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					                           Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




             The Palm Oil Action Group (POAG)

                                 Volunteer Pack

This pack includes:

   •   Why do we care?
   •   About POAG
   •   What you can do to help
   •   Letter to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts, Tony Burke
   •   Letter to the Minister for Health and Ageing, Nicola Roxon
   •   Letter to the Indonesian Ambassador, Primo Alui Joelliant
   •   Letter to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Kevin Rudd
   •   Letter to Coles
   •   Letter to Woolworths
   •   Letter to ALDI
   •   Palm Oil Fact Sheet




Please email Charlie at action@palmoilaction.org.au for copies of the following:

   •   Palm Oil Stickers
   •   POAG poster




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                                    Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                                                   Why do we care?

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable raw
material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”1, its production has
resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several animal
species2. These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)3,
the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus)4
(Figure 1). Indonesia has the second highest rate of deforestation in the world. 5 Between
1990 and 2000, 1.3 million ha of forest was lost every year 6. Between 2000 and 2005 this
rate accelerated to 1.8 million ha per year, representing a 2% annual deforestation rate7.

A report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2007
stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading cause of rainforest
destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.8

                                              THE SUMATRAN TIGER

The loss of the Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica) in the 1940s and the Java Tiger
(Panthera tigris sondaica) in the 1980s has been largely attributed to human-induced
habitat fragmentation9. The Sumatran Tiger is currently facing a similar fate due to the
expansion of palm oil plantations, listed as critically endangered on the International Union
for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red list 10. The species inhabits approximately 58,321
km² of forested habitat in 12 ‘Tiger Conservation Landscapes’ totalling 88,351 km² 11. In
2004, the Sumatran tiger population was estimated at 400 to 500 in the Indonesian
government’s first and second national tiger action plans.12

1
 Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
2
  K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
3
 Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
4
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
5
 Muhammad Zikri, ‘An Economic Model for Deforestation in Indonesia’ Working Paper in Economics and
Development Studies (2009).
6
 Muhammad Zikri, ‘An Economic Model for Deforestation in Indonesia’ Working Paper in Economics and
Development Studies (2009).
7
 Indonesia Forest Figures (2006) Mongabay. Come <http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20indonesia.htm>accessed 29 July
2010.
8
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of Emergency:
Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
9
  Linkie, M. and Martyr, D.J and Holden, J and Yanuar, A and Hartana, A.T and Sugardjito, J and Leader-Williams, N.
(2003) Habitat destruction and poaching threaten the Sumatran tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Oryx, 37 (1). pp.
41-48.
10
   Linkie, M., Wibisono, H.T., Martyr, D.J. & Sunarto, S. 2008. Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. accessed 28 June 2010.
        11
           Government of Indonesia. 2007a. Conservation Strategy and Action Plan of Sumatran Tiger 2007-2017
        (in Bahasa Indonesia).
        12
          C. R., Shepherd, and N, Magnus., Nowhere to hide: The Trade in Sumatran Tiger (2004) A TRAFFIC
        Southeast Asia Report.
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                                   THE SUMATRAN ORANGUTAN

The Sumatran Orang-utan is also listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red list13.
There are currently around 7,300 occupying 20,552 km² of forest14.

                                    THE BORNEAN ORANGUTAN

The Bornean Orang-utan is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red list, with estimates of
between 45,000 and 69,000 individuals, living in 86,000 km² of suitable habitat 15. The
Bornean Orang-utan populations have declined by over 50% in the last 60 years due to
agricultural expansion and human induced fires16. The decline of the species is predicted
to continue at this rate17. It has been estimated that approximately 1000 Orang-utans die
every year due to habitat degradation, forest fires, illegal logging, encroachment and
mining18. Degradation of the Orang-utans natural habitat often forces them into
unsuitable forest, resulting in higher death rates and fewer birth rates 19. On the occasion
that they refuse to leave their former territory, they are often killed by farmers protecting
newly planted crops.20




Figure 1. A Sumatran Orang-utan with a tranquilizer dart in its side in order for rangers to
relocate him to a different part of Borneo island, away from this palm oil plantation.
Photo was taken on November 19, 2008. (AFP/AFP/Getty Images).
Source: http://animal.kukuchew.com/category/orangutans/




13
  Singleton, I., Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. 2008. Pongo abelii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. accessed 28 June 2010.
14
     Ibid.
15
   Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. 2008. Pongo pygmaeus.
In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on
28 June 2010.
16
     Ibid.
17
     Ibid.
18
     Speech by Sen Nick Xenophon on the 23rd of November 2009.
19
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
20
     Ibid.
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In 2007, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) predicted that if
current trends continue, Orang-utans will be extinct in the wild within two decades
(Figure 2).21




Figure 2. Changes in Orang-utan distribution from 1930-2004.
Source: C,Nelleman., L, Miles., B, P, Kaltenborn., M, Virtue. And H, Ahlenius. (Eds.)., ‘The last stand of the orang-utan- State of
emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks’ 2007. United Nations Environment Programme,
GRID-Arendal, Norway, www.grida.no.




21
  C,Nelleman., L, Miles., B, P, Kaltenborn., M, Virtue. And H, Ahlenius. (Eds.)., ‘The last stand of the orang-utan-
State of emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks’ 2007. United Nations
Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, Norway, www.grida.no.
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                         Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                                    About POAG

POAG is an independent not-for-profit organisation that endeavours to spread awareness
about the impacts of unsustainable palm oil and instigate change in the industry. We
educate consumers about the implications of their choices through our website and our
continuous attention to queries from concerned members of the public. We respond
individually to questions raised by people from around the world and encourage them to
become involved in our campaigns.

POAG employs the following strategies to achieve our ultimate goal of ceasing
deforestation in South-east Asia for the establishment and expansion of palm oil
plantations:


   • Education

Accurately informing the public about the impact of unsustainable palm oil plantations,
particularly in South-east Asia, is one of POAGs core objectives.

We have made a sincere commitment to providing the latest research on the issue. This
research is conducted using a variety of sources including internet based resources,
newspaper and magazine articles, and communication with like-minded organisations.

We have also created a palm oil free list of products to help consumers make informed,
ethical choices.

   • Lobbying the Government

POAG advocates for the mandatory labelling of palm oil on all products sold in
Australia. It is crucial that consumers be given a choice to purchase sustainably
produced alternatives to generic products that contain ingredients from destructive
sources. In order to achieve the mandatory labelling of palm oil we actively lobby the
government to amend legislation on the labelling of palm oil. We have also worked in
conjunction with Nick Xenophon in his labelling campaign.

   • Lobbying Companies

In order to change corporate practices on the sourcing and labelling of palm oil, we
continually remind companies about the issue. We encourage companies to source only
Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified sustainable Palm oil (CSPO),
replace palm oil with a sustainable alternative or completely remove palm oil from their
products. If a company is RSPO certified it is prohibited for them to clear rainforest for
the production and expansion of unsustainable palm oil. We also provide people with
resource packs to facilitate this process.

   • Public Involvement

We provide the public with resource kits containing letters to the government and
                                                                                        5
                         Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

companies, brochures, fact sheets, posters and stickers. This both facilitates public
pressure and empowers individuals to generate positive change.




