Literary Crossroads

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					                        Masaryk University
                              Faculty of Arts
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research into Ancient Languages and Early Stages
                             of Modern Languages
                      Department of Classical Studies

     International Conference on Classical and
               Byzantine Literature

         Literary Crossroads


                        19 22 September 2010, Brno

                                                      Table of Contents

Almagor, Eran: Plutarch on the End of the Persian Empire ..................................................................5

Barto ková, Da a: Quod licet Iovi non licet bovi? ................................................................................6

Ba il, Martin: Probam imitari? Zur Frage nach der Rezeption der lateinischen in der griechischen
christlichen Centonendichtung der Spätantike ....................................................................................7

Bianchi, Nunzio: Lettori di Eliodoro a Bisanzio: l epigramma per Cariclea (test. XVIII Colonna).............8

Billotte, Katie: Meet me at the Crossroads: Hercules, Odysseus, and Robert, Leroy, Johnson ..............9

Braounou-Pietsch, Efthymia: Zynismus und Sarkasmus in der byzantinischen Literatur?....................10

Bzinkowski, Michal: Wrestling with Death on the Marble Threshing Floor Ancient Greek Eschatology
in Modern Greek Folk Songs .............................................................................................................11

Ciglenecki, Jan: Das vorsokratische Weltbild und sein ontologischer Horizont...................................12

 í ková, Mariana: Division of Lucilius´s Fragments Satire in Lucilius´s Preserved Fragments ..............13

Dane , Jaroslav: The Political Thought of Euripides Suppliant Women ..............................................14

Dostálová, Vanda: Aenigmata Symphosii. Die Affinität von Rätsel und Epigramm..............................15

Fonseca, Rui Carlos: The Journeys of Odysseus Crossing The Battle of the Frogs and Mice ................16

Fournier, Michael: Planudes Translation of Boethius, Consolatio 3,6 and 3,7....................................17

Franczyk , Agnieszka: «Nonne libet medio ceras inplere capaces/ quaruvio...» (Iuv. 1.63-4). Epic that
Crosses Satire. Juvenal, Satire I. ........................................................................................................18

Franek, Juraj: Lucretius and the Modern Interdisciplinary Critique of Religion...................................19

Gordon, Dorit: Aristophanes, Josephus, Justus and Diogenes Laertius. A shared Polemic, Open and

Gellérfi, Gerg : Caesar in Troy (Lucan IX, 964-999) ............................................................................21

Gerolemou, Maria: Wonders in the History of Herodotus .................................................................22

Hurbánková, árka: The Characters and Comic Situations in the Atellan Farce and Mime..................23

Hamvas, Endre: The Function of Gnostic Myth ..................................................................................24

Hansen, Dirk Uwe: Crossing the Borders of Countries and Genre ......................................................25

Henrich, Günther Steffen: Kryptosphragiden : eine neue Deutung von Theognis ............................26

Hinterberger, Martin: Die Konstantinsvita im Späten Byzanz.............................................................27

Ja ková, Nina: Parody and Irony in the Works of Petronius: Encolpius´s Wandering ..........................28

Karagianni, Katarina: Todesszene von Patroklos im 16. Gesang der Ilias............................................29

Kendeffy, Gábor: Theological Doctrine and Rhetorical Devices in Lactantius Divine Institutes...........30

Kimball, Paul: A "Third Sophistic"? Late Ancient Rhetoric at the Crossroads of Antiquity and

Kl czar, Aleksandra: Between the East and the West. Jewish Narratives on Alexander the Great ......32

Kulhánková, Markéta: Figuren und Wortspiele in den byzantinischen Bettelgedichten und die Frage
der Autorschaft.................................................................................................................................33

Makrinos, Antony: The Deceitful Songs of the Sirens and the Wings of Allegory: Religious Polemics
and Cultural Appropriations of Homer in Byzantium .........................................................................34

Mantzilas, Dimitrios: Receptions and Genre Cross-reference in Alcestis Barcinonensis ......................35

Marzillo, Patrizia: Esiodo tra Proclo e Giovanni Protospatario. Alcune riflessioni sui commenti esiodei
tardoantichi e bizantini .....................................................................................................................36

Molyviati, Ourania A.: The Motif of Iunctio Dextrarum in the Reunion Scene of Anchises and Aeneas
in the Underworld: The Evidence from Visual Arts ............................................................................37

Moretti, Paola F.: Augustine s Confessions as Christian Metamorphoses? Some Remarks about
Apuleius and Augustine s Style.........................................................................................................38

Müllerová, Ilona: Otokar Fischer s Heracles.                                                                  .                             ...39

Müller-Reineke, Hendrik: Looking east - Oriental Animals in Aelian s De natura animalium...............40

Munding, Márta: Alexander and the Amazon Queen.........................................................................41

Mutlová, Petra - Stehlíková, Dana: Late Medieval Originality in Bohemia? Latin Verses in the Jena
Codex                                                                                         .. ..42

Nagyillés, János: Liceat tumulo scripsisse Catonis Marcia Zur dichterischen Darstellungstechnik
von Lucans Marcia-Gestalt................................................................................................................43

Nikas, Costantino: Il Monastero di Grottaferrata                                                                                                44

Ochman, Katarzyna: A Literary Interchange Gellius, Noctes Atticae 3.15 ........................................45

Oká ová, Marie: The Portrayal of Mythological Characters in Selected Virgilian Centos: a Case Study
in Intertextuality ...............................................................................................................................46

Ötvös, Csaba: Day One in the Gnostic Myth of Creation in the Writing without Title (NHC II,5) ......47

Panagopoulos, Spyros: Narrative Techniques in Kaminiates De expugnationae Thessalonicae..........48

Petrovi ová, Katarina: Martianus Capella as Apuleius Imitator? Novellistic Features in De nuptiis
Philologiae et Mercurii. .....................................................................................................................49

Poccetti, Paolo: Intertestualità tra letteratura e epigrafia: La figura del console L.Mummio ..............50

Radová, Irena: Genologische Typologie der altgriechischen Scholien                                                                        .     .. 51

Redondo, Jordi: On the Place of Syntipas in the Reception of the Tale of the Dog Caring of its Master s
Baby .................................................................................................................................................52

Rhoby, Andreas: Ioannes Tzetzes als Auftragsdichter ........................................................................53

Roberg, Michael Schulze: Mary Between Bible, Tradition and Virgil: Jesus Mother as Heroine in
Renaissance Epic...............................................................................................................................54

Sakel, Dean: Further Testimony on the Lost Source of Scutariotes ...................................................55

Sánchez, Ángel Narro: Lo scontro tra formazione classica e pensiero cristiano: La vita e miracoli di
Santa Tecla .......................................................................................................................................56

Senega nik, Branko: Taking God Seriously.........................................................................................57

Serafinová, Eva: Klassische Literatur und die so genannte Makedonische Renaissance......................58

Schaffner, Stefan: Phraseologismen und Sprichwörter in Petrons Satyrica ........................................59

Schiffer, Elisabeth: Das literarische Umfeld der Reden des Patriarchen Germanos II. Zum
Bildungshintergrund des nizänischen Patriarchen .............................................................................60

Stramaglia, Antonio: Fictional Declaimers: P.Oxy.LXXI 4811 ..............................................................61

Takács, László: Quintilianus and Neronian Literature.........................................................................62

Tar, Ibolya: Ovidius tragicus ..............................................................................................................63

Urbanová, Daniela: Die magischen Riten im Abbild der lateinischen Literatur ...................................64

Volt, Ivo: Lucian and the Characters of Theophrastus once again ......................................................65

Wys ucha, Kamila: The Topos of Comparing Rhetoric to Music..........................................................66

Xanthou, Maria G.: Pindar s Consistent Inconsistency .......................................................................67

Zafiropoulos, Christos: Socrates and Aesop: Notes on Plato s Portrait of the Arch-philosopher .........68

Zagklas, Nikos: Vaticanus Graecus 305,Theodoros Prodromos and his Manuscript Tradition                                                             69

                Plutarch on the End of the Persian Empire
                                         Eran Almagor

       This paper presents the depiction of the end of the Persian Achaemenid Empire found
in the works of Plutarch. Corresponding to the general contemporary nostalgic fascination of
Greeks with their heroic past, from the Classical period down to Alexander, Plutarch was
drawn to the eastern Empire and to the time when Hellenic identity was molded in response to
the Persian threat. In particular he was interested in the demise of the Achaemenid Kingdom
as part of his treatment of virtue and vice and his concern to trace the successes and failures of
rulers and states to their moral excellence or failings, respectively.

