Answer the question:
What is government?
Why do we have it?
What are its goals?
Do we need it?
James Madison: President #4, Drafter of The
Constitution, The Bill of Rights, Etc.
“What is government but the greatest of all
reflections on human nature?
If men were angels no government
would be necessary.”
The Federalist Papers #51, 1788
Warm up: Sept. 4, 2008
Uselesslaws weaken the necessary laws.
government should be set up so that no
man need be afraid of another.
Montesquieu was the most widely quoted
author of the writers of the Constitution.
What do these short quotes mean?
What do they say about the types of laws
that the Founders set out to create?
“A well regulated Militia, being necessary
to the security of a free State, the right of
the people to keep and bear Arms, shall
not be infringed.”
2nd Amendment to the Constitution
Ifone of the goals of government is to
make people not be afraid of each other,
why would the government want to
protect people’s right to carry
“They can have my gun when they
pry it from my cold, dead fingers.”
Freedom of speech
Warm up: 9/8/2008
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
The First Amendment of the Constitution
Is freedom of speech important? Why?
Should people be able to say whatever they
want, whenever they want, where ever they
Congress shall make no law respecting an
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the government for a redress
The First Amendment of the Constitution
Does Religion affect government?
What do you want to know about a
candidate’s religious beliefs? Why?
Warm up: 9/10/2008
Do not write this down! Think about it.
What would you do if you were the most
powerful person in the world?
You wake up in the morning and you
discover that you have all the power in the
world. What is the first thing you do?
“Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts
Lord Acton, British Philosopher
Is this true?
If this is true, what does it say about how
we should structure our government?
How should we distribute power?
Warm-up: Sept. 11, 2008
Itis seven years since the attacks on
How has the United States responded to
Have we done a good job? Are we safer?
Dothose accused of terrorism deserve, or
qualify for, Habeas Corpus protection?
“Show me the body”
The government has to justify the
imprisonment of a prisoner.
“Theprivilege of the writ of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended, unless
when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the
public safety may require it.”
Article I, section 9, clause 2
Warm up: 9/12/2008
Shouldthe rights given in the Constitution
Warm up: 9/12/2008
Whatare three policies or issues on which
you would like the next president of the
United States to agree with you?
In Groups, In class
Study your assigned system of Government.
Create a poster and presentation with the
• The name of your system of Government
• A description of your system of Government
• A slogan for your system of government
• An illustration
You will be graded as a group and on your
Warm up: 9/15/2008
Government, even in its best state, is but a
necessary evil; in its worst state, an
What does T. Paine think about
What kind of government would he like to
Common Sense: 1776
120,000 books sold (out of two million
residents) best selling book of the
century in the Western Hemisphere.
King George III: a “Royal Brute.”
“…in America the law is king”
“there is something very absurd in
supposing a continent to be
perpetually governed by an island.”
John Adams: this book is a
Warm up: 9/16/2008
“The great and chief end of men uniting
into commonwealths, and putting
themselves under government, is the
preservation of property.”
John Locke, Enlightenment Thinker
Warm up: 9/16/2008
People join governments only “for the mutual
preservation of their lives, liberties, and estates,
which I call by the general name-property.”
John Locke, Enlightenment thinker
What does this mean? Put it in your own words.
If this is true, what implications does it have for
government? Who has the power to change
Warm up: 9/17/2008
How do you think the first government
began? What makes you think that?
What are the four theories of the origins of
Warm up: 9/18/2008
Name 3 principles by which you lead your life, or
would like to lead your life.
How do these affect your life?
Where do you get them?
the ethics of someone may be seen as a set of
principles that the individual obeys in the form of
rules, as guidance or law.
• Treat every child as a unique genius.
• Teach people as you would like to be taught.
• Teach like there is no tomorrow.
Warm up: 9/22/2008
Why do people use violence?
What would it take for you to use violence
against your government?
Name three actions your government would
have to take.
Rights: given by God, not by
Warm up: 9/24/2008
“Greed, for lack of a better word, is good.”