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                         Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                              What you can do to help

   • Spread Awareness

Talk to as many people as possible about palm oil and the impacts of unsustainable
plantations. Send around an email with our fact sheet, put up a poster in your work place
or at school or University.

Why not give a presentation at school, university or a hobby club? POAG has a 10-
minute power-point presentation summarising the issues involved for your convenience.

Be part of the sticker campaign by putting stickers on products that contain
unsustainable palm oil in a supermarket near you. This spreads awareness and allows
consumers to make informed choices about the products they purchase.

Hand out information sheets at markets and festivals. The fact sheet is included in this
volunteer pack.

   • Lobby the Government

Send letters to the Australian government requesting they change legislation so that it is
mandatory to label palm oil on products sold in Australia. Letters should be addressed
to:

Tony Burke The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Arts

Nicola Roxon The Minister for Health and Ageing

Kevin Rudd The Minister for Foreign Affairs

Primo Alui Joelianto The Indonesian Ambassador

These letters are included in this volunteer pack. If you really want to make an impact,
(calling and reinforcing your message) phoning can be very powerful. Encouraging your
colleagues, friends and family to do the same will increase the chances of the
government taking this very serious issue on board.

   • Lobby Companies

Sending letters and calling companies requesting them to source only RSPO certified
sustainable Palm oil (CSPO), replace palm oil with a sustainable alternative or
completely remove palm oil from their products is a very powerful effective way to
apply consumer pressure. Letters to a select number of companies have been included in
this volunteer pack.




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                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




     Letter to the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts,
                                   Tony Burke
Send the following letter to:

Tony.Burke.MP@aph.gov.au
Postal: PO Box 6022
House of Representatives
Canberra ACT 2600
Phone (02) 6277 7640


Dear Tony Burke,

The environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm oil industry are devastating
and extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly contributing
to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest, exacerbating
global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating a vicious
cycle of corruption.

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable
raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”22, its production
has instead resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of
several animal species.23 These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger
(Panthera tigris sumatrae) 24, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean
Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus)25.

A report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2007
stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading cause of rainforest destruction
in Malaysia and Indonesia.26

Palm oil production is increasingly being promoted in sustainable energy campaigns
worldwide. With the rapidly increasing oil prices after 2000, the demand for bio-diesel
from palm oil significantly increased. It has been estimated that annual world biodiesel
requirement by 2050 could be as much as 277 million tonnes, twice the vegetable oil
production in 2008 and seven times the total palm oil production. 27 Fuel-orientated
companies have assumed prominent roles in the emerging industry. 28 I am writing to
ask you to urgently introduce legislation to mitigate the importation of unsustainable
22
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
23
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
24
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
25
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
26
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
27
  Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A. Brühl, Paul F. Donald and
Ben Phalan, ‘How will Oil Palm Expansion Affect Biodiversity?’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 (10) pp 538-545.
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palm oil for use as a biofuel.

I would be grateful if you could inform me about the current use of palm oil as a biofuel
in this country, and what measures you will be undertaking to mitigate the influx of
unsustainable palm oil as a biofuel into Australia.

Yours sincerely,

[Insert name]




28
  Jordan Nikoloyuk, Tom R, and Reinier de Man, ‘The promise and limitations of partnered governance: the case of

sustainable palm oil’ (2009) Corporate Governance 10 (1).pp.59-72.
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         Letter to the Minister for Health and Ageing, Nicola Roxon

Send the following letter to:

Nicola.Roxon.MP@aph.gov.au
Postal: Suite MG 50
Parliament House
Canberra ACT 2600
Phone: 02 6277 7220

Dear Nicola Roxon,

I am writing to express my concern about the detrimental effects of palm oil on human
health, particularly given the widespread use of it processed foods and the misleading
labelling of it as simply a ‘vegetable oil.’ Palm oil is high in saturated fat, which is the
biggest cause of high LDL cholesterol levels.29 As consumers, Australians are eating
well above the WHO recommended levels of saturated fats.30

The WHO and the FHO recently released a report that reveals the over-consumption of
saturated fat has been linked to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases,
cancers, diabetes and obesity. Chronic diseases contributed approximately 59% of the
56.5 million total reported deaths in the world and 46%of the global burden of disease.31

As an Australian (citizen and consumer), I feel I have a right to know if palm oil is in
the products I consume so I can make informed choices concerning my health.

Whilst I am aware that saturated fat is currently labelled on food products, many
consumers do not have the knowledge to determine what constitutes a high level of
saturated fat. The average consumer spends only 1.8 seconds looking at a product before
purchase. It would be much easier for the consumer to be able to instantly associate
palm oil with high levels of saturated fat.

Please take the urgent action necessary to protect the health of all Australians. Insist on
palm oil being labelled. The current system is deceptive and potentially harmful to our
health.

Yours sincerely

[Insert name]




29
  Lichtenstein AH, Kennedy E, Barrier P, Danford D, Ernst ND, Grundy SM, Leveille GA, Van Horn L, Williams CL,
Booth SL. ‘Dietary fat consumption and health’ (1998) Nutritional Review
30
  The Honerable Christopher Pyne MP, ‘Australia-New Zealand Collaboration on Transfat Launched’ (Media
Release, 12 February 2007).
31
  ‘WHO/FAO release independent Expert Report on diet and chronic disease’ (2010) World Health
Organisation < http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2003/pr20/en/.
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                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack



                             Letter to the Indonesian Ambassador,
                                      Primo Alui Joelliant

Send the following letter to:

His Excellency, Primo Alui Joelianto
Indonesian Embassy
8 Darwin Avenue, Yarralumla,
ACT 2600, Australia
Phone +612-62508600

Dear Primo Alui Joelliant,

As you are aware, the harmful environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm
oil industry are extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly
contributing to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest,
exacerbating global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating
a vicious cycle of corruption.

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable
raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”32, its production
has resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several
animal species.33 These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris
sumatrae) 34, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan
(Pongo pygmaeus)35. A report published by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading
cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.36

I respectfully request that you:

     •    Stop all concessions to palm oil companies to clear rainforest for the
          establishment and expansion of palm oil plantations.
     •    Invest resources into monitoring the activities of palm oil companies to minimize
          illegal expansion of palm oil plantations.
     •    Restore peatlands that have been drained and degraded.
     •    Recognise the customary rights of local people.
     •    Remove plantations from national parks.
     •    Ensure that members of the RSPO maintain the integrity of its aims and
          objectives.
32
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
33
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
34
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
35
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
36
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
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Please take the action necessary to preserve these valuable forests for future generations.

Yours sincerely,
[Insert name]




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                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




               Letter to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Kevin Rudd

Send the following letter to:

Kevin.Rudd.MP@aph.gov.au
Postal: PO Box 6022
House of Representatives
Canberra ACT 2600
Phone 02 6277 7500

Dear Mr Rudd,

The environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm oil industry are devastating
and extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly contributing
to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest, exacerbating
global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating a vicious
cycle of corruption.