       It might be said that Plutarch's depiction of Achaemenid Persia insinuates an attitude
towards contemporary Rome. In the Greek literature of second century AD, the Imperial
institutions of Rome were sometimes referred to in the terms used by Classical authors to
depict the Persian system (such as 'satraps' or 'Great King'). One can assume that Plutarch too
entertained this association. While ostensibly addressing the time of the Persian kings, he may
implicitly be referring to the western empire, thus allegorically presenting the Roman emperor
as the Persian monarch in order to point at a possible course of events.

                          Quod licet Iovi non licet bovi?
                                       Da a Barto ková

         One of the pillars of the political life in ancient Athens was theatre, which flourished
in the fifth century BC. Dramatic production served as a means of promoting the values of the
polis and one of the offences against these values was certainly hubris. Hubris is surely a
phenomenon that played an important role in the morality of the Greek people. Hubris means
 wanton violence, arising from the pride of strength or from passion and connected with
insolence or licentiousness , arrogance going beyond the limits of common behaviour, limits
that are based on both divine authority and human moral tradition.

         In the Greek tragedy, however, the gods also sometimes behave as if they followed a
bad example set by mortals and were themselves overcome by a sort of hubris. Nevertheless,
is it at all possible to talk about the hubris of the gods? The aim of the paper is to examine this
particular question in relation to Euripides tragedies that narrate stories from the Trojan

         Probam imitari? Zur Frage nach der Rezeption der
           lateinischen in der griechischen christlichen
                 Centonendichtung der Spätantike
                                        Martin Ba il

       Bis unlängst wurde der spätantiken Centonendichtung so gut wie keine
Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet, da sie als eine epigonenhafte, wenn nicht parasitäre Gattung galt.
Die Untersuchungen der letzten ungefähr zwanzig Jahre haben dieses Bild eingehend
verändert und entdeckt, dass es sich    mindestens in manchen Fällen und bei den begabten
Centonisten   um ein höchst kompliziertes intertextuelles Gebilde handeln kann. Vor allem
für das lateinische christliche Cento Probae (3. Viertel des 4. Jh.) wurde die raffinierte Art
und Weise, auf welche aus dem vergilischen Quellentext Verse und Versfragmente,
Konnotationen und ganze Bilder und Szenen übernommen werden, mehrmals beschrieben.
Für die christlichen Homercentonen (2. Viertel des 5. Jh.), die ebenfalls mit dem Namen einer
edlen Frau (diesmal der oströmischen Kaiserin Eudokia) verbunden sind, setzt man
stillschweigend voraus, sie seien durch das etwa um ein halbes Jahrhundert älteres Werk der
frommen römischen Matrona inspiriert. Im Beitrag werden die semantischen Techniken der
homerischen Centonen (vor allem der sog. ersten Rezension) untersucht und die Frage nach
eventuellen konkreten Spuren einer solchen direkten Rezeption gestellt.

 Lettori di Eliodoro a Bisanzio: l epigramma per Cariclea (test.
                          XVIII Colonna)
                                       Nunzio Bianchi

       In alcuni codici del romanzo di Eliodoro è trascritto un epigramma anepigrafo di
sedici dodecasillabi per la protagonista degli Aethiopica: Cariclea. A seguito di un riesame
della tradizione manoscritta, si presenta ora una nuova edizione critica di questo testo, di cui
si analizzano forma, contenuto e lessico. Alla luce dei dati acquisiti, viene quindi vagliata
l ipotesi di attribuzione al dotto poligrafo di età comnena Teodoro Prodromo (A. Colonna). Si
tenta infine di valutare il posto di questo epigramma nel quadro della ricezione, anche
moderna, del romanzo di Eliodoro.

  Meet me at the Crossroads: Hercules, Odysseus, and Robert,
                       Leroy, Johnson
                                        Katie Billotte

       Throughout myth, the crossroads have proven an important setting for heroic trials.
Perhaps the most famous events at crossroads in Greek myth are the Hercules at the
Crossroads and Oedipus patricide. Both of these events mark crucial passages in the stories
of the respective heroes and have proven the inspiration for a great deal of literature and art.
In American folklore, the story of the great blues musician Robert Leroy Johnson also
involves an important episode at the crossroads. A particular legend accredits Johnson s rapid
mastery of the guitar to a late night meeting with the devil at the crossroads. Here Johnson
sold his soul to the devil in return for musical genius. Johnson s rapid musical success,
unparalleled talent as a blues musician, and premature, mysterious death have all worked to
advance the legend.

       In this paper, I will argue that both the Greek legends of the crossroads and the
Johnson story serve as metaphoric representations of cultural encounters with otherness .
Interestingly, in these configurations the hero is the one who serves as the Other who must
endure a damaging and life altering encounter with the established order. By demonstrating
this recurrent mythological theme I hope to offer some ideas on how the image of the
crossroads can be used to discuss both harmful and productive cultural encounters.

   Zynismus und Sarkasmus in der byzantinischen Literatur?
                               Efthymia Braounou-Pietsch

       Die Trostworte des Michael Psellos in seinem Brief an den grausam geblendeten
Kaiser Romanos IV. Diogenes werden von der Forschung oft als zynisch und sarkastisch
interpretiert, doch ein Vergleich mit einer Passage in einer Homilie des Kaisers Leon VI.
macht deutlich, dass es sich dabei um zumindest dort vorgeprägtes christliches Gedankengut
handelt. Diese Tatsache lässt wiederum einen potentiellen zynischen und sarkastischen
Unterton in Psellos Äußerungen noch raffinierter erscheinen.

Wrestling with Death on the Marble Threshing Floor Ancient
Greek Eschatology in Modern Greek Folk Songs
                                          Michal Bzinkowski

        The Modern Greek demotic songs (                              ) composed and handed
down uninterruptedly through Byzantine times until now in oral tradition by unlettered
villagers preserve evidences of the same eschatological patterns in describing the afterlife of
an individual. As it turns out, in Modern Greece the Lower World or the Underworld (
               )   still called Hades - seems to be almost exactly the same as the Land of the
Dead in Homeric poems. It is not the place of punishment neither reward and it has nothing in
common with Christian Hell. The Underworld is ruled by Charos (             or           ), who
used to be in ancient beliefs the ferrymen of the dead    Charon and now absorbed in popular
beliefs also the personality of Hades and Thanatos (Death). Charos wrestles with a dying man
not for his soul but for his life which can be observed in the term describing a dying man:
              i.e. wrestles with Charos . As a matter of the fact I intend to shed some light on
the question of mythology in the language, namely to show the presence of ancient Greek
beliefs still existing in the language.

 Das vorsokratische Weltbild und sein ontologischer Horizont
                                          Jan Ciglenecki

       The main purpose of this paper is to reflect the precipice which separates Aristotle's
ontological horizon from that of his early predecessors. Beyond the perpetual changeability of
phenomenal world, the first Greek thinkers have postulated some kind of eternal and
unchangeable divine entity, which encircles, steers and pervades the entire cosmos with its
thoughts. If a real being is something which is divine and eternal, consequently the whole of
our visible cosmos, which is in every aspect contrary to this, must also be conceived as
something different in an ontological sense. Therefore the manifest cosmos is more or less
explicitly understood as something less real and apparent-being. With Aristotle this situation
changes completely due to his complex theory of substance, which enables him to provide a
foundation of moving as the most principal characteristic of our manifest cosmos. It is exactly
this foundation that marks the turning-point of ontological paradigma: the whole of manifest
world is now perceived as a real being on its own - a conception which was not possible
before Aristotle's ontological foundation of moving and should therefore not be projected
back to readily to early Greek thought.

Division of Lucilius´s Fragments Satire in Lucilius´s preserved
                                      Mariana í ková

       Based on the reading of the preserved fragments, the author deals in her paper with the
question whether Lucilius wrote verses belonging to the genre of satire. According to the
quantity of the fragments (approximately 1400) and the rare preservation of complete verses,
the author suggests dividing the fragments into several groups. The author tried to find such a
literary criterion which takes into account the features typical for the genre of satire and is
also understandable to the contemporary readers. The presence of critique has been chosen as
such a criterion which in the author s opinion has gone along with satire since its beginning
up to now and has been one of the most typical features of satire.

       In the second part of the paper, the author wants to present a group of chosen satirical
fragments which is divided according to the focus of the critique. The division of the satirical
fragments into groups and the verses which represent them will be prepared for the listeners in
an attached handout.

        The Political Thought of Euripides Suppliant Women
                                          Jaroslav Dane

        First we have to define what we mean by political when talking about ancient texts,
including Greek tragedy. Aristotle s account of political science in Nicomachean Ethics and
the Politics emphasizes the following issues: a study of political regimes; an evaluation of the
best regime    absolutely and with respect to existing conditions, and the laws of transition or
why one regime declines or becomes corrupted and by which it is sustained. However, he also
broadly analyzes the set of ethical values and the question of education.

