PowerPoint: Bolman and Deal (Four Frame Model) by nJ2z5o

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									The Four-Frame Model
         By
    Bolman & Deal
Reframing Organizations


   Lee G. Bolman &
   Terrence E. Deal
Frames


Lenses –focus, filter some
things and allow others to
  pass through, help us
    order experience.
           Frames
Tools –strengths and limitations.
Wrong tool gets in the way; right
   tool makes the job easier.

                      Possess a
                    tool—but know
                     how to use it
                         well.
        Structural Frame
•From sociology and management science.
•Emphasizes goals, specialized roles, and
formal relationships.
•Structures (Organization charts) fit
organization’s environment and technology.
•Responsibilities, rules, policies, procedures.
Structural Frame
        Problems arise
             when
         the structure
        does not fit the
           situation.
  Human Resource Frame
•From psychology.
•Organization as an extended family.
•Individuals with needs, feelings, prejudices,
skills, and limitations.
•Capacity to learn—and capacity to defend
old attitudes and belief.
 Human
Resource
 Frame

      Challenge is to tailor
organizations to people—find a
way for individuals to get the job
 done while feeling good about
      what they are doing.
         Political Frame
•Rooted in political science.
•Organizations as arenas, contests, or
jungles.
•Different interests competing for power and
resources.
•Rampant conflict—
differences in needs,
perspectives, and
lifestyles.
•Bargaining, negotiation,
coercion, compromise,
coalitions.
Political Resource Frame




 Problems arise when power is
concentrated in the wrong places
  or is too broadly dispersed.
    Solutions: political skill.
        Symbolic Frame
•Draws from social and
cultural anthropology.
•Organizations as tribes,
theaters, or carnivals.
•Culture—rituals,
ceremonies, stories,
heroes, and myths.
•Organization is theater—
actors play role while
audiences form
impressions.
        Symbolic Frame
Problems arise when actors play their parts
 badly, when symbols lose their meaning,
  when ceremonies and rituals lose their
                potency.


Rebuild the expressive or
spiritual side of organization
through the use of symbol,
myth, and magic.
               Overview of the Four-Frame Model
                                                        Frame
                Structural             Human             Political           Symbolic
                                       Resource
Metaphor        Factory or             Family            Jungle              Carnival, temple,
for             Machine                                                      theater
Organization
Central         Rules, roles, goals,   Needs, skills,    Power, conflict,    Culture, meaning,
Concepts        policies,              relationships     competition,        metaphor, ritual,
                technology,                              organizational      ceremony, stories,
                environment                              politics            heroes

Image of        Social                 Empowerment       Advocacy            Inspiration
Leadership      architecture
Basic           Attune structure       Align             Develop agenda      Create faith, beauty,
Leadership      to task,               organizational    and power base      meaning
Challenge       technology,            and human
                environment            needs
Organization    Excellence             Caring            Justice             Faith
al Ethic
Leadership      Authorship             Love              Power               Significance
Contribution

                                                                 Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 15 & p. 344
                             Choosing a Frame

Question                   Frame if answer is Yes        Frame if answer is No

Are individual             Human Resource, Symbolic      Structural, Political
commitment and
motivation essential to
success?
Is the technical quality   Structural                    Human Resource,
of the decision                                          Political, Symbolic
important?
Are there high levels of Political, Symbolic             Structural, Human
ambiguity and                                            Resource
uncertainty?
Are conflict and scarce    Political, Symbolic           Structural, Human
resources significant?                                   Resource
Are you working from       Political                     Structural, Human
the bottom up?                                           Resource, Symbolic


                                                 Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 271
                      Reframing Leadership

                                           Frame
              Structural     Human          Political         Symbolic
                             Resources
Effective     Analyst,       Catalyst,      Advocate,         Prophet, poet
Leader        architect      servant        negotiator
Effective     Analysis,      Support,       Advocacy,         Inspiration,
Leadership    design         empowerment    coalition         framing
Process                                     building          experience
Ineffective   Petty tyrant   Weakling,      Con artist,       Fanatic, fool
Leader                       pushover       thug
Ineffective   Management     Abdication     Manipulation,     Mirage, smoke &
Leadership    by detail                     fraud             mirrors
Process       and fiat


                                                   Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 303
                                Reframing Change

                                                Frame
              Structural        Human            Political            Symbolic
                                Resources
Barriers to   Loss of clarity   Anxiety,         Disempowerment,      Loss of meaning
Change        and stability,    uncertainty,     conflict between     and purpose,
              confusion,        feelings of      winners and          clinging to the
              chaos             incompetence,    losers               past
                                neediness
Essential     Communicating,    Training to      Creating arenas      Creating
Strategies    realigning and    develop new      where issues can     transition rituals:
              renegotiating     skills,          be renegotiated      mourning the
              formal patterns   participation    and new coalitions   past, celebrating
              and policies      and              formed               the future
                                involvement,
                                psychological
                                support
                                                               Source: Bolman & Deal (1997), p. 321
How do you see the
four frames in your
school and/or work
   environment?

								
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