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable
raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”37, its production
has resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several
animal species.38 These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris
sumatrae) 39, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan
(Pongo pygmaeus)40. A report published by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading
cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.41

I urge you to implement more stringent conditions on the importation of unsustainable
palm oil into Australia. The restriction of these imports will make a significant
difference to the extent of deforestation in South-east Asia. Only a decrease in demand
for unsustainable palm oil will provide corporations with an incentive to behave in a
socially responsible and ethical manner.

Yours sincerely

[Insert name]




37
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
38
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
39
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
40
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
41
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
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                               Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

                                            Letter to Coles

Send the following letter to

Sarah Ondaajte,
Customer Care Contact Center
Sarah.Ondaatje@coles.com.au

Ian McLeod,
CEO of Coles
ian.mcleod@coles.com.au

Or fill in the online comments form:
http://www.coles.com.au/Coles/Coles-Feedback.aspx

Dear Ian McLeod,

As I am sure you are aware, the environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm
oil industry are extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly
contributing to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest,
exacerbating global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating
a vicious cycle of corruption.

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable
raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”42, its production
has resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several
animal species.43 These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris
sumatrae) 44, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan
(Pongo pygmaeus)45. A report published by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading
cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.46

Coles have made numerous statements to suggest that it is both aware of the problem,
and concerned about its role in creating demand for unsustainable palm oil. More
specifically, Coles has stated that it aims to use palm oil for Coles branded products that
are sourced in line with the Round Table on the Sustainable Production of Palm Oil
(RSPO) Principles & Criteria,47 which also has a policy that requires palm oil to be
labeled as ‘palm oil’ rather than ‘blended vegetable oil.’48

42
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid
Science and Technology 289.
43
  K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable
development’ (2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
44
  Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat,
and Global Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
45
  Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species
(2002) < www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
46
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
47
  Palm Oil (2010) Coles < http://www.coles.com.au/About-Coles/Sustainability/Ethical-
sourcing.aspx>accessed 25 July 2010.
48
     Ibid.
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However, it appears Coles is not following through with its commitments. In 2010,
WWF created an Australian ‘Palm Oil Buyers Scorecard’ which assessed the ethical
sourcing of six major palm oil manufacturers.49 The assessment was conducted against a
range of objective criteria, from their membership status with the RSPO to their usage of
sustainable palm oil.50

Coles was in the lowest bracket of all three categories and currently has no policies
in place to encourage the responsible use of palm oil. Moreover, Coles does not
appear to be using any of the RSPO certified palm oil (CSPO).51

Many of the major players in the food and oleochemical industry have made serious
public commitments to addressing this issue in response to consumer demand for
ethically and sustainably sourced palm oil. KFC52, McDonalds53 and Cadbury54 have all
taken palm oil out of their products. Woolworths55, Arnotts56 and Dove and Magnum57
have committed to sourcing 100% sustainable palm oil by 2015.

I strongly encourage Coles to be a leader in the field to clean up the palm oil industry
by:

       •     Using only certified sustainable Palm Oil (CSPO) in house brand products by
             2013
       •     Insisting that all external suppliers label Palm oil by 2014
       •     Insisting that all Coles external suppliers use only certified sustainable Palm
             oil(CSPO) by 2015
       •     Request your supplier to source more CSPO to meet your increased demands and
             use your company’s ability to negotiate to support whichever supplier is willing
             to service this request.

Yours sincerely,

[Insert name]

49
  Palm Oil Buyers Scorecard (2010) WWF For a Living Planet < http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/land/land-
clearing-and-palm-oil/WWF-Palm-Oil-Scorecard>accessed 25 July 2010.
50
     Ibid.
51
  Palm Oil Buyers Scorecard (2010) WWF For a Living Planet < http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/land/land-
clearing-and-palm-oil/WWF-Palm-Oil-Scorecard>accessed 25 July 2010.
52
     Kelly Burke, ‘Finally, KFC Opts for the Good Oil’ (July 16 2009) The Sydney Morning Herald.
53
   At Long last, McDonald’s to switch to trans-fat-free-oil (2006) Palm Oil Truth Foundation<
http://www.palmoiltruthfoundation.com/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=215&Itemid=252>accessed 12 October 2010.
54
  Cadbury Removes Palm Oil (2009) news. com <http://www.news.com.au/business/cadbury-removes-palm-oil/story-
e6frfm1i-1225764168405> accessed 29 July 2005; Cadbury Takes Palm Oil Out Borneo Orang-utan Survival
<http://www.orangutans.com.au/Orangutans-Survival-Information/Cadbury-takes-palm-oil-out.aspx>accessed 27 July
2010.
55
   Woolworths Palm Oil Action Group (2010) Green Online<http://www.gmagazine.com.au/blog/1892/woolworths-palm-
oil-action-plan>accessed 12 October 2010.
56
     Personal Communication with Pam Mckenzie on the 11 October 2010 <pam_mckenzie@arnotts.com>.
57
  Sustainable Palm Oil: Unilever takes the lead (2008) Unilever Global Communications
<http://www.unilever.com/images/es_Unilever_PalmOil_v71_tcm13-126357.pdf> accessed 11 October 2010.
                                                                                                            15
                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

                                           Letter to Woolworths
Send the following letter to:
AMardirossian@woolworths.com.au


Dear Michael Luscombe, CEO of Woolworths,

As I’m sure you are aware, the environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm
oil industry are extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly
contributing to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest,
exacerbating global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating
a vicious cycle of corruption. Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of
sustainable and renewable raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel
industries”58, its production has resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the
near extinction of several animal species. 59 These endangered species include the
Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) 60, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii)
and the Bornean Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus)61. A report published by the United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil plantations are
currently the leading cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.62

Woolworths have made numerous public statements that suggest it is both aware of this
problem and concerned about addressing its role in contributing to the demand for
unsustainable palm oil. 63 Woolworths has announced its time-bound policy for
converting its private label products to using CSPO by 2015. They have also committed
to labelling palm oil within the next 12 months to help customers make informed
purchasing choices. The labelling and CSPO criteria is currently being integrated into
the product specifications and monitoring processes are being developed by the Quality
assurance team.64

Many of the major players in the food and oleochemical industry have made serious
commitments to addressing this issue in response to consumer demand for ethically and
sustainably sourced palm oil. KFC65, McDonalds66 and Cadbury67 have taken palm oil
58
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
59
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
60
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
61
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
62
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
63
  Woolworths Limited (2010) The Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil <http://www.rspo.org/?q=om/1398>accessed 24
October 2010.
64
  Woolworths Limited (2010) The Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil <http://www.rspo.org/?q=om/1398>accessed 24
October 2010.
65
     Kelly Burke, ‘Finally, KFC Opts for the Good Oil’ (July 16 2009) The Sydney Morning Herald.
66
   At Long last, McDonald’s to switch to trans-fat-free-oil (2006) Palm Oil Truth Foundation<
http://www.palmoiltruthfoundation.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=215&Itemid=252>accessed 12
October 2010.
67
     Cadbury Removes Palm Oil (2009) news. com <http://www.news.com.au/business/cadbury-removes-palm-oil/story-
                                                                                                                          16
                                  Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

out of their products. Woolworths68, Arnotts69, Dove, Magnum70, Walmart71 and Coles72
have committed to sourcing 100% sustainable palm oil by 2015.

