Colby Isenberg Scott AP History 5916-1 9 November, 2009 Imperialism Syllabus PIGSLED: William Seward- Criticized in “Seward’s Folly” for purchasing Alaska. Napoleon III- Bonaparte’s nephew and the last monarch of France. Mexico- The adjoining country immediately South of America. Alaska Purchase (1867)- America purchased Alaska from Russia for approx. $7 M “New Imperialism” - Imperialism by Europe and America and Japan from 1870 to 1914 International Darwinism- The belief that the strong will conquer since they are most fit to do so. Josiah Strong- Missionary that somewhat encouraged Protestant imperialism in western America. Alfred Thayer Mahan- Said that in order for a country to become a superpower, it has to have a great navy. Pan-American Conference- Opened by James G. Blaine in order to establish stronger ties with Latin America. James G. Blaine- Known primarily for opening the Pan-American Conferences. Richard Olney- Gave an extended interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine solving the dispute between Britain and Venezuela. Venezuela Boundary Dispute- British Guiana and Venezuela had a dispute over the jungle border. Cuba- Country south of Florida which America had invested in for its sugar cane and control of the Gulf. Jingoism- Businessmen who supported war against Spain for the financial benefits. Valeriano Weyler- Known as the “Butcher” and imposed brutality against the Cubans to quell the insurrection they held. Yellow Journalism- Journalism that supported war with Spain, often outright lying about the conditions in Cuba. Spanish-American War- The “Splendid Little War” in which America fought Spain over Cuba. De Lome Letter- A letter that made some questionable comments toward McKinley, acting as a catalyst for the Spanish-American War. U.S.S. Maine- State of the Art ship that, at the time, mysteriously blew up in Havanna Harbor, Cuba. Teller Amendment- Stated that America could not annex Cuba, but only leave the island up to the Cuban people. Philippines- Islands off the east coast of Asia once controlled by Spain. George Dewey- Sailed from Hong Kong to the Philippines to attack the Spanish. Theodore Roosevelt- Future president that controlled the Rough Riders after ordering Dewey to the Philippines. Rough Riders- Roosevelt’s motley crew of cowboys and rough men that helped fight in Cuba. Hawaii; Liliuokalani- Archipelago in the middle of the Pacific; the last queen of said archipelago. Puerto Rico; Guam- Two more islands to be held by America, but never incorporated. Philippine Annexation- America wanted to annex the Philippines but the Filipinos wanted freedom. Emilio Aguinaldo- Leader of the Philippino insurrections against both Spain and American respectively. Anti-Imperialist League- Against annexing Philippines; members included Mark Twain and Rudyard Kipling. Insular Cases- Supreme Court cases that said that people that were not officially part of America did not have the same rights. Platt Amendment (1901)- Put many, many restrictions on the Cuban people in exchange for America leaving the country; a substitute of the Teller Amendment. John Hay- Came up with the Open Door Policy in China. Spheres of Influence- An area in which a country claims exclusive trade rights in an imperialized country. Open Door Policy- Declared that all countries should have a right to trade in China and that each major power would uphold territorial integrity in China. Xenophobia- Fear of outsiders. Boxer Rebellion- Chinese trained in martial arts brutally massacred hundreds of Americans and thousands of others in an uprising against imperialism. Big-Stick Policy- Simply, speak through powerful action, not always through trifling words. Hay-Pauncefote- Gave America the right to build a canal across Panama. Panama Canal- A canal across Panama that connects the Atlantic and the Pacific. George Goethals- Main constructor of the Panama canal, who actually finished ahead of schedule. William Gorgas- Worked in Cuba after having been a surgeon general, and identified the source of malaria and yellow fever. Roosevelt Corollary- Extension to the Monroe Doctrine that said that if Latin American countries could not pay their debts to Europeans, America could intervene and act as a middleman. Santo Domingo- Capital city of the Dominican Republic. Russo-Japanese War- A war between Japan and Russia over who would get Manchuria; ended up in a draw in which both countries would hate America. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)- Treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese war in which America was the mediator. Gentlemen’s Agreement- An agreement in which Japan would allow no more emigration to the U.S. in exchange for Japanese rights in America. Great White Fleet- In an effort to gain global American support, 16 brightly shining white warships sailed around the globe. Root-Takahira Agreement- Used to further sure up the Open Door Policy and Gentlemen’s Agreement, and also recognized Japan’s right to annex Korea. Algeciras Conference (1906)- An attempt to mediate a dispute between Germany and France over Morocco. William Howard Taft- President of the U.S. after Teddy Roosevelt, and is known for his economic revolution. Dollar Diplomacy- Taft tried to strengthen foreign policy by guaranteeing loans to Latin America. Nicaragua- Latin American country through which the Panama canal was almost built. Henry Cabot Lodge- Would lead the imperialist faction of the Senate. Lodge Corollary- Extended the Monroe Doctrine such that no European country could get enough