GENDER ROLES

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GENDER ROLES Powered By Docstoc
					GENDER ROLES
              Sex refers to
               biological differences
               between males and
               females;
              Gender refers to the
               cultural expectations
               attached to feminine
               and masculine roles.
   The socio-biological view
   (Biological determinism)
                          Gender roles are biologically
                           determined and are, therefore,
                           fixed and unchangeable.
                          Wilson: Males are genetically
                           programmed to be more
                           promiscuous; females are
                           prone to remain loyal to one
        Write
                           partner.
 down stereotypical       Fox - history shows that men
characteristics of men     are hunters, while women are
     and women             nurturers.
   Goldberg - males
    have an in- built
    dominance tendency
   NB. This view has
    gained increasing
    credibility in recent
    years (ref “Why men
    don’t iron).
Consensus theory
 Parsons: In the family, men tend to
  perform the instrumental tasks (a
  concern with achieving a task or goal) and
  women perform expressive tasks
  (concerned with affection and emotion]
 The consensus view is that these gender
  roles are natural, inevitable and functional.
The Feminist view
 In most societies there is gender inequality
  and women tend to be the losers in terms
  of power, status and pay.
 This system of gender inequality benefits
  men at the expense of women.
The Feminist view
       Friedan: It was not women’s
        biology that held them back
        from competing with men on
        equal terms, but the feminine
        mystique
       This was an ideology that
        defined what it was to be truly
        feminine, e.g. sensitive,
        intuitive. BUT this implies
        that women are not naturally
        rational, logical and assertive.
The feminist view (continuted)
 Friedan argued that the feminine mystique
  prevented women from seeing their
  potential and kept them locked in their
  roles as as wives, mothers and carers.
 Kate Millett: developed the concept of
  Patriarchy: male domination. She argued
  that the oppression and exploitation of
  women by men are build into every aspect
  of the way society is organised.
    Cross-cultural evidence about Gender
        (Social Constructionism)
Gender is based on ‘nurture’ – socialisation and social
environment- Each society creates its own set of gender
expectations. Can you think if any examples that
illustrate this?
   Ann Oakley -the Mbuti Pygmies of the Congo
    have very little division of labour by sex; men
    and women hunt together and share
    responsibility for childcare.
   Margaret Mead - differences in childrearing
    techniques in three New Guinea tribes – extract
    from soc in focus page 40.
Gender as Socially constructed
 On the basis of cross-cultural evidence, it
  is difficult to conclude that differences
  between women and men in social roles
  are purely the result of biology.
 Sociologists have therefore explored the
  role of culture in shaping male and female
  gender identities.
 In particular, the part played by gender
  socialisation.
GENDER ROLE
SOCIALISATION
    Much of our identity and
     behaviour is the result of
     experiences of interaction with
     other people, especially during
     childhood.
    Our gender identity is no
     exception. Gender expectations
     are transmitted to the next
     generation through gender role
     socialisation.
      Gender role Socialisation:
            The Family
   Gender identity stems from:
   imitation of parental role models;
   parents rewarding gender-appropriate
    behaviour (manipulation);
   parents discouraging gender-inappropriate
    behaviour;
   Parents adopting different modes of speech
    and terms of endearment depending on the
    gender of the child;
The Family (continued)
   Mothers’ preoccupation with female children’s
    appearance;
   Parents giving children gender-specific toys,
    books and games (canalisation);
   Children being dressed in gender-specific
    clothes and colours;
   Parents assigning gender-specific household
    chores to children;
   parents socially controlling the behaviour of girls
    more tightly than boys.
    TASK - THE FAMILY & GENDER ROLE
             SOCIALISATION

 Find the following studies and note down
  their evidence:
 Moss (1970)
 Will, Self and Datan (1984)
 Oakley (1981)
 Damon (1977)
 Statham (1986)
       Gender role Socialisation:
              Education
   Until the 1990s the hidden curriculum
    transmitted gender-stereotyped assumptions
    about feminine behaviour through teacher
    expectations, timetabling, career advice,
    textbook content etc..
   There still remains gender differences in subject
    choices, especially in H.E.
   Working class girls are still following traditional
    gender routes - leave school at 16, temporary
    jobs, marriage, motherhood.
         Education (continued)
   The hidden curriculum, through teacher
    expectations, may be resulting in working-class
    boys following traditional gender routes into
    manual jobs. Controlling masculine behaviour
    may become more important than ensuring boys
    receive a good education.
   Young males may reject academic work
    because of equating learning with femininity.
TASK: EDUCATION AND
GENDER ROLE
SOCIALISATION
 Find the following studies and note down
  their evidence:
 Sue Sharpe (1976;1994)
 Michelle Stanworth (1983)
 Dale Spender (1983)
 Lobban (1974)
 Thomas (1990)
 Christine Skelton (2002)
     Gender role Socialisation
        The Peer Group
 Working class boys may reject the goals of
  schooling and set up anti-school
  subcultures (Paul Willis);
 Mac An Ghaill - such subcultures may be
  a reaction to a ‘crisis in masculinity’, as
  working-class boys learn that traditional
  working-class jobs and roles such as
  breadwinner and head of household are in
  decline;
The Peer Group (continued)
   Membership of deviant subcultures may confer
    status on boys for exaggerating masculine
    values and norms while negatively sanctioning
    behaviour defined as feminine.
   There is an assumption that men and women
    have different sexual personalities. If women
    behave in a similar way to men, they will be
    labelled and will ‘develop a reputation’ (Sue
    Lees)
     Gender role socialisation
        The Mass Media
 Feminists are critical of a range of mass
  media that socialise females into either
  domestic or sexualised patterns of
  femininity:
 Popular literature, especially fairy tales
  and children’s stories, portray females as
  the weaker sex and males as heroes;
 Children’s books portray traditional gender
  roles;
    The Mass Media (continued)
   Magazines for teenage adolescents encourage
    them to concentrate on appearance and
    romance rather than on education and careers;
   Women’s magazine’s are apprentice manuals
    for motherhood and domesticity;
   Adverts continue to show women
    disproportionately in domestic roles and
    emphasise their physical looks and sex appeal
    at the expense of ability and personality;
The Mass Media (continued)
   ‘New lads’ magazines and pornography
    assert a very traditional view of masculinity
    organised around interpreting women as
    sexual objects, sport and drinking culture.
TASK: THE MASS MEDIA AND
GENDER ROLE
SOCIALISATION
 Find the following studies and note down
  their evidence:
 Gay Tuchman (1981)
 Angela McRobbie (1982)
 Marjorie Ferguson (1983)
Quiz
   What does the biological determinism theory suggest
    about gender?
   What is social constructionism?
   What does the above approach suggest about gender
    roles?
   Who did Margaret Mead study in 1935?
   What is gender role socialisation?
   What does Goldberg suggest about something being
    inbuilt in males?
   What does consensus theory suggest about gender
    roles?
Homework
   Download this powerpoint and find out details of
    the studies or any that I have missed out using
    your photocopied booklets.
   Read pages 43-44 and make notes from the
    photocopied booklet.

				
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posted:1/5/2012
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