History and Development of the English Language

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History and Development of the English Language Powered By Docstoc
					History and Development of the
       English Language

              Language System and
              Discourse Diachronic
Basic Concepts

   Material Culture vs. Non-Material Culture
   Language as a “Tool”
   Language vs. Dialect
   Diachronic vs. Synchronic views
   Language System vs. Language Discourse
   Synthetic vs. Analytic
SYSTEM – Levels, Units, Rules

   Syntactic          Grammatical Rules

   Lexical            Content Words

   Morphological      Form Words – Affixes

   Phonological       Sounds and Letters
Ethnic Groups

   Celts (Founders of Europe)
   Romans (Roman Empire)
   Angles, Saxons and Jutes (West Germanic)
   Danes (North Germanic, Viking Age)
   Normans (French-Norman)
The Celtic Element – the Britons

   English took practically nothing from the old
    Celtic language.
   Some Common Words
   Some Names of places
Some Common Words of Celtic Origin

   British words ass, brock, bannock, bin
   From Welsh: druid, flannel, gull, bard
   From Scotch Gaelic: cairn, clan, plaid, whisky
   From Irish: brogue, shamrock, galore
Some Celtic Names of Places
   Avon = river
   Esk, Ex, Usk, Ouse, Aire = water
   The Don and the Doune
   Stour, Tees, Trent, Wye and Wey
   are Celtic names. The Celtic dun (= a protected place) can be seen in
    Dundee, Dunbar, and in the old name for Edinburgh, Dunedin; Kill (= a
    church) in Kildare, Kilkenny; -combe (cwm) (= a hollow) in Ilfracombe,
    Combe Martin; caer ( = a castle) in Caerleon, Carliste, Cardiff; and -
    llan (= holy) in Llangollen, Llandudno. The names London, Dover,
    York, Glasgow are British, and so is the first part of Dorchester,
    Gloucester, Manchester, Winchester, Salisbury, to which has been
    added he old English ceaster (from the Latin castra = a camp) or –
    burgh (= a fort).

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