I strongly encourage Woolworths to be a leader in the sustainable palm oil industry by
making an ambitious commitment to ensuring its consumers can feel comfortable in the
knowledge that they are not contributing to the destruction of the rainforest through their
purchases.

In particular we request Woolworths:

       •    Use only RSPO certified sustainable Palm Oil (CSPO) in house brand products
            by 2013.
       •    Insist that all external suppliers label Palm oil by 2014 .
       •    Insist that all external suppliers use only RSPO certified sustainable Palm oil
            (CSPO) by 2015.
       •    Request your supplier to source more CSPO to meet your increased demands and
            use your company’s ability to negotiate to support whichever supplier is willing
            to service this request.


Yours sincerely,

[Insert name]




e6frfm1i-1225764168405> accessed 29 July 2005; Cadbury Takes Palm Oil Out Borneo Orang-utan Survival
<http://www.orangutans.com.au/Orangutans-Survival-Information/Cadbury-takes-palm-oil-out.aspx>accessed 27 July
2010.
68
   Woolworths Palm Oil Action Group (2010) Green Online<http://www.gmagazine.com.au/blog/1892/woolworths-palm-
oil-action-plan>accessed 12 October 2010.
69
     Personal Communication with Pam Mckenzie on the 11 October 2010 <pam_mckenzie@arnotts.com>.
70
  Sustainable Palm Oil: Unilever takes the lead (2008) Unilever Global Communications
<http://www.unilever.com/images/es_Unilever_PalmOil_v71_tcm13-126357.pdf> accessed 11 October 2010.
71
  Walmart Unveils Global Sustainable Agriculture Goals Walmart Corporate (2010)
<http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/news/10376.aspx> accessed 16 October 2010.
72
     Personal Communicatino with Vicky Carambelas on 14 October 2010.
                                                                                                            17
                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                                                  Letter to Aldi
Send the following letter to:

Aldi Stores,
Holly Lane, Atherstone
Warwichshire CV9 23Q
0844 406 8800

Dear Michael Kloeters,

As I am sure you are aware, the environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm
oil industry are extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly
contributing to the demise of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest,
exacerbating global climate change, promoting wide-spread social unrest and facilitating
a vicious cycle of corruption.

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable
raw material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries”73, its production
has resulted in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several
animal species.74 These endangered species include the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris
sumatrae) 75, the Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan
(Pongo pygmaeus)76. A report published by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil plantations are currently the leading
cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia.77

Aldi have made numerous public statements that suggest it is both aware of this problem
and concerned about addressing its role in contributing to the demand for unsustainable
palm oil. Aldi states that it is a responsible retailer and is committed to sustainable
sourcing. Moreover it is aware of the importance of deriving palm oil from sustainable
and responsible sources, and are developing a policy that covers this.78

Aldi has stated that they will be reviewing every product in their own label range which
contains palm oil with a view to finding alternative or sustainable sources. Moreover,
they are developing an on-pack icon that specifies if a product contains certified
sustainable palm oil. Aldi has also recently introduced a policy to individually name
palm oil in the ingredients list so that customers can clearly identify these products.


73
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
74
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
75
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
76
 Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
77
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
78
   Palm oil products and the weekly shop (2010) BBC Panorama <
http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsid_8517000/8517093.stm>accessed 23 October 2010.
                                                                                                                          18
                                   Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

Many of the major players in the food and oleochemical industry have made serious
commitments to addressing this issue in response to consumer demand for ethically and
sustainably sourced palm oil. KFC79, McDonalds80 and Cadbury81 have taken palm oil
out of their products. Woolworths82, Arnotts83, Dove, Magnum84, Walmart85 and Coles86
have committed to sourcing 100% sustainable palm oil by 2015.

I strongly encourage Aldi to be a leader in the sustainable palm oil industry by making
an ambitious commitment to ensuring its consumers can feel comfortable in the
knowledge that they are not contributing to the destruction of the rainforest through their
purchases.

In particular we request Aldi:

       •    Use only RSPO certified sustainable Palm Oil (CSPO) in house brand products
            by 2013.
       •    Insist that all external suppliers label Palm oil by 2014 .
       •    Insist that all external suppliers use only RSPO certified sustainable Palm oil
            (CSPO) by 2015.
       •    Request your supplier to source more CSPO to meet your increased demands and
            use your company’s ability to negotiate to support whichever supplier is willing
            to service this request.


Yours sincerely
[Insert name].




79
     Kelly Burke, ‘Finally, KFC Opts for the Good Oil’ (July 16 2009) The Sydney Morning Herald.
80
   At Long last, McDonald’s to switch to trans-fat-free-oil (2006) Palm Oil Truth Foundation<
http://www.palmoiltruthfoundation.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=215&Itemid=252>accessed 12
October 2010.
81
  Cadbury Removes Palm Oil (2009) news. com <http://www.news.com.au/business/cadbury-removes-palm-oil/story-
e6frfm1i-1225764168405> accessed 29 July 2005; Cadbury Takes Palm Oil Out Borneo Orang-utan Survival
<http://www.orangutans.com.au/Orangutans-Survival-Information/Cadbury-takes-palm-oil-out.aspx>accessed 27 July
2010.
82
   Woolworths Palm Oil Action Group (2010) Green Online<http://www.gmagazine.com.au/blog/1892/woolworths-palm-
oil-action-plan>accessed 12 October 2010.
83
     Personal Communication with Pam Mckenzie on the 11 October 2010 <pam_mckenzie@arnotts.com>.
84
  Sustainable Palm Oil: Unilever takes the lead (2008) Unilever Global Communications
<http://www.unilever.com/images/es_Unilever_PalmOil_v71_tcm13-126357.pdf> accessed 11 October 2010.
85
  Walmart Unveils Global Sustainable Agriculture Goals Walmart Corporate (2010)
<http://walmartstores.com/pressroom/news/10376.aspx> accessed 16 October 2010.
86
     Personal Communicatino with Vicky Carambelas on 14 October 2010.
                                                                                                            19
                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                                               Palm Oil Fact Sheet

                                                     Palm Oil Fact Sheet

                                              Charlotte Louise Richardson
                                              The Palm Oil Action Group

The environmental, social and economic impacts of the palm oil industry in Indonesia are
extensive. The increasing expansion of palm oil plantations is rapidly contributing to the demise
of some of the world’s most bio-diverse tropical rainforest, exacerbating global climate change,
promoting widespread social unrest and facilitating a vicious cycle of corruption in South-east
Asian nations.

                                              The Advantages of Palm Oil

Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the African palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis)87 (Figure 1). It
is the most widely produced edible vegetable oil in the world. 88 In 1999, it accounted for 12% of
the total consumption of cooking oils in the EU and for approximately 20% of the world
production of cooking oils.89 In 2005, it overtook soy oil with an annual production of 33.5
million tonnes.90 In 2008, it accounted for over a third of the 130 million tonnes of vegetable oil
produced globally. 91 The rapid success of the palm oil as an agricultural crop can be largely
attributed to its high productivity rate92, with first harvests just three years after plantation. 93




Figure 1. The palm oil fruit (Elaeis guineensis). Source: Lian Pin Koh & David S. Wilcove, ‘Cashing in Palm Oil for Conservation’
(2007) Nature 448 (30).

