rebellion now and then is a good
 thing.

 The tree of liberty must be refreshed from
 time to time with the blood of patriots and
 tyrants.
 Thomas Jefferson

 What   do these quotes mean?
       The First Political Parties
 Federalists:   Hamilton, Madison, Jay,
 Adams
     Wanted a stronger Federal (central)
      government to protect Life, Liberty, and
      (especially) Property.
     Loved the new Constitution
 Anti-Federalists:    Jefferson, Patrick Henry
     Wanted to keep the Federal Government
      weak.
                 Anti-Federalists
   The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the
    Constitution. Basically, they argue that:
       It gave too much power to the national government at
        the expense of the state governments.
       There was no bill of rights.
       The national government could maintain an army in
        peacetime.
       Congress, because of the `necessary and proper
        clause,' wielded too much power.
       The executive branch held too much power.
                  The Federalists
   The Federalists, on the other hand, had answers
    to all of the Anti-Federalist complaints. Among
    them:
       The separation of powers into three independent
        branches protected the rights of the people. Each
        branch represents a different aspect of the people,
        and because all three branches are equal, no one
        group can assume control over another.
       A listing of rights can be a dangerous thing. If the
        national government were to protect specific listed
        rights, what would stop it from violating rights other
        than the listed ones? Since we can't list all the rights,
        the Federalists argued that it's better to list none at
        all.
          Ratification: 1789
 The  Federalists had promised a Bill of
  Rights.
 It was delivered and the first 10
  Amendments to the Constitution were
  passed in 1791.
        Rank the Amendments
 Put   the Bill of Rights into your own words,
  listing out the specific rights in each
  Amendment.
 Rank them according to their importance.
 Explain why you chose your top two and
  bottom two Amendments.
          Warm up: 9/26/2008
 Which  of the Rights included in the Bill of
  Rights do you think are the most
  important? Why?
 How do people use these rights?
The Bailout
        McCain on Greed
 McCain, campaigning in Florida,
 promised reforms, too, to expose and
 end the "reckless conduct, corruption
 and unbridled greed" that he said had
 caused the financial crisis on Wall
 Street."
                  Warm up:
"What kind of society isn't structured on
  greed? The problem of social organization
  is how to set up an arrangement under
  which greed will do the least harm;
  capitalism is that kind of a system."
  -- Milton Friedman

     How does the United States try to make sure
      that greed does as little harm as possible?
               Warm up
A democracy is nothing more than mob
 rule, where fifty-one percent of the people
 may take away the rights of the other forty-
 nine.
 Thomas Jefferson

 What  are some problems with democracy?
 What are some solutions to those
  problems?
         Warm up: 9/30/2008
 How has the United States tried to make
 sure that your rights are respected?
    List the ways
              The Supreme Court
 Pick two cases
 For each case:
       Summarize the case: who, what, where, why
       Three arguments for each side (1 sentence each)
       Cite the Constitution (including Amendments) at least
        twice for each case, in your arguments.
       Vote. Record the vote.
       Write a majority opinion. Why did you choose the
        verdict that you did? (3-4 sentences)
         Warm up: 10/1/2008
 Why   do Supreme Court cases matter?
               Precedent
A legal rule established by a judicial
 decision that guides subsequent judicial
 decisions.

 Judges will follow the legal principles
 established by prior cases.
Dred Scott V Sandford, 1857
 Scott, owned by a surgeon had lived for two
  years in the free territories of Illinois and
  Wisconsin.
 Sued in Missouri Circuit court for his freedom.
  The Circuit Court declared him free.
 His owner took the case to the State Supreme
  Court, which ruled that he was not free.
 The Case went to the Supreme Court of the
  United States
                   The Ruling
 The  Court ruled: 6-3
 Dred Scott did not have the right to sue for
  his freedom:
      African Americans were "beings of an inferior
       order, and altogether unfit to associate with the
       white race, either in social or political relations, and
       so far inferior that they had no rights which the
       white man was bound to respect."
     • Majority Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger B.
       Taney
                  The Ruling
   “the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced
    to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and
    sold and treated as an ordinary article of
    merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could
    be made by it."

   African-Americans were Private Property, and
    the Fourth and Fifth Amendments prohibit taking
    private property from citizens without just cause
    and due process.
               The Reaction
 Frederick Douglass: "my hopes were
  never brighter than now!“
 What?!


 Change    the Constitution!
     2/3 of both houses of Congress
     3/4 of state legislators
   The 13th Amendment, 1865
 Section   1. Neither slavery nor involuntary
  servitude, except as a punishment for
  crime whereof the party shall have been
  duly convicted, shall exist within the United
  States, or any place subject to their
  jurisdiction.
 Section 2. Congress shall have power to
  enforce this article by appropriate
  legislation.
     The 14th Amendment, 1868
   Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
    United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
    thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
    the state wherein they reside. No state shall
    make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
    privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
    States; nor shall any state deprive any person of
    life, liberty, or property, without due process of
    law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction
    the equal protection of the laws.
        Warm up: 10/2/2008
 WHAT   IS SUFFRAGE?
 Why is it so important?
            The Black Codes
 The 13th Amendment had made slavery
 illegal, and involuntary servitude illegal,
 unless you had committed a crime.
     So many Southern states made it a crime to
      be black.
The South Carolina Black Code
    "Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they
     should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year.
     Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town
     from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the
     beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work.
     Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their
     employers. Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such
     negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or
     imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed
     the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were
     twenty-one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal
     punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted
     upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily,
     and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service
     until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms
     unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by
     a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating
     liquors to a negro. When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after
     legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to
     the lowest bidder...."
    Amendments fix problems
 Outcryover the Black Codes led to the
 14th and 15th Amendments.
   The 15th Amendment, 1870
 Section  1. The right of citizens of the
  United States to vote shall not be denied
  or abridged by the United States or by any
  state on account of race, color, or previous
  condition of servitude.
 Section 2. The Congress shall have power
  to enforce this article by appropriate
  legislation.
              Who is left out?
 The   Women.




 Seneca     Falls Convention
     1848
    The Seneca Falls Declaration
   We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and
    women are created equal; that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among
    these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that
    to secure these rights governments are instituted,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of the
    governed. Whenever any form of government becomes
    destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who
    suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon
    the institution of a new government, laying its foundation
    on such principles, and organizing its powers in such
    form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
    safety and happiness.
               Wyoming
      state to give women the right to vote
 First
 1869
The 19th Amendment, 1920
 Theright of citizens of the United
 States to vote shall not be denied or
 abridged by the United States or by any
 State on account of sex.
            The Amendments
 Summarize      each of the Amendments,
     Amendment 11-27
     Explain the problem that they were written to
      fix and how it would fix that problem. (2
      sentences)
         Warm up: 10/3/2008
 What  problem did the 18th Amendment try
  to solve?
 What problems did it create?
             Warm up: 10/6/2008
 For people to be free, government should be
  designed in this way:
 “Ambition must be made to counteract
  ambition.”

       James Madison, Federalist #51, 1788


 What do we call this system of government?
 How is this system supposed to work?
  Checks and Balances Poster
 Design an original poster which shows the
 following:
     Each branch of government
     The powers that each branch has
     The powers that each branch exercises over
      the other branches.

				
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