territory that it was in control. Woodrow Wilson- President of the United States from 1913-1921 and presided over WWI. New Freedom- Wilson’s policy that encouraged antitrust reform, bank reform, and tariff revision. Moral Diplomacy- Wilson wanted to influence other countries indirectly through the use of economics. Jones Act (1916)- Constructed a framework for Philippine government including two halves of legislative rulers. Mexican Civil War- Huerta overthrows Diaz in a giant coup. Victoriano Huerta- Despotic leader of Mexico after overthrowing Diaz. Tampico Incident- U.S. sailors were detained by Mexicans, some stuff happened, and nearly twenty Americans and two hundred Mexicans ended up dead. ABC Powers- Helped solve issues between Mexico and America after the Tampico incident. Pancho Villa- Guerilla warrior that, with a small band of soldiers, continued to kill and plunder Americans and their possessions. Venustiano Carranza- Leader of Mexico after Huerta was ousted. Expeditionary Force- The forces sent to France to help Europe out in World War One. John J. Pershing- The only man to ever become General of the Armies in his own lifetime, who was general during WWI. Chapter 27 America Turns Outward: America, in its quest for a new frontier, begins to find it in other nations as an imperialist country fueled by missionaries and American expansionism. The U.S. nearly goes to war with many countries over such territories that are to be claimed. Britain was forced to submit to American demands since it was already overextended in its conquest. Spurning the Hawaiian Pear: America had invested so much into Hawaii that it seemed a virtual extension of American coastline, and became an incorporated possession. Cubans Rise in Revolt: Sympathy for Cubans, yellow journals, the explosion of the Maine, and economic investments cause America to help Cuba fight off the Spanish. Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila: Roosevelt made the call into Dewey at the first hint of war, such that Dewey would attack and defeat the Spanish in the Philippines. The Confused Invasion of Cuba: The American army and the “rough riders” easily smashed the Cubans in a “Spledid Little War.” America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire: The Treaty of Paris 1899 was signed which gave America control of the last of the Spanish empire’s possessions, those being Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines. Perplexities in Puerto Rico and Cuba: Puerto Ricans are given a limited amount of popular government and American citizenship. The Insular Cases decided that those in American possessions did not necessarily have the same rights as American citizens. Cuba is made better by many American influences, but at the Platt Amendment’s passing, Cubans are angered by America’s grip. New Horizons in Two Hemispheres: America thrives in nationalism and unionization between the north and south with the new imperialism. “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines: Filipinos begin to hate Americans because of the iron fist with which they ruled and quelled Aguinaldo’s insurrection. Hinging the Open Door in China: America, in an attempt to get in on the fun in China, decided to make most European countries sign the Open Door Policy. Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?: Roosevelt and McKinley outshine WJB in the election of 1900 with talk of patriotism. TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick: All about Teddy Roosevelt, who favored an extremely loose interpretation of the Constitution. Building the Panama Canal: Issues with Venezuela almost forced the U.S. to build the Panama canal in Nicaragua, but after having purchased the project from France, Goethom finished it ahead of time. TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine: Roosevelt adds his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine as he wants to continue American holds on Latin America. Roosevelt on the World Stage: TR mediates the issue between Russia and Japan, but infuriates both of them with the Treaty of Portsmouth. Japanese Laborers in California: Bad relations between America and Japan cause Americans to give Japanese different schools, but it is worked out so that Japan disallows emigration to the U.S. in exchange for Japanese rights. The Great White Fleet Sails around the world in order to gain the support of other countries, and is a major success. William McKinley: The 25th President of the United States who was resistant to imperialism, especially during the time of the Spanish-American War. He succumbed to pressure and insult from the De Lome papers and took the country to war as a newly imperialist country. George Dewey: The U.S. naval officer that acted brilliantly upon Roosevelt’s orders to capture Manila Bay, Philippines when war broke out with Spain. It was a major success. John J. Pershing: Fought in the Spanish-American War and Mexican Revolution, but was primarily known for leading the American Expeditionary Force and revolutionizing the way international war was fought as well as reorganizing the army. Emilio Aguinaldo: Fought his entire life for Filipino freedom, first with the Americans against Spanish imperialists, and soon after against American imperialists. He would again bring an uprising after WWII. Queen Liliuokalani: The last queen to rule over Hawaii, who tried desperately to raise an uprising along with the Japanese laborers to get rid of American imperialists, but quickly failed.
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