2.1 Productivity and Potential Sustainability

87
     Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
88
     Sutapa Mukherjee and Analava Mitra, ‘Health Effects of Palm Oil’, J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 197-203 (2009)
89
   Mattias Johansson, ‘Sustainable Palm Oil: How does the Indonesian palm oil industry affect Indonesia ecologically, socially and
economically?’ (1998) Department of Social and Economic Geography
<http://www.geo.umu.se/vg_uppsatser/JohanssonM.pdf.>accessed 27 July 2010.
90
     Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
91
  Palm Oil Buyers Scorecard (2010) WWF For a Living Planet < http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/land/land-clearing-and-
palm-oil/WWF-Palm-Oil-Scorecard>accessed 25 July 2010.
92
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
93
     Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).


                                                                                                                              20
                                    Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

The high photosynthetic rate of the oil palm enables it to produce between eight to ten times
more oil per hectare per year (ha/yr) than other oil seeds such as rapeseed or soybean. It has an
output-to-input energy ratio of 9:1, compared to 3:1 for other oilseed crops. 94 The average yield
of palm oil is approximately 4.2 tonnes ha/yr, whereas rapeseed oil and soybean oil produce
only 1.2 and 0.4 tonnes respectively (Figure 2). As a result of such high productivity, the oil
palm requires less land to produce a higher yield than other oil seed crops. For example, whilst
the oil palm occupies 9.2 million ha of agricultural land and produces 31.8% of global oils and
fats, the soybean crop would require 10 times this amount of land to produce the same yield. 95




Figure 2. The average annual yield of the major vegetable oils per hectare per year between 2004–2006. Source: K.T. Tan, K.T.
Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, “Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development” Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 420–427.


Another significant advantage of the oil palm over other oil seeds is its superior ability to absorb
carbon dioxide (CO2). The oil palm emits eight to ten times more oxygen (O 2) and absorbs up to
ten times more CO2 ha/yr than other annual crops grown in temperate countries. 96 Moreover,
palm oil requires less fertilizer per unit of output than any other crop. 97

     2.2 Economic Advantages

The prolific growth of the palm oil industry has brought significant economic benefits to
Indonesia through its development as an important source of both foreign exchange and
employment.98 In 1997, the palm oil industry employed 2 million people and exported 2.9
million tonnes of palm oil, generating an estimated US$1.4 billion. 99 This accounted for 31% of
Indonesia’s agricultural exports and 3.5% of total non-oil and gas exports. 100 Exports of crude
palm oil (CPO) have increased from 1.47 million tons, generating US$745.2 million in 1998, to
6.33 million tonnes, generating US$2.0 billion in 2002. 101



94
  Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
95
     Ibid.
96
     Ibid.
97
  Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A Bruhl, Paul F. Donald and Ben
Phalan, ‘How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(10).
98
  Anne Casson, ‘Which Way Forward? People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia (2002).
Ibid.
99
     Ibid.
100
      Ibid.
101
    Hariadi Kartodihardjo and Agus Supriono, ‘The Impact of Sectoral Development on Natural Forest Conversion and
Degradation: The Case of Timber and Tree Crop Plantations in Indonesia’ (2000) Occasional Paper with the Center for
International Foresty Research.
                                                                                                                                21
                                    Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




                                          The Disadvantages of Palm Oil

Despite palm oil’s potential to become a “major source of sustainable and renewable raw
material for the world’s food, oleochemical and biofuel industries” 102, its production has resulted
in mass deforestation, social upheaval and the near extinction of several animal species. 103 These
endangered species include the Sumatran tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) (Figure 3) 104, the
Sumatran Orang-utan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean Orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) (Figure
4)105 . Indonesia has the second highest rate of deforestation in the world. 106 Between 1990 and
2000, 1.3 million ha of forest was lost every year. 107 Between 2000 and 2005 this rate
accelerated to 1.8 million ha per year, representing a 2% annual deforestation rate. 108 A report
published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2007 stated that palm oil
plantations are currently the leading cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia. 109

The loss of the Bali Tiger (Panthera tigris balica) in the 1940s and the Java Tiger (Panthera
tigris sondaica) in the 1980s has been largely attributed to human-induced habitat
fragmentation.110 The Sumatran Tiger is currently facing a similar fate due to the expansion of
palm oil plantations, listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation
of Nature (IUCN) Red list.111 The species inhabits approximately 58,321 km² of forested habitat
in 12 ‘Tiger Conservation Landscapes’ totalling 88,351 km². 112 In 2004, the Sumatran tiger
population was estimated at 400 to 500 in the Indonesian government’s first and second national
tiger action plans. 113




102
   Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
103
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
104
   Eyes on the Forest, Asia Pulp & Paper/ Sinar Mas Group Threatens Senepis Forest, Sumatran Tiger Habitat, and Global
Climate: Investigative Report’ (2008) Available at www.eyesontheforest.or.id.
105
  Craig Hilton-Taylor, The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (2002) <
www.iucnredlist.org> accessed 2 October 2009.
106
   Muhammad Zikri, ‘An Economic Model for Deforestation in Indonesia’ Working Paper in Economics and
Development Studies (2009).
107
   Muhammad Zikri, ‘An Economic Model for Deforestation in Indonesia’ Working Paper in Economics and
Development Studies (2009).
108
   Indonesia Forest Figures (2006) Mongabay. Come <http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20indonesia.htm>accessed 29 July
2010.
109
  G Nellerman, L Miles, BP Kalternborn, M Virtue, H Ahlenius (Eds) The Last Stand of the Orang-utan- State of
Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire, Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks (2007).
110
   Linkie, M. and Martyr, D.J and Holden, J and Yanuar, A and Hartana, A.T and Sugardjito, J and Leader-Williams, N.
(2003) Habitat destruction and poaching threaten the Sumatran tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Oryx, 37 (1). pp.
41-48.
111
    Linkie, M., Wibisono, H.T., Martyr, D.J. & Sunarto, S. 2008. Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. accessed 28 June 2010.
        112
            Government of Indonesia. 2007a. Conservation Strategy and Action Plan of Sumatran Tiger 2007-2017 (in
        Bahasa Indonesia).
        113
            Shepherd, C. R. and Magnus, N., Nowhere to hide: The Trade in Sumatran Tiger (2004) A TRAFFIC Southeast Asia
        Report.
                                                                                                                            22
                                    Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




Figure 3. A critically endangered Sumatran tiger with one paw missing. WWF speculate this was most likely a result of illegal
poaching facilitated by shrinking habitat. Source: Deforestation on Sumatra Island (2010) The Guardian.co.uk.
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/gallery/2009/oct/06/deforestation-sumatra-redd?picture=353069780> accessed 31 May
2010.