        Euripides Suppliant Women are political in many of these respects. This interesting
play contains a constitutional debate (v. 405-460), a sociological approach to the question
of the stability of regimes (v. 235-240), the problem of mass decision making and elite
leadership (v. 340-350), several views on what we mean by a good citizen etc. I would like to
present these issues in the light or context of the classical political texts.

 Aenigmata Symphosii. Die Affinität von Rätsel und Epigramm
                                    Vanda Dostálová

       In der Rätselsammlung des Symphosius, der ersten überlieferten Sammlung dieser Art
in der lateinischen Literatur, die im sog. Codex Salmasianus enthalten ist, lässt sich der
Einfluss der Saturnalienbücher (Xenia, Apophoreta) des Martialis deutlich erkennen. Die
einzelnen Rätsel des Symphosius werden einer näheren Betrachtung unterzogen und durch
einen Vergleich mit den Epigrammen des Martialis wird erstens die formale Verwandtschaft
von Rätsel und Epigramm dargelegt und zweitens der Fragestellung der literarischen
Vorbilder des Symphosius, welcher im Mittelalter selbst vielen Autoren als Vorbild diente,
nachgegangen. Die Wahl des Inhalts sowie die Textstruktur der Rätsel lassen den Schluss zu,
dass die Epigramme der Xenia und Apophoreta Symphosius als Inspiration für seine Rätsel
gedient haben.

The Journeys of Odysseus Crossing The Battle of the Frogs and
                                     Rui Carlos Fonseca

       The warfare described in The Battle of the Frogs and Mice (ancient Greek poem of
uncertain authorship and dating which we know to have been used as a school text in the
Byzantine period) is commonly read as a parody of the Iliad, because it imitates by parody the
warfare between Achaeans and Trojans warriors. However, an analytical reading allows us to
conclude the existence of another argument besides the one related with war: the argument of
the journeys, specifically the journeys of Odysseus celebrated by Homer in The Odyssey.

       In my paper I intent to analyze on how the journeys of Odysseus cross the universe of
this mock-heroic poem, on how they are adulterated and transmuted through parodic
imitation, remarking what kind of new interpretations they acquire in the new literary context.
Odysseus adventures (from Troy to Ithaca) are twelve and all of them are mocked in this
little poem, though some more explicitly than others. The encounter with the Cyclops, the
descent into Hell and the sinking of Odysseus (after his departure from Ogygia) are examples
of some Odyssey episodes recurrently imitated in The Battle of the Frogs and Mice.

    Planudes Translation of Boethius, Consolatio 3,6 and 3,7
                                      Michael Fournier

       As the manuscript tradition makes clear, the Greek quotations in Boethius Consolatio
philosophiae were unintelligible to most readers and copyists in the Middle Ages. Even if the
lines were glossed or translated, their original contexts would have been unknown. In the 13th
century Planudes produced a Greek translation of Boethius work, and suddenly many of the
allusions buried in the Consolation s Greek came alive once again. Including the letters Pi
and Theta embroidered on Philosophia s dress, there are eleven loci in the Consolatio where
Greek is used. Five are from Homer. To Parmenides and Pythagoras two are attributed but are
from much later sources, while the provenance of two others is unclear (onos lyras at 1,4,1) or
unknown (it is possible that 4,6,38 is from a Hermetic source). At 3,6,1 Philosophia quotes
two lines (Andromache 319-20) by a tragicus, who she identifies at 3,7,6 as Euripidis mei
(adding an echo of Andr. 420). This paper considers the way that the most substantial Greek
quotation, and the only one from a tragedy, shaped Planudes translation of the prose and
verse sections that deal with glory (gloriam/ dox s) and pleasure (voluptates/ h don n) as
means to celebrity (celebritatem/ epainous) and joy (laetitiam/ euthumian).

  «Nonne libet medio ceras inplere capaces/ quaruvio...» (Iuv.
      1.63-4). Epic that Crosses Satire. Juvenal, Satire I.
                                     Agnieszka Franczyk

       Juvenal standing at the crossroad in Rome is watching vices and crimes in the city.
They seem to be in every corner so how not to condemn them? As an instrument of his
indignatio Juvenal chooses the satire. At the same time, since the beginning of the first satire,
he has rejected the use of epic as being too exploitable and too inefficient to describe the
monstrosity of the Roman vice. Yet the epic allusions crosses all satire. What is the reason of
this phenomenon? The paper will deal with one aspect of Juvenal s use of epic elements in the
first satire, namely with the idea that their functions, often being erroneously restricted to a
decorative (i.e. mocking) one, are in a stringent manner connected with Juvenal s choice of
satire as genre. The paper will show how Juvenal transfers epic foundings on the ground of
the satire and how he uses them to form his programmatic principles.

      Lucretius and the Modern Interdisciplinary Critique of
                                        Juraj Franek

       The paper will analyze the treatment of religio in Lucretius poem De rerum natura
and compare it with recent critique of religion in various fields of study (e.g. biology
Dawkins, Wilson; physics      Stenger, Weinberg; philosophy       Harris, Martin, Kaufmann;
anthropology     Atran, Boyer; cognitive sciences      Dennett; biblical criticism   Avaloz,
Ehrman; complete list of excerpted authors is to be specified). I will try to argue that
Lucretius and modern authors alike share the same basic goal of promoting rational inquiry
(naturae species ratioque) as opposed to irrational religious fundamentalism.

Aristophanes, Josephus, Justus and Diogenes Laertius. A
shared Polemic, Open and Hidden
                                        Dorit Gordon

       Only one fragment has survived from the writings of Justus of Tiberias: well versed in
Greek culture, the Galilean historian of the 1st Century AD, who is known to us only through
Flavius Josephus' polemic against him in his autobiography (Vita Josephi), is quoted in 3rd
Century AD Byzantine author Diogenes Laertius' Life of Socrates. Surprisingly, this fragment
at Diogenes is about a moment in Plato's life during the trial of his renowned teacher. Yet its
comparison to one of Aristophanes' comedies raises questions as to the Classical,
Historiographic, Philosophical and Poetical background of the Jerusalemite Josephus, now
residing and writing in Pagan Rome under the auspices of the Roman Caesar after being
awarded Roman citizenship; and as to his audience         Gentile? Jewish?     the mystery of
Against Apion.

       Scholarship usually compares between Josephus' late apologetic in Antiquities and
Against Apion, and between the events of the Jerusalem and Temple Destruction in War and
Vita. It is time for a comparative research, on the Classical background, between Josephus'
two lately published, short works, which are quite different, yet much more similar than
acceptably considered. How will all these comparisons help to better understand the new
world of newly shaping identities, statuses, classes and minority groups, Graeco-Roman-
Jewish-Christian world forming in the 1st Century AD, towards byzantine times?

                    Caesar in Troy (Lucan IX, 964-999)
                                       Gerg Gellérfi

       Julius Caesar, the main character of Lucan s Pharsalia disappears for a long time after
his victory in the Battle of Pharsalos. He reappears at the end of Book IX, while pursuing his
son-in-law, Pompey, he takes a visit to the ruined city of Troy. The function and the source of
this historically unsupported scene are both worth examining. Earlier research disclosed as the
literal source of the Troy-scene, a scene in the Aeneid Book VIII, when Evander shows
Aeneas the future place of Rome. With fully accepting that, I d like to present another
possible source, that    in my opinion     had as much great effect on the constructing of
Lucan s Troy, as the Evander-scene: the katabasis in the Book VI of Aeneid. Between the two
scenes, definite parallelisms can be identified, on a motivic and a textual level too.
Furthermore the connection between these three scenes can be proved on the level of content,
since when examining them together, they are able to decode the real purpose of the Troy-
scene: Lucan predicts Rome s destruction along these lines.

                    Wonders in the History of Herodotus
                                       Maria Gerolemou

       Wonder stories reveal in their content an anarchic view against the laws of nature and
the human experience, i.e. they can be defined as exceptions in the law of causality and
therefore provoke astonishment. Yet the unusual story, the wonderstory can not surprise the
reader unless he is brought to believe that what he hears is possible and it exists not only in
the author s imagination but also in reality. That is why, the interest in the use of the term
thauma, i.e. wonder in early Greek thought is not whether the term is well matched in a
historical context or being able to find the true facts, but how the term is used to express the
boundaries of a normal world, thought and behaviour, which in the wonderstories of the
early periods have the chance of an expansion beyond reason and logic. My aim is therefore
to investigate the power of wonder especially in Herodotus as an elemental factor in pushing
forward the frontiers of intellectual and aesthetic experience rather than on the analysis of the
term as an affirmation of epistimological certainties (cf. Platt 1999).