Gordon Gecko (played by Michael Douglas)
based on Ivan Boesky
What is greed?
Is it good? Why?
Is it greed that has made America powerful?
America: Path to Independence
First English Colonies on the New World:
• Tobacco, Sugar, Rice, eventually Cotton
New England, 1621
• Fish, Tar, Gold, Timber, Furs
The Settlers went seeking Economic,
Religious, and Legal freedoms.
• The Reasons for independence would be
Economic and Ideological.
Taxation without Representation
The Seven Years War, AKA the French and
Indian War (1756-1763)
The Sugar Act, 1764
The Quartering Act, 1765
The Stamp Act, 1765
The Boston Tea Party (1773)
The “Intolerable” Coercive Acts, 1774
• The Boston Port Act
• The Administration of Justice Act
• The Quartering Act
• The Quebec Act
The Revolutionary War
General George Washington led a successful Guerilla war
against a stronger, but less determined adversary.
The Articles of Confederation
No Balance between large and small
No Supremacy Clause, central
government could not force the states to
No power to raise taxes.
No money=no army
No army=little power
"I have been greatly abused, have been obliged
to do more than my part in the war; been loaded
with class rates, town rates, province rates,
Continental rates and all rates...been pulled and
hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors,
and had my cattle sold for less than they were
worth...The great men are going to get all we
have and I think it is time for us to rise and
put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor
sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers."
“Thereare combustibles in every state
which a spark might set fire to…If
government cannot check these disorders,
what security has a man for Life,
Liberty, and Property?”
In Groups of 2-3
Inyour opinion, was the Articles of
Confederation adequate to govern the
Three (3) reasons (facts, arguments) to
support your thesis.
Three (3) specific changes that should be
made to the Articles to help secure Life,
Liberty, and Property.
• Answer in complete sentences.
• One paper per group
Constitutional Convention, 1787
Compromises all around
New Jersey Plan
The Great Compromise
The 3/5th Compromise
The Sectional Compromise
Warm up: 9/23/2008
When the Colonists rebelled against
Britain, they faced a stronger, richer, better
organized military force. They lost most of
the battles that they engaged in.
Why do you think they ended up winning
the War for Independence?
Warm Up: 9/25/2008
A little rebellion now and then is a good
The tree of liberty must be refreshed from
time to time with the blood of patriots and
What do these quotes mean?
The First Political Parties
Federalists: Hamilton, Madison, Jay,
Wanted a stronger Federal (central)
government to protect Life, Liberty, and
Loved the new Constitution
Anti-Federalists: Jefferson, Patrick Henry
Wanted to keep the Federal Government
The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the
Constitution. Basically, they argue that:
It gave too much power to the national government at
the expense of the state governments.
There was no bill of rights.
The national government could maintain an army in
Congress, because of the `necessary and proper
clause,' wielded too much power.
The executive branch held too much power.
The Federalists, on the other hand, had answers
to all of the Anti-Federalist complaints. Among
The separation of powers into three independent
branches protected the rights of the people. Each
branch represents a different aspect of the people,
and because all three branches are equal, no one
group can assume control over another.
A listing of rights can be a dangerous thing. If the
national government were to protect specific listed
rights, what would stop it from violating rights other
than the listed ones? Since we can't list all the rights,
the Federalists argued that it's better to list none at
The Federalists had promised a Bill of
It was delivered and the first 10
Amendments to the Constitution were
passed in 1791.
Rank the Amendments
Put the Bill of Rights into your own words,
listing out the specific rights in each
Rank them according to their importance.
Explain why you chose your top two and
bottom two Amendments.
Warm up: 9/26/2008
Which of the Rights included in the Bill of
Rights do you think are the most
How do people use these rights?
McCain on Greed
McCain, campaigning in Florida,
promised reforms, too, to expose and
end the "reckless conduct, corruption
and unbridled greed" that he said had
caused the financial crisis on Wall
"What kind of society isn't structured on
greed? The problem of social organization
is how to set up an arrangement under
which greed will do the least harm;
capitalism is that kind of a system."