The Sumatran Orang-utan is also listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red list. 114 There
are currently around 7,300 occupying 20,552 km² of forest.115 Similarly, the Bornean Orang-
utan is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red list, with estimates of between 45,000 and 69,000
individuals, living in 86,000 km² of suitable habitat.116 The Bornean Orang-utan populations
have declined by over 50% in the last 60 years due to agricultural expansion and human induced
fires.117 The decline of the species is predicted to continue at this rate. 118 It has been estimated
that approximately 1000 Orang-utans die every year due to habitat degradation, forest fires,
illegal logging, encroachment and mining. 119 Degradation of the Orang-utans natural habitat
often forces them into unsuitable forest, resulting in higher death rates and fewer birth rates. 120
On the occasion that they refuse to leave their former territory, they are often killed by farmers
protecting newly planted crops.121




114
   Singleton, I., Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. 2008. Pongo abelii. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. accessed 28 June 2010.
115
      Ibid.
116
    Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. 2008. Pongo pygmaeus.
In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on
28 June 2010.
117
      Ibid.
118
      Ibid.
119
      Speech by Sen Nick Xenophon on the 23rd of November 2009.
120
   K.T. Tan, K.T. Lee, A.R. Mohamed, S. Bhatia, ‘Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development’
(2009) 13 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 420.
121
      Ibid.
                                                                                                                                23
                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




Figure 4. A Sumatran Orang-utan with a tranquilizer dart in its side in order for rangers to relocate him to a different part of Borneo
island, away from this palm oil plantation. Photo was taken on November 19, 2008. (AFP/AFP/Getty Images). Source:
www.boston.com/.../01/scenes_from_indonesia.html.

In 2007, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) predicted that if current trends
continue, Orang-utans will be extinct in the wild within two decades (Figure 4). 122 Nasi et al.
demonstrated that well-connected networks of natural forest corridors in the plantation
landscape are critical in maintaining primate populations. 123 The destruction of these corridors
for the expansion of palm oil plantations further contributes to the demise of the species.




Figure 4. Changes in Orang-utan distribution from 1930-2004. Source: C,Nelleman., L, Miles., B, P, Kaltenborn., M, Virtue. And H,
Ahlenius. (Eds.)., ‘The last stand of the orang-utan- State of emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and palm Oil in Indonesia’s National
Parks’ 2007. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, Norway, www.grida.no.



Palm oil plantations support significantly fewer species than primary forest, degraded
landscapes and even other agricultural crops. 124 Consequently, palm oil plantations pose a
serious risk to the survival of numerous plant and animal species. 125 Fitzberg et al. found that
across all taxa surveyed, an average of only 15% of species recorded in primary forest could
also be found in palm oil plantations. 126 One-hundred and forty six species or 21.9% of all
122
   C,Nelleman., L, Miles., B, P, Kaltenborn., M, Virtue. And H, Ahlenius. (Eds.)., ‘The last stand of the orang-utan-
State of emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks’ 2007. United Nations
Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, Norway, www.grida.no.
123
   NR Koponen & P Poulsen, ‘Impact of Landscape and Corridor Design on Primates in a Large-scale
Industrial Tropical Plantation Landscape’ (2008) 17 (5) Biodiversity and Conservation 105.
124
   Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A Bruhl, Paul F. Donald
and Ben Phalan, ‘How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution
23(10).
125
      Ibid.
126
   Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A Bruhl, Paul F. Donald
and Ben Phalan, ‘How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution
23(10).
                                                                                                                                    24
                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

mammals in Indonesia are currently listed as ‘threatened’ on the IUCN Red List. 127 Nikoloyuk et
al. speculate that the main threat to the biodiversity of Indonesia’s tropical forests is not the
forestry industry, but the conversion of forest to agricultural land for palm oil production. 128

3.1 Rapid Expansion
The palm oil industry in Indonesia has grown at an extremely rapid rate. Palm oil plantations
expanded from approximately 106,000 ha in the 1960’s to 2.5 million ha in 1997, implying an
average growth rate of 11.2% per annum. 129 Whereas in 1985, there were only 600,000 ha of
palm oil plantations, there were over 6.5 million ha by 2005 (Figure 5). 130 Moreover,
approximately 3.5 million ha of rainforest was destroyed during the establishment of these
plantations.131




Figure 5. The amount of rainforest (million ha) that was cleared for palm oil plantations per year in Indonesia between 1985 and
2005. Source: Author.


The palm oil industry is driven by the high demand of the export market. 132 The world demand
for palm oil is expected to increase from 20.2 million tonnes a year to 40 million tonnes in 2020,
representing a 4% annual rate of increase (Figure 6). 133 With palm oil production costs in
Indonesia among the cheapest in the world and the increasing demand for palm oil, foreign
investment is expected to increase.




127
      IUCN (World Conservation Union) 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2006).
128
   Jordan Nikoloyuk, Tom R, and Reinier de Man, ‘The promise and limitations of partnered governance: the case of
sustainable palm oil’ (2009) Corporate Governance 10 (1).pp.59-72.
129
   Anne Casson, ‘Which Way Forward? People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia (2002).
Ibid.
130
      Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
131
      Ibid.
132
    Hariadi Kartodihardjo and Agus Supriono, ‘The Impact of Sectoral Development on Natural Forest Conversion and
Degradation: The Case of Timber and Tree Crop Plantations in Indonesia’ (2000) Occasional Paper with the Center for
International Foresty Research.
133
    Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan, Andiko, Martua Sirait, Asep Yunan Firdaus, A. Surambo and Herbert Pane,
‘Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous
Peoples’ (2006) Forest Peoples Programme, Perkumpulan sawait Watch, HuMA and the World Agroforestry Centre at 15.
                                                                                                                                   25
                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




Figure 6. The area of palm oil plantations in Indonesia in 2005 and the projected expansion of oil palm area in 2020. Source: Vital
Forest Graphics (2009) UNEP/GRID-ARENDAL . Available at http://grida.no/publications/vg/forest/.

The growing affluence of India and China, the world’s top two importing nations, will further
increase this demand. 134 China and India are now responsible for approximately one third of
global palm oil imports (Figure 7).135




Figure 7. The amount of palm oil (thousand metric tonnes) imported into China, India, EU-27, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the US, Egypt
and others in 2008. Source: China to Support Greener Palm Oil (2009) mongabay.com http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0715-
china_palm_oil.html>accessed 28 July 2010.