 The Characters and Comic Situations in the Atellan Farce and
                                      árka Hurbánková

       This report should focus on the Atellan Farce and Mime and should present
observations I have done since I started the work on my thesis The Characters and comic
situations in the Roman Comedy. In the thesis, I examine the Roman Comedy as a unit:
comparing the characters and comic situations in the mime, palliata, togata and atellana,
trying to catch their possible combinations. The genres preserved only in fragments need a
different approach towards the study than the full texts of palliata, but the partial comic
elements like the characters and the comic situations should be seen in the wide context of the
Roman Comedy. The analysis of the mime and atellana, two folk theatre genres, brought
many interesting findings and I would like to present some of them in this report.

                        The Function of Gnostic Myth
                                      Endre Hamvas

       In my lecture, I will examine the function of myth in the Gnostic literature. The main
question is why the authors use a mythic form to describe the structure of cosmos and the
status of a human being. My main conclusion is that the Gnostic myth is not only a symbolic
language but also the disclosure of the cosmic and human history.

             Crossing the Borders of Countries and Genre
                                   Dirk Uwe Hansen

       In my paper I will investigate how the unknown author of the Acts of Xanthippe,
Polyxena and Rebekka      makes use of different literary genres and personae, namely
Hagiography, Novel, Biblical texts, and I will compare his technique with the technique of
combining in the Clementina and other christian and non-christian works.

        Kryptosphragiden : eine neue Deutung von Theognis
                                 Günther Steffen Henrich

        Bei der Beschäftigung mit der Halósis Kónstantinupoleós, die wieder Manolis
Limenités (früher: Geórgillas) zugewiesen wurde, stieß ich auf ein System, womit Dichter
ihren   Namen    im    Text   verbargen,   und    nannte   es    Kryptosphragis .   (Meine
Erstveröffentlichung dazu: Sprachlich-Philologisches zu M. Limenites; seine Autorschaft der
Halosis: Origini della letteratura neogreca, Venezia 1993, II 319-29). Es ist klar, dass ein
solches System, soweit Verfasser es angewendet haben, in anonym tradierten Gedichten zur
Feststellung des Autornamens führen kann. Allmählich erwies sich, dass dies System von
vielen - auch eponymen - Dichtern über sehr lange Zeiträume benutzt wurde (Henrich, Die
Kryptosphragis bei einigen byzantinischen Dichtern : Zwischen Polis, Provinz und
Peripherie, Wiesbaden 2005, 649-61). So wurden Kryptosphragiden in venezianerzeitlichen
griechischen Dichtungen Kretas besonders häufig verwendet (ders., G. Chortátsis: Autor
aller 14 nicht foskolosschen Intermezzi des Kretischen Theaters :
R en Dostálové k narozeninám, Brno 2009, 107-28). Doch sie waren schon im Altertum
bekannt! Eine ungeheure Menge enthält die Anthologia Palatina, in deren Lemmata
(Epigrammtiteln) manchmal zwei Autorennamen zur Wahl stehen und man kann mit ihrer
Hilfe auch eine neue Ansicht an Theognis Dichtungen bekommen.

                 Die Konstantinsvita im Späten Byzanz
                                  Martin Hinterberger

       Während der letzten beiden Jahrhunderte des byzantinischen Reiches wurde die
Lebensgeschichte Kaiser Konstantins des Großen zumindest von drei Autoren hagiographisch
bearbeitet. Es handelt sich um die Viten bzw. Enkomia der Autoren Konstantinos Akropolites
(BHG 368), Nikephoros Gregoras (BHG 369) und Ioannes Chortasmenos (BHG 362). Der
Vortrag wird diese drei Texte einander gegenüberstellen und insbesondere die jeweils
unterschiedliche Schwerpunktsetzung untersuchen. Weiters werden zum Vergleich die
Konstantin gewidmeten Abschnitte der Kirchengeschichte des Nikephoros Kallistos
Xanthopulos sowie die aus dem 14. Jh. stammende Vita des Ioannes Batatzes (BHG 933)
herangezogen. Aus der Zusammenschau dieser Texte gewinnt der Betrachter nicht nur einen
Einblick in die spätbyzantinischen Vorstellungen vom idealen Herrscher, sondern ebenso in
verschiedene hagiographische Arbeitstechniken.

     Parody and Irony in the Works of Petronius: Encolpius´s
                                           Nina Ja ková

        In the paper, the author deals with that part of Petronius s Satyricon, which describes
Encolpius s wandering through the sea        sea storm, shipwreck   and subsequent arrival to

        In her analysis, the author focuses mainly on parallels with Homer s epos (analogy can
be drawn between Encolpius s and Odysseus s wanderings and Priapus s and Poseidon s
demeanour). We cannot neglect the ironic attempt to use the character of Encolpius in
Petronius´s Satyricon as a parodic portrayal of the heroic Odysseus, as well as the comic
rendering of god Priapus is reminiscent of the demeanour of god Poseidon from Homer s
Odyssey. Furthermore, the paper concerns the issue of slavery, enslavement and parody,
which is most commonly linked to sharp or subtle irony aimed against Greek idealistic novel.
In a special part of author's speech, titled Croton, Encolpius s failed love affair and his
bisexual orientation are also discussed.

        The author doesn`t purposely devote her attention to the interpretation of the story of
Matrona Ephesi and a poem Bellum civile, which are the inherent parts of the Encolpius s
wandering, as she assumes that both parts deserve an individual and more detailed

          Todesszene von Patroklos im 16. Gesang der Ilias
                                     Katarina Karagianni

       Thema dieser Arbeit ist die Analyse der Todesszene von Patroklos im 16. Gesang der
Ilias. Die Beantwortung folgender Fragen ist in diesem Zusammenhang relevant:

       Warum wird der 16. Gesang als der Wendepunkt in der Ilias betrachtet?

       Welche Funktion hat Patroklos Tod in der Handlung der Ilias überhaupt?

       Wie ist diese Funktion technisch-poetisch , also nicht historisch zu verstehen?

       Hier kommt die Teilfrage zur Geltung:

       Warum wird Patroklos von drei Gegnern vernichtet?

       Zuletzt noch die Fragen:

       A. Wo befindet sich Achilleus in dieser Peripetie? Ist er ein Opfer, erst ex eventu
aktiviert, oder verursacht er (und sein Schöpfer) die eingefädelte Verwicklung durch eine
vordramaturgische Intrige?

       B. Warum wird Hektors Leistung bei Patroklos Tod, wie übrigens auch in seinem
Duell gegen Achilleus, verringert?

       Diese Fragen weisen auf die Problematik der Arbeit hin und sollen verdeutlichen, dass
die für angemessen betrachteten Antworten aus einer gewollten Komplexität herausragen,
durch die Homers Plan verwirklicht wird.

   Theological Doctrine and Rhetorical Devices in Lactantius
                        Divine Institutes
                                        Gábor Kendeffy

       In the light of book 6 of the Divine Institutes, one has the impression that the
mechanism of the two ways is in the service of a gigantic deceit of God, also referred to in
several other passages of Lactantius chief work. Lactantius holds, to be sure, that this deceit is
compensated by the Revelation, but in the present contribution this idea will be put aside. The
first point of this paper is that Lactantius considers his own apologetic activity as a kind of
antidote to the divine deceit. In the chapter 5 of book 5, Lactantius complains that pagan
philosophers and orators ensnare unwary souls by the sweetness of their discourse and that all
this is honey which conceals poison. The parallelism with the activity of the Devil on the
wrong way is obvious, and the terminology is actually very similar: the blows suffered by the
pious are often referred to as bitterness, in contrast to the sweetness experienced by those on
the other way. According to his own words, the apologist has chosen the classic described by
Lucretius in the preface of the book 4 of De rerum natura (8sqq) as a response to the divine
deceit. By connecting the manifest sweetness of rhetoric with the real good, which is the
eternal happiness promised by the Christian doctrine, Lactantius claims to do something
which is quite opposed to the logic of the two ways. On the basis of the comparison of the
terminology with that of Cicero s Orator I also argue that the terms of sweetness have special
rhetorical connotations in this chapter of the Divine Institutes: they refer to the genus medium
dicendi. The final aim of this paper is to show that Lactantius actually inclines to employ the
traditional devices of the average style in his chief work.

 A "Third Sophistic"? Late Ancient Rhetoric at the Crossroads
                 of Antiquity and Byzantium
                                          Paul Kimball

       This paper evaluates a recent trend in European classical scholarship which seeks to
identify the rhetorical output of late antiquity as a "Third Sophistic," distinct from the literary
culture of the so-called "Second Sophistic" and that of Byzantium.