-- Milton Friedman
How does the United States try to make sure
that greed does as little harm as possible?
A democracy is nothing more than mob
rule, where fifty-one percent of the people
may take away the rights of the other forty-
What are some problems with democracy?
What are some solutions to those
Warm up: 9/30/2008
How has the United States tried to make
sure that your rights are respected?
List the ways
The Supreme Court
Pick two cases
For each case:
Summarize the case: who, what, where, why
Three arguments for each side (1 sentence each)
Cite the Constitution (including Amendments) at least
twice for each case, in your arguments.
Vote. Record the vote.
Write a majority opinion. Why did you choose the
verdict that you did? (3-4 sentences)
Warm up: 10/1/2008
Why do Supreme Court cases matter?
A legal rule established by a judicial
decision that guides subsequent judicial
Judges will follow the legal principles
established by prior cases.
Dred Scott V Sandford, 1857
Scott, owned by a surgeon had lived for two
years in the free territories of Illinois and
Sued in Missouri Circuit court for his freedom.
The Circuit Court declared him free.
His owner took the case to the State Supreme
Court, which ruled that he was not free.
The Case went to the Supreme Court of the
The Court ruled: 6-3
Dred Scott did not have the right to sue for
African Americans were "beings of an inferior
order, and altogether unfit to associate with the
white race, either in social or political relations, and
so far inferior that they had no rights which the
white man was bound to respect."
• Majority Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger B.
“the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced
to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and
sold and treated as an ordinary article of
merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could
be made by it."
African-Americans were Private Property, and
the Fourth and Fifth Amendments prohibit taking
private property from citizens without just cause
and due process.
Frederick Douglass: "my hopes were
never brighter than now!“
Change the Constitution!
2/3 of both houses of Congress
3/4 of state legislators
The 13th Amendment, 1865
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for
crime whereof the party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist within the United
States, or any place subject to their
Section 2. Congress shall have power to
enforce this article by appropriate
The 14th Amendment, 1868
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
the state wherein they reside. No state shall
make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of
life, liberty, or property, without due process of
law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction
the equal protection of the laws.
Warm up: 10/2/2008
WHAT IS SUFFRAGE?
Why is it so important?
The Black Codes
The 13th Amendment had made slavery
illegal, and involuntary servitude illegal,
unless you had committed a crime.
So many Southern states made it a crime to
The South Carolina Black Code
"Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they
should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year.
Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town
from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the
beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work.
Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their
employers. Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such
negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or
imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed
the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were
twenty-one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal
punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted
upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily,
and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service
until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms
unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by
a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating
liquors to a negro. When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after
legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to
the lowest bidder...."
Amendments fix problems
Outcryover the Black Codes led to the
14th and 15th Amendments.
The 15th Amendment, 1870
Section 1. The right of citizens of the
United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States or by any
state on account of race, color, or previous
condition of servitude.
Section 2. The Congress shall have power
to enforce this article by appropriate
Who is left out?
Seneca Falls Convention
The Seneca Falls Declaration
We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and
women are created equal; that they are endowed by
their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among
these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that
to secure these rights governments are instituted,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the
governed. Whenever any form of government becomes
destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who
suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon
the institution of a new government, laying its foundation
on such principles, and organizing its powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
safety and happiness.
state to give women the right to vote
The 19th Amendment, 1920
Theright of citizens of the United
States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of sex.
Summarize each of the Amendments,
Explain the problem that they were written to
fix and how it would fix that problem. (2
Warm up: 10/3/2008
What problem did the 18th Amendment try
What problems did it create?
Warm up: 10/6/2008
For people to be free, government should be
designed in this way:
“Ambition must be made to counteract
James Madison, Federalist #51, 1788
What do we call this system of government?
How is this system supposed to work?
Checks and Balances Poster
Design an original poster which shows the
Each branch of government
The powers that each branch has
The powers that each branch exercises over
the other branches.