In order to meet such a demand, a further three million ha of new estates must be planted. 136
Approximately 1.6 million ha of lowland rainforest in Sumatra and 2.6 million ha in Borneo has
already been approved for clearance. 137 According to industrial planning, this plantation area
will be extended to 16.5 million ha by 2020. The Director of the Sumatra Orang-utan
Conservation Programme, Ian Singleton, speculates that the Indonesian government has plans to
establish the largest oil palm plantation in the world. 138 This would require approximately 845
kilometres of “oil palm fence” to be established along the Malaysian border, which would
destroy rainforest allegedly reserved as Orang-utan sanctuaries. 139



134
   Howard J. Sargeant, ‘Vegetation Fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Oil palm agriculture in the wetlands of Sumatra:
destruction or development’ (2001) European Union Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project with Dinas Kehutanan
Propinsi Sumatera Selatan. European Union and Ministry of Forestry.
135
   Palm Oil Buyers Scorecard (2010) WWF For a Living Planet < http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/land/land-clearing-
and-palm-oil/WWF-Palm-Oil-Scorecard>accessed 25 July 2010.
136
   Howard J. Sargeant, ‘Vegetation Fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Oil palm agriculture in the wetlands of Sumatra:
destruction or development’ (2001) European Union Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project with Dinas Kehutanan
Propinsi Sumatera Selatan. European Union and Ministry of Forestry.
137
      Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
138
      Ibid.
139
      Ibid.
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3.2 Social Conflict
Colchester et al. found that large scale palm oil plantations affect local communities in a variety
of ways.140 These include: the reallocation of land and resources, alterations in vegetation and
ecosystems, foreign investment and new infrastructure, the movement of people and settlements,
the transformation of local and international trade, and the influx of government agencies. 141
Sargeant found that these impacts have resulted in an increase in ‘outright violence’ among local
communities.142 Colchester et al. found that a significant majority of the local people
interviewed felt palm oil companies had cheated them of their land, persuading them into
agreements through false promises and denying them a voice in decision-making. 143 The ways in
which community land is dubiously acquired by large scale corporation is detailed in table 1.

Table 1. Colchester et al. found these mechanisms were most commonly utilized by companies
acquiring community land. Source: Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan, Andiko, Martua Sirait,
Asep Yunan Firdaus, A. Surambo and Herbert Pane, ‘Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land
Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples’ (2006)
Forest Peoples Programme, Perkumpulan sawait Watch, HuMA and the World Agroforestry
Centre at 15.


                             Dubious mechanisms used to acquire community land
                                 Non-recognition of customary rights as land title
                         Circumventing the necessary licences in plantation establishment
                         Not providing information to communities (not being transparent)
                                   Refusing to negotiate consensus agreements
                             Manipulating customary leaders into making forced sales
                                             Not paying compensation
                                   Not providing promised community benefits
                                         Not developing smallholders land
                                Encumbering smallholders with unjustifiable debt
                              Carrying out Environmental Impact Statements too late
                               Not developing land within the specified time period
                                Repressing community resistance through coercion
                                              Violating human rights


Casson argues that companies force local communities to give up their traditional life styles,
often without compensation. 144 Similarly, Potter and Lee state that the establishment of palm oil
plantations has led to the “systematic dispossession of local people from their land.” 145 They
140
    Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan, Andiko, Martua Sirait, Asep Yunan Firdaus, A. Surambo and Herbert Pane,
‘Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous
Peoples’ (2006) Forest Peoples Programme, Perkumpulan sawait Watch, HuMA and the World Agroforestry Centre at 11.
141
    Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan, Andiko, Martua Sirait, Asep Yunan Firdaus, A. Surambo and Herbert Pane,
‘Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous
Peoples’ (2006) Forest Peoples Programme, Perkumpulan sawait Watch, HuMA and the World Agroforestry Centre at 11.
142
   Howard J. Sargeant, ‘Vegetation Fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Oil palm agriculture in the wetlands of Sumatra:
destruction or development’ (2001) European Union Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project with Dinas Kehutanan
Propinsi Sumatera Selatan. European Union and Ministry of Forestry.
143
    Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan, Andiko, Martua Sirait, Asep Yunan Firdaus, A. Surambo and Herbert Pane,
‘Promised Land: Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous
Peoples’ (2006) Forest Peoples Programme, Perkumpulan sawait Watch, HuMA and the World Agroforestry Centre at 15.


144
   Anne Casson, ‘Which Way Forward? People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia (2002).
Ibid.
145
      Lesley Potter and Justin Lee, ‘Tree Planting in Indonesia: Trends, Impacts and Directions’. Occasional Paper No 18.
                                                                                                                        27
                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack

argue that this process is facilitated by regional governments who convince local people to
surrender their land and participate in company activities. 146 Walker speculates the palm oil
industry has led farmers to become “pay-dependent plantation workers whose existence is
determined by the global market price of a single plant product.” 147

The number and nature of jobs created by the palm oil industry is highly controversial, varying
substantially across the literature. By some accounts 4,500,000 people, including workers and
immediate families, in Indonesia rely on palm oil plantations as their source of income. 148 Others
contend the industry has created only 0.12 jobs per hectare, which are often below minimum
wage and dangerous.149

There are also concerns that modern, self-funded companies will be less motivated to be socially
responsible than previous firms that relied on funds from international agencies or government
sources.150 Although all new estates are supposed to be in partnerships with local communities,
this requirement is rarely enforced by local authorities. 151 Potter and Lee argue that the
“behaviour of privately owned, self-funded companies is predominantly profit seeking....with
little concern for social issues.”152

3.3 Climate Change

Another consequence of the UPPO is the emission of greenhouse gases during plantation
establishment and extraction.153 Approximately 15% of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas
emissions are a result of global deforestation. 154 In order to quickly and efficiently clear land for
the establishment of plantations, corporations frequently utilize the ‘controlled burning’
technique. Controlled burning releases large amounts of CO 2 into the atmosphere and is
hazardous to both workers and existing plantations. The clearing of peat land is even more
problematic as it releases considerably more carbon than rainforest. 155 Despite a total burning
moratorium being implemented by the Indonesian government, many fire `hot spots' in
plantation areas are still being observed by satellites. 156

Forest and peat fires not only contribute to global warming, but are a major threat to Indonesia’s
public health, biodiversity and regional economy. 157 Wetlands International has estimated that
CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia at x.
146
      Ibid.
147
    Eric Wakker, Palm Oil, Crisis and Forest Loss in Indonesia (1998) at 4,
http://forests.org/archive/indomalay/oilpalm.htm accessed 15/ 3/10.
148
   Howard J. Sargeant, ‘Vegetation Fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Oil palm agriculture in the wetlands of Sumatra:
destruction or development’ (2001) European Union Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project with Dinas Kehutanan
Propinsi Sumatera Selatan. European Union and Ministry of Forestry.
149
      Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
150
    Lesley Potter and Justin Lee, ‘Tree Planting in Indonesia: Trends, Impacts and Directions’ (1997) Occasional Paper No
18. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia at 23.
151
      Ibid.
152
      Ibid.
153
      Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
154
   Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A. Brühl, Paul F. Donald and
Ben Phalan, ‘How will Oil Palm Expansion Affect Biodiversity?’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 (10) pp 538-545.
155
   Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A Bruhl, Paul F. Donald and
Ben Phalan, ‘How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(10).
156
   Eric Wakker, Palm Oil, Crisis and Forest Loss in Indonesia (1998) http://forests.org/archive/indomalay/oilpalm.htm
accessed 15/ 3/10.
157
    ‘Fires in APP/Sinar Mas Concessions Add to Region’s Haze Woes, Threaten New UN Biosphere Reserve’ (Press
Release 27 July 2009); Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A Bruhl, Paul
F. Donald and Ben Phalan, ‘How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution
                                                                                                                       28
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over 130,000 km2 of peatland forests in south-east Asia has already been deforested and
drained.158 Consequently, an average of two giga-tonnes of CO 2 is being released annually
through decomposition, equivalent to 8% of the total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels.
Approximately 90% of these emissions are being released from Indonesia. 159 Uryu et al. found
the average annual CO2 emissions between 1990 and 2007 emissions from deforestation in the
Riau province of Sumatra alone were equivalent to 122% of the Netherlands’ total annual
emissions, 58% of Australia’s, 39% that of the UK’s and 26% of Germany’s. 160