       After considering the origins of this idea and its formulation by a number of scholars
active in late ancient and Byzantine rhetorical studies (e.g. Schamp, Quiroga, Malosse, and
Kraus), I offer three objections to this new formulation. First, from the outset there has been a
great deal of confusion about role played by religion. Is the "Third Sophistic" a Christian
development, exemplified by the Cappadocian fathers, Chrysostom, etc., and thus exclusive
of non-Christian authors such Libanius and Themistius? Or is it to be understood as a wholly
pagan assertion of traditional ideals and practices? Second, I observe that the notion of a
"Second Sophistic" has itself been increasingly viewed as problematic and/or unhelpful in
contextualizing the Greek literature of the high empire. Third, I consider the problem of
periodization per se, examining continuities between third, fourth, and fifth-century rhetoric
and Byzantine literature after Justinian, concluding that whatever its value as a marketing
device, the identification of a Third Sophistic is best abandoned.

       Between the East and the West. Jewish Narratives on
                      Alexander the Great
                                     Aleksandra Kl czar

       I would like to concentrate on the analysis of Alexander s double image in ancient
Jewish sources. On one hand, he may be shown as a foreign, dangerous power. Yet more
often he is presented as a supporter of Jewish tradition and culture, an enemy of Israel s
enemies. If portrayed thus, Alexander often shows characteristics more typical for a Jewish
leader than a Greek king. I would like to look into two of such portrayals: one in Jos. Ant. XI,
and one in Talmud, and analyze the way in which the Greek and the Jewish traits of the
portrayal are presented and emphasized.

Figuren und Wortspiele in den byzantinischen Bettelgedichten
              und die Frage der Autorschaft
                                  Markéta Kulhánková

       Die prodromische Frage , also die Frage der Autorschaft der drei Gedichtscorpora,
die unter dem Namen des Theodoros Prodromos überliefert worden sind, ist offensichtlich
noch weit davon, endgültig beantwortet zu werden. Während die Theorien über einen und
einzigen Prodromos überwunden zu sein scheinen und die meisten Fachleute annehmen, dass
der sogenannte Manganeios Prodromos nicht identisch mit dem bekannten gelehrten
Hofdichter Theodoros Prodromos ist, bei den Ptochoprodromika ist die Situation nicht mehr
so evident.

       Die Argumente, die in dieser Diskussion angewendet wurden, kann man in drei
Gruppen verteilen. Erstens sind es biografische Erkenntnisse, die man den Texten allein
entnehmen kann. Dieser Weg der Suche ist allerdings der unsicherste: Die Fiktionalität in
manchen der Gedichte (vor allem in den Ptochoprodromika) ist nämlich offensichtlich und
überwiegend, und spielt ihre Rolle auch in den anderen Texten.

       Außerdem sind die biografischen Indizien meistens sehr unklar und auf mehrere
Weise zu deuten. Als inspirativer scheinen die beiden anderen Wege zu sein, und zwar die
Suche nach sprachlichen und metrischen Übereinstimmungen und Unterschieden. Hier muss
man sich aber immer dessen bewusst sein, dass die gefundenen Spezifika der einzelnen Texte
durch die gebrauchte Sprachebene bedingt sein können, und so nicht von einem anderen
Autor zeugen müssen.

       Das Ziel des Referats ist, an manche betrachtenswerten Spezifika im Gebrauch der
rhetorischen Figuren und Wortspiele in den drei Gruppen von Gedichten hinzuweisen.
Obwohl man auch hier die Sprachebene und gattungsspezifische Merkmale in Betracht ziehen
muss, kann man doch durch eine behutsame eingehende Analyse der Übereinstimmungen und
Unterschiede auch einiges für das Lösen der Autorenfrage gewinnen.

 The Deceitful Songs of the Sirens and the Wings of Allegory:
 Religious Polemics and Cultural Appropriations of Homer in
                                     Antony Makrinos

              The cultural identity of the Byzantines was formed by a linguistic continuity
based on the preservation of pagan wisdom which was incorporated into Byzantium. Above
all, Byzantium appreciated the poems of Homer and produced copies, critical editions and
commentaries of the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Homeric epics were studied and committed to
memory by generations of schoolchildren.

              Despite their established religious authority, the epics sometimes inspired fear,
rejection or even contempt. Monastic writers treated them with hostility and became the
successors of a polemic which has started centuries earlier and was designed to discredit
Homer by associating him with verbosity, corruption of the young, deceitfulness and lying

              On the other hand, the recognition of the moral value of the epics gradually
increased; the allegorization of the Homeric text has been used as a response to the critics.
Homer was transformed from an inspired poet to a prophet. The Homeric epics continued to
be popular in schools and from being the preserve of grammarians and the orators, they
became literature again to be read and enjoyed.

              The talk will explore the above issues in combination to literary crossroads of
the Homeric epics and the Byzantine scholarship drawing on the cases of Tzetzes and
Eustathios of Thessalonica and focusing on the use of allegorical interpretation for the
teaching of Homer to a Christian audience.

            Receptions and Genre Cross-reference in Alcestis
                                    Dimitrios Mantzilas

       Alcestis Barcinonensis is an anonymous poem written by a poeta doctus of the 4th
century AD. Following all the aesthetic standards and canons of earlier Latin literature, but
also innovative, it is an example of creative reception, material transmission, intertextual
circularity and cross-reference, reflexivity and genre mixture: Euripidian tragedy, Virgilian
cento, Propertian elegy, Alexandrine epyllion, rhetorical argumentative speeches, sepulchral
poetry and epigrams, ethopoeia, philosophical topoi of consolation. The work represents an
effort in the spirit of imitatio and aemulatio- to create something original. The poet also
incorporates formulas, themes, motives and verses from various poets, transforming the
original semantics of works which influenced him into new textual alterations. The poet
avoids a simple patchwork technique and uses a narratio based on the change of interlocutors,
with his intervention. The osmosis and the mélange are completed with a series of allegories,
metaphors, macrotextual and microtextual allusions and themes such as pietas, life and death,
female beauty, self-sacrifice, substitute fertile wife, the survival of a dead person by his
relatives. We will try to penetrate the composition of this masterpiece, which can in no way
be considered as marginal poetry or as material that is only suitable for a simple school

 Esiodo tra Proclo e Giovanni Protospatario. Alcune riflessioni
         sui commenti esiodei tardoantichi e bizantini
                                        Patrizia Marzillo

       Nel V sec. d. Chr. il neoplatonico Proclo compose un commento a Le Opere e i Giorni
di Esiodo. Tra il XII e il XIV sec. gli scrittori bizantini Giovanni Tzetze, Manuele Moscopulo,
Massimo Planude e Giovanni Protospatario seguirono l esempio del filosofo neoplatonico
scrivendo a loro volta dei commenti che in parte emulano, in parte criticano, il lavoro del loro
predecessore. Attraverso un analisi di queste opere, purtroppo pervenuteci unicamente sotto
forma di scoli, si cercherà di ricostruire la rilettura di Esiodo attraverso i secoli alla luce dei
diversi scopi perseguiti da questi singoli autori.

    The Motif of Iunctio Dextrarum in the Reunion Scene of
  Anchises and Aeneas in the Underworld: The Evidence from
                          Visual Arts
                                   Ourania A. Molyviati

       The present article seeks to argue that the pageant of Roman heroes in book 6. 756-
886 unfolds in a context of allusions from contemporary Roman funeral iconography in order
to challenge and inspire Augustus towards his own mission, the imperium sine fine (1.279).
Specifically, the allusion to the motif of iunctio dextrarum between ancestor and descendant
in the reunion scene (6.679-701) enhances the significance of the parade with the symbolism
of a pompa funeralis. In fact, the icon of the young Marcellus on a horse (6. 881) in the
context of the revelation of his death, which closes the parade, suggests the resolution of
pompae funerales portrayed in the sarcophagi, the icon of the general who descends to the
underworld. The parade of the nepotes turns thus into the procession of the imagines maiorum
in Marcellus actual pompa funeralis.

       Why does the author invest the most significant revelation of the Aeneid with funeral
symbolism from contemporary Rome? Obviously, Virgil s target is Augustus. I suggest that
the author challenges Augustus who is at once the artist and the viewer of the artifact of the
Roman imperium to face the issue of how the imperium will survive the death of the artist and
become sine fine. The parade is thus neither a celebration nor a lament; it is the monumentum
of the mission of Augustus. It is for Augustus now to write his own epic as once Aeneas in the
past created his own.

  Augustine s Confessions as Christian Metamorphoses? Some
       Remarks about Apuleius and Augustine s Style
                                       Paola F. Moretti

        In this paper I will focus on Augustine s Confessions, in order to remark a possible
stylistic relationship with Apuleius Metamorphoses.

