AP History 5916-1
9 November, 2009
William Seward- Criticized in “Seward’s Folly” for purchasing Alaska.
Napoleon III- Bonaparte’s nephew and the last monarch of France.
Mexico- The adjoining country immediately South of America.
Alaska Purchase (1867)- America purchased Alaska from Russia for approx. $7 M
“New Imperialism” - Imperialism by Europe and America and Japan from 1870 to 1914
International Darwinism- The belief that the strong will conquer since they are most fit to do so.
Josiah Strong- Missionary that somewhat encouraged Protestant imperialism in western
Alfred Thayer Mahan- Said that in order for a country to become a superpower, it has to have a
Pan-American Conference- Opened by James G. Blaine in order to establish stronger ties with
James G. Blaine- Known primarily for opening the Pan-American Conferences.
Richard Olney- Gave an extended interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine solving the dispute
between Britain and Venezuela.
Venezuela Boundary Dispute- British Guiana and Venezuela had a dispute over the jungle
Cuba- Country south of Florida which America had invested in for its sugar cane and control of
Jingoism- Businessmen who supported war against Spain for the financial benefits.
Valeriano Weyler- Known as the “Butcher” and imposed brutality against the Cubans to quell
the insurrection they held.
Yellow Journalism- Journalism that supported war with Spain, often outright lying about the
conditions in Cuba.
Spanish-American War- The “Splendid Little War” in which America fought Spain over Cuba.
De Lome Letter- A letter that made some questionable comments toward McKinley, acting as a
catalyst for the Spanish-American War.
U.S.S. Maine- State of the Art ship that, at the time, mysteriously blew up in Havanna Harbor,
Teller Amendment- Stated that America could not annex Cuba, but only leave the island up to
the Cuban people.
Philippines- Islands off the east coast of Asia once controlled by Spain.
George Dewey- Sailed from Hong Kong to the Philippines to attack the Spanish.
Theodore Roosevelt- Future president that controlled the Rough Riders after ordering Dewey to
Rough Riders- Roosevelt’s motley crew of cowboys and rough men that helped fight in Cuba.
Hawaii; Liliuokalani- Archipelago in the middle of the Pacific; the last queen of said
Puerto Rico; Guam- Two more islands to be held by America, but never incorporated.
Philippine Annexation- America wanted to annex the Philippines but the Filipinos wanted
Emilio Aguinaldo- Leader of the Philippino insurrections against both Spain and American
Anti-Imperialist League- Against annexing Philippines; members included Mark Twain and
Insular Cases- Supreme Court cases that said that people that were not officially part of America
did not have the same rights.
Platt Amendment (1901)- Put many, many restrictions on the Cuban people in exchange for
America leaving the country; a substitute of the Teller Amendment.
John Hay- Came up with the Open Door Policy in China.
Spheres of Influence- An area in which a country claims exclusive trade rights in an imperialized
Open Door Policy- Declared that all countries should have a right to trade in China and that each
major power would uphold territorial integrity in China.
Xenophobia- Fear of outsiders.
Boxer Rebellion- Chinese trained in martial arts brutally massacred hundreds of Americans and
thousands of others in an uprising against imperialism.
Big-Stick Policy- Simply, speak through powerful action, not always through trifling words.
Hay-Pauncefote- Gave America the right to build a canal across Panama.
Panama Canal- A canal across Panama that connects the Atlantic and the Pacific.
George Goethals- Main constructor of the Panama canal, who actually finished ahead of
William Gorgas- Worked in Cuba after having been a surgeon general, and identified the source
of malaria and yellow fever.
Roosevelt Corollary- Extension to the Monroe Doctrine that said that if Latin American
countries could not pay their debts to Europeans, America could intervene and act as a
Santo Domingo- Capital city of the Dominican Republic.
Russo-Japanese War- A war between Japan and Russia over who would get Manchuria; ended
up in a draw in which both countries would hate America.
Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)- Treaty that ended the Russo-Japanese war in which America was
Gentlemen’s Agreement- An agreement in which Japan would allow no more emigration to the
U.S. in exchange for Japanese rights in America.
Great White Fleet- In an effort to gain global American support, 16 brightly shining white
warships sailed around the globe.
Root-Takahira Agreement- Used to further sure up the Open Door Policy and Gentlemen’s
Agreement, and also recognized Japan’s right to annex Korea.
Algeciras Conference (1906)- An attempt to mediate a dispute between Germany and France
William Howard Taft- President of the U.S. after Teddy Roosevelt, and is known for his
Dollar Diplomacy- Taft tried to strengthen foreign policy by guaranteeing loans to Latin
Nicaragua- Latin American country through which the Panama canal was almost built.