Figure 8. An Indonesian fire-fighter sprays water on burnt peat land. Peat fires release huge amounts of trapped carbon into the
atmosphere. Source: Lands Soaring Carbon Value (2009) Alliance Knowledge Partnersite http://www.google.com.au/imgres?
imgurl=http://knowledge.allianz.com/nopi_downloads/images/peat_land_burning_indonesia_z.jpg&imgrefurl=http://knowledge.alli
anz.com/en/news/viewdetail/peat_lands_carbon_market.html&usg=__huM4goBsuP577K76KRO8lzgvmAI=&h=476&w=320&sz=1
25&hl=en&start=29&itbs=1&tbnid=rrDCWSaqzn3EM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=87&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpeat%2Bcauses
%2Bemissions%26start%3D18%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26tbs%3Disch:1>accessed 20 May
2010.

It is estimated that the 1997 fires, which covered 5 million hectares of Indonesia, were
responsible for 40% of the total anthropogenic emissions produced that year (Figure 9). 161
According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Economic and Environment Program for
Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) Report162, approximately 80% of the fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan
were deliberately ignited for the establishment of palm oil plantations. 163 Satellite imagery has
confirmed these studies.164




23(10).
158
      Fred Pearce, ‘Bog Barons: Indonesia’s carbon catastrophe’ (2007) New Scientist
159
      Ibid.
160
    Uryu et al. 2008. Deforestation, Forest Degradation, Biodiversity Loss and CO2 Emissions in Riau, Sumatra,
Indonesia.
WWF Indonesia Technical Report, Jakarta, Indonesia. Published at:
http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/borneo/updates/disappearingforest.cfm
161
   Anne Casson, ‘Which Way Forward? People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia (2002).
Ibid.


162
    Luthfi Fatah and Udiansyah, ‘An Assessment of Forest Management Options For Preventing Forest Fire In Indonesia
(2009) Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) EEPSEA Research Report
http://www.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/12711223671Luthfi_Final_2009-RR9.pdf> accessed 27 June 2010.
163
   Eric Wakker, Palm Oil, Crisis and Forest Loss in Indonesia (1998) http://forests.org/archive/indomalay/oilpalm.htm
accessed 15/ 3/10.
164
   Anne Casson, ‘Which Way Forward? People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia (2002).
Ibid.
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                                      Palm Oil Action Group Volunteer Pack




Figure 9. A satellite image of atmospheric aerosols, particulate matter, caused by fires in Indonesian peat land forests, between 1997
and 1998. Source: For Peat's Sake! World's Largest Carbon Footprint Revealed! (2008) Red State <
http://archive.redstate.com/blogs/vladimir/2007/apr/24/for_peats_sake_worlds_largest_carbon_footprint_revealed>accessed 21 May
2010.


Recent studies have illustrated that even without fire, the draining of peatland for palm oil
plantations emits significant quantities of carbon dioxide.165 This is due to the process of
oxidation, whereby deforestation exposes the inorganic molecules in peat to direct sunlight,
causing them to decompose.166 This process produces between 130 and 180 tonnes of CO2 per
hectare every year. Consequently, each hectare of peatland drained for the establishment of
plantations will emit between 3750 and 5400 tonnes over the next decade. 167
The palm oil extraction process also releases significant quantities of greenhouse gases.
Extraction releases large amounts of methane when the high level of organic matter contained in
the waste water decomposes. 168 Large quantities of waste water are created when the fruits are
removed and sterilized to destroy an enzyme that would cause the palm oil to become rancid. 169

3.4 Palm Oil as a Bio-fuel
Palm oil production is increasingly being promoted in sustainable energy campaigns
worldwide. With the rapidly increasing oil prices after 2000, the demand for bio-diesel from
palm oil significantly increased. It has been estimated that annual world biodiesel requirement
by 2050 could be as much as 277 million tonnes, twice the vegetable oil production in 2008 and
seven times the total palm oil production.170 Fuel-orientated companies have assumed prominent
roles in the emerging industry. 171 Moreover, European countries have promoted the use of palm
oil by investing millions of dollars into national subsidies towards biodiesel. 172 Consequently,
Europe is now a leading importer of palm oil (Figure 10). 173 Ernsting argues that these
government subsidies and incentives have artificially boosted the biofuel market. 174
165
      Fred Pearce, ‘Bog Barons: Indonesia’s carbon catastrophe’ (2007) New Scientist.
166
      Ibid.
167
      Ibid.
168
   Yusof Basiron, ‘Palm oil Production through Sustainable Plantations’ (2007) 109 European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology 289.
169
      Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007).
170
   Emily B. Fitzherbert, Matthew J. Struebig, Alexandra Morel, Finn Danielsen, Carsten A. Brühl, Paul F. Donald and
Ben Phalan, ‘How will Oil Palm Expansion Affect Biodiversity?’ (2008) Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 (10) pp 538-545.
171
   Jordan Nikoloyuk, Tom R, and Reinier de Man, ‘The promise and limitations of partnered governance: the case of
sustainable palm oil’ (2009) Corporate Governance 10 (1).pp.59-72.
172
    United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, Commodity Intelligence Report
Indonesia: Palm Oil Production Prospects Continue to Grow (2007)
http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/highlights/2007/12/Indonesia_palmoil/accessed 19 May 2010.
173
      Ibid.
174
      Almuth Ernsting, ‘Agrofuels in Asia - Fuelling poverty, conflict, deforestation and climate change’ (2001) Grain
                                                                                                                                  30
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Figure 10. The increase in palm oil consumption in EU households. Source: USDA. 2009. Oil Seeds: World Markets and Trade.
Circular Series FOP 1-09. Avaliable at Oil Seeds: World Market and Trade Archives (2010) United States Department of
Agriculture: Foreign Agricultural Services < http://www.fas.usda.gov/oilseeds_arc.asp>accessed 26 July 2010.


However, the long term utilization of palm oil as a biofuel is likely to be unsustainable. The
energy saved from using palm oil as a substitute for coal is questionable considering the high
energy costs involved with transportation and storage. 175 Moreover, clearing one hectare of
tropical forest releases between 500 and 900 tonnes of CO 2 emissions. As converting a hectare
of palm oil into biodiesel saves approximately six tonnes of CO 2 emissions annually, it takes 80
to 150 years of production to offset the initial emissions released from deforestation. 176




<http://www.grain.org/seedling/?id=479> accessed 17 May 2010.
175
   Palm oil must be stored at approximately 50 degrees Celsius in order to keep it in liquid form. (Gerd Schuster, Willie
Smits and Jay Ullal, ‘Thinkers of the Jungle: The Orang-utan Report’ (2007)).
176
      Fred Pearce, ‘Bog Barons: Indonesia’s carbon catastrophe’ (2007) New Scientist.
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