        I will examine two categories of stylistic devices, which are common to both authors.
First, devices resulting in stylistic xenikon ( estrangement ): these are connotative devices,
where connotation prevails over denotation. The truth lying beyond the paradoxical
appearance of life can t be expressed by usual and exact words: words must be used which are
far from those customary in the language community. Words and their iuncturae are          so to
say    stretched in their functions, so that they say more than they usually do. Stylistic form
points at vagueness, which is open to different meanings: so, vagueness as a linguistic
reflection of complexity of meaning.

        Second, denotative devices, those that grant words a surplus of meaning exploiting the
grammatical elements words are made of (such as prefixes). In this case stylistic choices
approach exactness (instead of vagueness).

        The analysis of these devices leads   I think     to affirm that the undeniable distance
between the two authors, regarding the subject of their works and their religious belief, is
somehow contradicted by the profound analogies between them that one could find from a
stylistic point of view.

                           Otokar Fischer s Heracles
                                      Ilona Müllerová

       The scientist, translator and poet Otokar Fischer (1883-1938) was writing the dramatic
poem Heracles between 1912-1919. Heracles is a drama of modern individualism influenced
by Faust and Nietzsche. It was dedicated as a postmortem gift to his friend Otokar Theer - the
author of Faethon. Otokar Fischer was inspirated by classical tragedies like Aeschylus s
Prometheus, Euripides s Heracles and Alcestis, Sophocles s Trachiniae and Oedipus, and
others. He puts his mind to the character of Heracles who shows himself as a civilization hero
liberating people from all the monsters. O. Fischer mostly focuses on an important role of
women in his life and on desire for immortality, for these two he would do everything.

          Looking east - Oriental Animals in Aelian s De natura
                                    Hendrik Müller-Reineke

          Among the works of Claudius Aelianus are 17 books about the pecularities of animals,
known under its Latin title De natura animalium. This literary miscellany collects a large
number of anecdotes about natural phenomena, especially animals and their behaviour. They
are to a smaller part a result of the author s own observation, but to a larger extent taken from
earlier writers, especially Aristotle and other miscellanists.

          Aelian s aim was to educate and entertain, so he chose a good part of his material from
a geographical sphere alien to himself and the majority of his readers. In the stories about
animals from Egypt or India, Aelian follows the tradition of paradoxography and accentuates
mysticism and marvellousness, but they also offer a particular lesson for the reader to learn.

          Most peculiar is Aelian s tendency to display animals as morally superior to humans:
He dwells on their positive qualities and praises their control of passions which Aelian often
compares with the human realm to present his reader an example which he could follow. With
this pedagogical tendency Aelian s work later became an important source for medieval
bestiaries, in which the illustration of the natural world is always combined with a moral

                       Alexander and the Amazon Queen
                                         Márta Munding

       The story of Alexander s encounter with the Amazon ruler called Thalestris or
Minythyia appears in all our main Alexander sources except the Metz Epitome. Certain
authors represent this story without comment on the historicity, whereas others, adopting a
sceptical point of view, list the earliest Alexander historians who accept or doubt the
authenticity of this tale. Moreover, Arrian, who is doubtful about the existence of Amazons
tries to explain the legend of Alexander s meeting with the warrior women. The above
mentioned tale have been examined from many points of view: first of all the scholars have
examined from which sources the story may have been taken; in what manner it can be
interpreted; or why this mythological story comes into historical context. My paper naturally
can t avoid to comment on the former and recent results. However, the aim of the lecture is to
examine if there could be found any differencies between the descriptions of Alexander
historians, to be more precise, the main sources can follow the former literary and artistic
tradition about the representation of Amazons or in certain cases they use modification and
insertion due to their authorial intention.

Late Medieval Originality in Bohemia? Latin Verses in the Jena
                             Petra Mutlová      Dana Stehlíková

       The Jena Codex, a unique treasure of late medieval Bohemian culture, is a richly
illuminated manuscript that contains a series of Latin and Czech texts connected to the
Bohemian Reform movement of the 15th century. Two full-page illuminations in this codex
comprise an antithesis of the terrestrial city and the city of God. The theme of this attractive
contrast vibrates through a number of written sources in Europe including Bohemia. Yet not
many illuminations of this antithesis survive from the Middle Ages, not to mention
illustrations with a textual background. The paper aims to present the antithesis of the urbs
Dei and the urbs terrena in the Jena codex and to analyze the verses and quotations that
accompany this antithesis from the point of view of both form and content. The as yet
unspecified model of these Leonine hexameters indicates that the verses might be a unique
evidence of original Latin versification composed in medieval Bohemia.

 Liceat tumulo scripsisse Catonis Marcia Zur dichterischen
        Darstellungstechnik von Lucans Marcia-Gestalt
                                      János Nagyillés

       Lucans Frauengestalten sind gründlich analysiert worden. Gruppiert man die
weiblichen Figuren nach der dichterischen Darstellungsweise, wird klar, daß sie   abgesehen
von Cornelia   nicht als individuelle Gestalten geprägt sind, sogar bizarr sein können. Eine
individualisierende Schilderung konnte bei solchen Gestalten wie die prophezeiende Frau
(Buch I) und die Klagen verströmende Matrone (Buch II) auch kein Ziel sein. Anders ist die
Lage bei Frauengestalten, die vom Dichter neben der Möglichkeit zu reden auch einen Namen
bekommen haben. Die Darstellungstechnik ist realistischer bei wirklich lebende Frauen in
Nebenrollen, trotzdem wirken diese Gestalten nahezu wie wie Darstellungen in Kurzfilmen
von wenigen Minuten, in einer von dem Dichter gut gewählten einzigen Pose dargestellt. Im
Buch II tritt Catos Frau, Marcia auf. Marcia erfüllt ihre weibliche Hauptpflicht, Kinder zu
gebären, zuerst neben Cato, dann verzichtet ihr Mann auf sie zugunsten des Hortensius, nach
dessen Tod Marcia am Vorabend des Bürgerkriegs zu ihrem ersten Gatten zurückkehrt, um
ihr Leben als ehrbare matrona beschließen zu können. Zwar hätte die Cato-Marcia-Szene auf
diese Weise wirklich geschehen können, aber es gibt keinen Beleg dafür, daß sie gleich nach
Brutus Besuch bei Cato unmittelbar vor dem Ausbruch des Bürgerkrieges diesen aufgesucht
hätte. Der Vortrag beschäftigt sich mit den literarischen Vorbildern des lucanischen Marcia-
Gestalt, erweisend einige Züge der Darstellungstechnik der römischen Elegie.

                          Il Monastero di Grottaferrata
                                       Costantino Nikas

        Il Monastero di Grottaferrata nei pressi di Roma è tra i simboli di maggior prestigio
della cultura bizantina in Italia. La sua fortuna fu senz altro dovuta alla personalità del suo
fondatore S. Nilo da Rossano il quale grazie alla sua profonda sensibilità riuscì a far erigere il
Monastero bizantino proprio in un periodo, l anno 1004, in cui l impero latino cercava più che
mai di imporre la sua egemonia spirituale e culturale. Egli, rispettando il rito latino, riuscì a
far sopravvivere anche quello bizantino così da rendere il Monastero di Grottaferrata quale
ultimo baluardo del rito greco in Italia. Il suo fedele discepolo, Bartolomeo, ha voluto redigere
uno scritto, il Bìos, con la storia del suo fondatore, scritta ovviamente con un intonazione di
lode nei confronti della vita del Maestro; ma quest opera ha una grande rilevanza anche per la
rappresentazione di avvenimenti storici della sua epoca, descritti con dovizia di particolari.
Importante è anche l analisi dell evoluzione personale del Santo, passata da una fase di
ascetismo molto rigido ad un apertura verso il mondo attraverso la diffusione del suo pensiero
e della sua dottrina: prima a Capua e Gaeta, successivamente a Montecassino. Non possiamo
dimenticare uno degli aspetti più importanti della sua attività: S. Nilo da Rossano era anche
un ottimo calligrafo e copista ed estese le sue conoscenze ai suoi discepoli al punto di fondare
una vera e propria scuola niliana. Questa scuola poggiò sulle solide fondamenta della

        Nel suo Monastero, infatti, esisteva già una raccolta di libri di notevole pregio che
costituiva il primo nucleo della Biblioteca del Monastero, e che comprendeva volumi
realizzati dal fondatore stesso e dai suoi discepoli, ampliato, successivamente, da acquisizioni,
lasciti e soprattutto dalla vasta produzione dello Scriptorium, centro di riproduzione dei testi
antichi e dei codici. Oltre alle opere prettamente liturgiche vennero riprodotti anche volumi di
Grammatica, Storia Filosofia e Musica Bizantina grazie ai quali la tradizione culturale
bizantina e neogreca fu tenuta viva nel sud Italia in un periodo di incursioni e drammatici
rivolgimenti politici.