Henry Cabot Lodge- Would lead the imperialist faction of the Senate.
Lodge Corollary- Extended the Monroe Doctrine such that no European country could get
enough territory that it was in control.
Woodrow Wilson- President of the United States from 1913-1921 and presided over WWI.
New Freedom- Wilson’s policy that encouraged antitrust reform, bank reform, and tariff
Moral Diplomacy- Wilson wanted to influence other countries indirectly through the use of
Jones Act (1916)- Constructed a framework for Philippine government including two halves of
Mexican Civil War- Huerta overthrows Diaz in a giant coup.
Victoriano Huerta- Despotic leader of Mexico after overthrowing Diaz.
Tampico Incident- U.S. sailors were detained by Mexicans, some stuff happened, and nearly
twenty Americans and two hundred Mexicans ended up dead.
ABC Powers- Helped solve issues between Mexico and America after the Tampico incident.
Pancho Villa- Guerilla warrior that, with a small band of soldiers, continued to kill and plunder
Americans and their possessions.
Venustiano Carranza- Leader of Mexico after Huerta was ousted.
Expeditionary Force- The forces sent to France to help Europe out in World War One.
John J. Pershing- The only man to ever become General of the Armies in his own lifetime, who
was general during WWI.
America Turns Outward:
America, in its quest for a new frontier, begins to find it in other nations as an imperialist country
fueled by missionaries and American expansionism.
The U.S. nearly goes to war with many countries over such territories that are to be claimed.
Britain was forced to submit to American demands since it was already overextended in its
Spurning the Hawaiian Pear:
America had invested so much into Hawaii that it seemed a virtual extension of American
coastline, and became an incorporated possession.
Cubans Rise in Revolt:
Sympathy for Cubans, yellow journals, the explosion of the Maine, and economic investments
cause America to help Cuba fight off the Spanish.
Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila:
Roosevelt made the call into Dewey at the first hint of war, such that Dewey would attack and
defeat the Spanish in the Philippines.
The Confused Invasion of Cuba:
The American army and the “rough riders” easily smashed the Cubans in a “Spledid Little War.”
America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire:
The Treaty of Paris 1899 was signed which gave America control of the last of the Spanish
empire’s possessions, those being Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
Perplexities in Puerto Rico and Cuba:
Puerto Ricans are given a limited amount of popular government and American citizenship.
The Insular Cases decided that those in American possessions did not necessarily have the same
rights as American citizens.
Cuba is made better by many American influences, but at the Platt Amendment’s passing,
Cubans are angered by America’s grip.
New Horizons in Two Hemispheres:
America thrives in nationalism and unionization between the north and south with the new
“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines:
Filipinos begin to hate Americans because of the iron fist with which they ruled and quelled
Hinging the Open Door in China:
America, in an attempt to get in on the fun in China, decided to make most European countries
sign the Open Door Policy.
Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?:
Roosevelt and McKinley outshine WJB in the election of 1900 with talk of patriotism.
TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick:
All about Teddy Roosevelt, who favored an extremely loose interpretation of the Constitution.
Building the Panama Canal:
Issues with Venezuela almost forced the U.S. to build the Panama canal in Nicaragua, but after
having purchased the project from France, Goethom finished it ahead of time.
TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine:
Roosevelt adds his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine as he wants to continue American holds on
Roosevelt on the World Stage:
TR mediates the issue between Russia and Japan, but infuriates both of them with the Treaty of
Japanese Laborers in California:
Bad relations between America and Japan cause Americans to give Japanese different schools,
but it is worked out so that Japan disallows emigration to the U.S. in exchange for
The Great White Fleet Sails around the world in order to gain the support of other countries, and
is a major success.
The 25th President of the United States who
was resistant to imperialism, especially during
the time of the Spanish-American War. He
succumbed to pressure and insult from the De
Lome papers and took the country to war as a
newly imperialist country.
The U.S. naval officer that acted brilliantly
upon Roosevelt’s orders to capture Manila Bay,
Philippines when war broke out with Spain. It was a major success.
John J. Pershing:
Fought in the Spanish-American War and
Mexican Revolution, but was primarily known for
leading the American Expeditionary Force and
revolutionizing the way international war was
fought as well as reorganizing the army.
Fought his entire life for Filipino freedom, first with the
Americans against Spanish imperialists, and soon after against
American imperialists. He would again bring an uprising after
The last queen to rule over Hawaii, who tried
desperately to raise an uprising along with the
Japanese laborers to get rid of American imperialists,
but quickly failed.