        A Literary Interchange Gellius, Noctes Atticae 3.15
                                     Katarzyna Ochman

       In chapter 3.15 of the Attic Nights Gellius briefly relates four cases   three Greek and
one Roman     of unexpected death caused by sudden joy. In the present paper the stories are
presented and compared against other existing accounts, with an attempt to loosen the
complex knot of references, which includes, among others, Polyaenus Strategemata,
Parthenius Narrationes amatoriae, Plutarch s De mulierum virtutibus, Pindar, Pausanias,
Cicero s Tusculanae disputationes, Livy, Pliny the Elder, Valerius Maximus and an unusually
detailed Athenian honorific inscription (IG II² 657).

The Portrayal of Mythological Characters in Selected Virgilian
           Centos: a Case Study in Intertextuality
                                         Marie Oká ová

       The mythological Virgilian centos       i.e. patchwork poems composed of separate verse
units adopted from Virgil s works and rearranged so as to relate traditional mythological
stories that are not recounted in the source text     constitute the major, both generically and
thematically consistent part of the extant ancient cento poetry. The aim of the paper is to
examine the intertextual potential of the seven surviving mythological epyllia, all composed
sometime between the third and sixth century AD, and the means of its realization. This
involves an analysis of the ways in which individual heroes and heroines of the miniature
epics in question are represented. The author intends to determine the predominant type
(parallel / contrasting / neutral) and function (e.g. integrative vs reflective) of the intertextual
relations on which the implicit metatextual dialogue held between Virgil and the mythological
patchwork texts during the act of reading is based. Finally, the distinct character of the centos
concerned and their contribution to the reception history of Virgil are discussed in terms of
the proposed thematic, generic and structural criteria.

      Day One in the Gnostic Myth of Creation in the Writing
                    without Title (NHC II,5)
                                           Csaba Ötvös

        There is no need to argue that the Gnostic cosmology is a much debated topic among
the modern researchers. In this area one of the most questioned texts is the Writing without
Title on the Origin of the World from the Nag Hammadi Library. Relying on the generally
accepted view one can say that the tractate drew upon heterogeneous Gnostic (Ophite,
Sethian, Valentinian, and probably Manichean) and non-Gnostic (Jewish, Christian, Greek,
and Egyptian) materials, according as the author wanted to fashion his theology. The motifs
of the cosmogonical myth in this exegetically oriented style also seem to derive from
heterogeneous traditions of religious and philosophical schools and probably from common
and inherited Gnostic source material found in a variety of Gnostic texts. The purpose of my
planned investigation is to look into the introductory sentences of the cosmogony. First I sum
up the main interpretive questions which arise if we read the text as a commentary on the first
day or day one of the biblical account of creation. Next, by analysing some elements and
conceptions I will turn to the contemporary philosophical and religious literature and try to
explain why the author chose these materials and how he used them in order to create his own
narrative in the framework of the biblical Genesis. Viewed from this perspective, this variant
of the myth bears witness to the polemical and revisionary rewriting of the mentioned
traditions but it points to the context of the Christian faith.

     Narrative Techniques in Kaminiates De expugnationae
                                    Spyros Panagopoulos

       The present paper is concerned with narrative techniques             how writer John
Kaminiates chooses to tell his story: the capture of Thessaloniki in 904 by Arab pirates and
the ensuing captivation and transport of thousands of inhabitants to Syria. Despite debate
surrounding the authorship and dating of the work, there is no question regarding its
pragmatic content, whilst an advanced narrative process has obviously been employed. My
analysis of narrative techniques will be based on modern narrative theories      G. Genette s
relevant treatise The Narrative Discourse on the structure and possible forms of narration
provides considerable reference. Various aspects of narrative function are examined: the
relation between story time and narration time, the form and content of description, the
narrator s roles and communication with the reader, the enriching of narration with ideas, the
significance of detail, the use of proverbs and metaphors. Finally, an indicative discussion of
the influential written forms in Kaminiates s work, such as historiography, chronography,
epistolary texts and rhetoric, will also be attempted within the framework of this narrative

Martianus Capella as Apuleius imitator? Novellistic features in
             De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii.
                                      Katarina Petrovi ová

        The work De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii by Martianus Capella has raised a
number of controversial questions in the scientific discourse. The author, the evaluation of
whom ranges from a denunciation of his strangeness          reflected in the thoughtlessness and
disproportionate diversity of his work          to the recognition of his irreplaceable role in
transmitting the ancient heritage to the Middle Ages, gave his primarily educational work the
frame of a narrative about the marriage of the learned earthwoman Philology and the Roman
god Mercury. In this narrative, the author combined an allegory with the witty Menippean
Satire, whereby he eased the seriousness of his textbook, following the principle docere et
delectare, but also made his text difficult to interpret.

        The aim of the paper is to thoroughly examine to what extent Martianus drew
inspiration from Apuleius Metamorphoses, as well as to discuss the legitimacy of religious
interpretations of this encyclopedia, interpretations that are one of the results of excessive
accentuation of particular novel characteristics in Martianus work. In more general terms, the
paper sheds light on the adequate generic classification of Martianus writing that is difficult
to specify by means of traditional generic criteria.

 Intertestualità tra letteratura e epigrafia: La figura del console
                                           Paolo Poccetti

        Al console L.Mummio, noto dalle fonti letterarie come conquistatore di Corinto nel
146 a.C., si riferisce anche un gruppo di iscrizioni in latino, greco e una anche in osco da
Pompei. Queste iscrizioni ricordano indirettamente la sua impresa attraverso i doni che ha
elargito alle varie città a scopo di propaganda politica. Sarà svolta un analisi contrastiva tra
l immagine fornita dalle fonti letterarie e i testi epigrafici.

       Genologische Typologie der altgriechischen Scholien
                                        Irena Radová

       Die altgriechischen Scholien stellen nicht nur nützliche Helfer sondern auch
faszinierenden Forschungsgegenstand dar. Die klassischen Philologen richteten jedoch bisher
ihre Aufmerksamkeit besonders auf die Texttradition der Scholien und auf die Erforschung
ihrer Quellen (von den Anfängen des Scholieneditierens an erschien eine Reihe von Arbeiten
zu diesem Thema), bzw. nützten die einzelnen Informationen aus den Scholien als
unterstützendes Material für ihre den Text des kommentierten Autors betreffende Forschung.
In der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jhds. stand im Vordergrund des Interesses der klassischen
Philologen in Bezug auf Scholien die Frage nach deren Entstehung. Daneben begannen die
Philologen jedoch auch, das umfangreiche literaturkritische und literaturtheoretische Potential
der Scholien zur Kenntnis zu nehmen. Obwohl also zu bemerken ist, dass Forscher sich mit
den Scholien beschäftigen, befassten sie sich mit der Frage nach der Bestimmung deren
Gattung nur marginal. Dies dürfte dadurch verursacht sein, dass in der antiken Eidographie
nur ein limitierter Kreis von Gattungen beschrieben wurde und für die Sekundärliteratur und
daher auch für Scholien kein Platz vorhanden war. Trotzdem waren sich die antiken
Kommentatoren dessen bewusst, dass sie sich im Rahmen eines bestimmten Texttyps
bewegen, und wir können ihn heute retrospektiv definieren. In meinem Beitrag möchte ich
daher die Gattungstheorie auf die altgriechischen Scholien mit Hilfe der Kriterien applizieren,
die für die Bestimmung der Gattungen B. Sandig und W. Raible festgesetzt hatten.

On the Place of Syntipas in the Reception of the Tale of the Dog
                  Caring of its Master s Baby
                                       Jordi Redondo

       In Western Europe the short tale about how a dog took care of its master s baby, being
fatally killed by a mistake of the owner, became the base for a special cult described by a
priest, Étienne de Bourbon. As for the origin of this theme, the present state of the question
excludes the so-called oriental versions for they belong to other cultural frames .
Nonetheless, the alleged initial versions within the Western heritage -i.e. the Latin Dolopathos
and the French Le roman des sept sages- show an expanded text which is quite far from the
tale as it is reported by Bourbon.

       Our contribution aims to revisit the place of the Book of Syntipas regarding this
subject. The comparison with the Byzantine version offers indeed new and stimulating
possibilities. Actually, the exchange of themes between the Greek and the romance literatures
 not only the Italian- suggests that this is too the case. Especially in the field of short
narrative, there is a considerable amount of frequent contacts brought up by the intertextual
relations between texts written in different languages but belonging to the same genre take as
an example the story of the handless lady-.

                    Ioannes Tzetzes als Auftragsdichter
                                       Andreas Rhoby

       Trotz der Tatsache, dass Ioannes Tzetzes zu den bekanntesten byzantinischen Autoren
zählt, hat sein literarisches Oeuvre noch nicht die Berücksichtigung erfahren, die es verdient.
Man findet ihn im Umfeld der Sebastokratorissa Eirene; er war aber auch in Kontakt mit
anderen hochgestellten Persönlichkeiten. Die Ilias-Allegorien widmete er Eirene-Bertha von
Sulzbach, der ersten Ehefrau Kaiser Manuels I.

       Wie zeichnet sich Tzetzes als Auftragsdichter aus? Wie ist er diesbezüglich mit den
Zeitgenossen Theodoros Prodromos, Manganeios Prodromos und Konstantinos Manasses zu
vergleichen? Wo gibt es Unterscheide, wo Gemeinsamkeiten?

       Der Beitrag setzt sich zum Ziel, zumindest ansatzweise Antworten auf diese Fragen zu
geben, um damit Persönlichkeit und literarisches Profil des Tzetzes näher zu beleuchten.

   Mary Between Bible, Tradition and Virgil: Jesus Mother as
                Heroine in Renaissance Epic
                                   Michael Schulze Roberg

       As compared to her role within the canonical Bible gospel, Jesus mother Mary has
gained a lot of importance in Christian tradition. This is reflected also in literature, especially
in neo-latin Bible epics that come up in the Renaissance. These epics attempt to combine the
 modern subject of the gospel with the classical ideal of Virgilian poetry rather than give a
word-by-word reproduction of the New Testament (something which, for instance, Juvencus
already did in late Antiquity). The most important representatives in this field are the Italian
poets Jacopo Sannazaro (De partu Virginis) and Marco Girolamo Vida (Christias).

       It shall be examined how these two amalgamate the material from the Bible and other
sources such as apocryphal scriptures and popular traditions in order to transform Christ s
mother into a epic figure after the pattern of Virgil s Aeneid, and in how far the ancient pagan
archetype influences the presentation of Mary as the pattern of a perfect Christian woman .

        Further Testimony on the Lost Source of Scutariotes
                                         Dean Sakel

        For the composition of his late-thirteenth century world chronicle, Theodorus
Scutariotes is known to have used a number of sources, one of which was a now lost
Byzantine chronicle also used by the twelfth-century chroniclers Zonaras and Glycas.
Recently, the undersigned has shown that the opening sections of this lost work have in fact
been preserved in the margins of Cod. Patmiacus 132. Furthermore, in an article presently in
the process of publication, the undersigned also shows that the extension to the Chronicle of
the Logothete in Cod. Venetus Marcianus graecus 608 represents selections from this lost

        Present-day Cod. Mouseion Benaki 58, an incompletely preserved early-fifteenth
century manuscript, contains a Byzantine world chronicle that once began with Creation and
proceeds to the accession of Manuel I Comnenus. According to the most recent description,
the chronicle represents the Chronicle of George the Monk with variations and additions.
Previously, the work had been included in the recent comprehensive study of Redaction A of
the Chronicle of Georgius Continuatus. In actual fact, the chronicle at hand has made
extensive used of the lost source of Scutariotes , to which it serves as extremely valuable
testimony, as this presentation will show.

Lo scontro tra formazione classica e pensiero cristiano: La vita
                   e miracoli di Santa Tecla
                                    Ángel Narro Sánchez

       La vita e miracoli di Santa Tecla é un testo scritto nel V secolo per un retore de la città
orientale di Seleucia. Il carattere agiografico del testo si rifletta sia nella forma, che nella
struttura e contenuto; però, non é soltanto un racconto agiografico comune, ma uno scritto che
il suo autore vuò mostrare come storia vera e reale.

       La formazione classica dello scrittore di quest opera si può avvertire dall inizio del
testo. L autore ci rivela la sua intenzione di riferire storia e usa i nomi di due dei grandi
storiografici classici: Erodoto e Senofonte. La sua Vita di Santa Tecla ha un antecedente negli
apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento, sui cui si basa per comporre quest opera: gli Atti di Paolo e
Tecla. Ciononstante, la sua formazione retorica é usata da questo autore per rifare alcuni passi
della storia di Tecla o per ampliare i discorsi dei personaggi della trama. Perciò é necessario
uno studio della maniera in cui utilizza tutto quello che aveva imparato grazie alla tradizionale
formazione retorica classica per distruggere i dèi antichi e proclamare, attraverso il suo
racconto agiografico di Santa Tecla, la verità assoluta del cristianesimo.

                               Taking God Seriously
                                     Branko Senega nik

       The aim of the article is to show some limitations of the cognitivist approach to the
problem of the motivation of Aeschylean characters.

       Almost all extant Aeschylus' tragedies portray man s dependence on a transcendent
reality represented by the gods, thus performing the metatheatrical , cult framework of
tragedy. Nevertheless, at the moment they are making fundamental decisions many of
Aeschylus characters do not recognize the real power of the divine will; this can be explained
by the fact that the authority of the gods is not perceivable (before consequences of the
decision take place) through the »regular« cognitive apparatus used in physical and social
reality. Man s dependence on the gods can be fully recognized only if profound reflection on
one s circumstances includes fundamental human self-reflection against a background of
experiencing the divine tremendum. Although imposed by strong external pressure, the
fundamental self-reflection and the resulting decision require at least some active involvement
of the character, so that they never take place without his participation (a character s
reflection, or an exercise of the mind and will, is suggested by the word choice). It is not
possible to acquire the profound knowledge about the human situation, unless one is willing to
accept his human limits and in so doing activate his religious sources of cognition.

     Klassische Literatur und die so genannte Makedonische
                                      Eva Serafinová

        Makedonische Renaissance          ein Terminus der Byzantinistik, der einerseits eine
anhand von Textzeugen nachweisbare Auseinandersetzung mit klassischen Autoren im 9./10.
Jahrhundert beschreibt, andererseits in der korrekten Terminologie in letzter Zeit immer
stärker in Frage gestellt wird. Tatsache ist, dass die einsetzende Überlieferung vollständiger
Autoren der Antike ein Interesse der Byzantiner an klassischer Bildung zeigt, aber reicht dies
aus, um den Terminus Renaissance zu rechtfertigen? Darf man tatsächlich von einer
geistigen   Wiedergeburt   sprechen, was in silentio eine Unterbrechung der klassischen
Literaturkenntnis und des kanonischen Bildungsprogrammes voraussetzen würde? Dies
müsste sich dann aber auch in einem markanten Literaturniveau ausdrücken. Erst dann wäre
der Begriff Renaissance gerechtfertigt.

       Das Zeitalter der Makedonen ist jedoch auch in der Buchgeschichte und damit in der
Überlieferung klassischer Autoren durch eine wichtige Zäsur geprägt, die rein statistisch ein
verzerrtes Bild der Buchproduktion dieser Zeit bietet, und dieses Bild ist nur zu oft für den
Niedergang der literarischen Kultur herangezogen worden.

       Das Phänomen        Makedonische Renaissance        ist somit zunächst einmal vom
Gesichtspunkt der überinterpretierten handschriftlichen Überlieferung im Bezug zu den
buchhistorischen Faktoren zu analysieren. Andererseits sind im Sinne aktueller comparative
studies die Eigenheit bzw. der Unterschied zu einer zeitgleich im Westen verlaufenden
 Renaissance , der karolinigschen, herauszustellen.

     Phraseologismen und Sprichwörter in Petrons Satyrica
                                     Stefan Schaffner

       In den Freigelassengesprächen verwendet Gaius Petronius Arbiter (14-66 n. Chr.) eine
  abhängig von Herkunft, Status und Bildung der Sprecher            Mischung verschiedener
soziolektaler Stilschichten. Petrons Satyrica stellen somit ein Unikum innerhalb der gesamten
lateinischen Literatur dar. Zu den integralen Bestandteilen dieser Soziolektmischung zählen
auch Sprichwörter und Phraseologismen (z.B. hic porci cocti ambulant          hier spazieren
gekochte Schweine umher ), deren Verständnis noch nicht in allen Fällen gegeben ist. In
diesem Beitrag sollen neue Lösungsansätze für bisher nur unzureichend gedeutete
Phraseologismen und Sprichwörter in Petrons Freigelassenengesprächen geboten werden.

 Das literarische Umfeld der Reden des Patriarchen Germanos
  II. Zum Bildungshintergrund des nizänischen Patriarchen
                                     Elisabeth Schiffer

       Bibelzitate, Anklänge an die Sprache der Septuaginta und an die des Neuen
Testaments, sowie Stellen, die Parallelen zur patristischen Literatur aufweisen, sind im Werk
eines Patriarchen zu erwarten. Bei genauerer Untersuchung des Wortschatzes des Patriarchen
Germanos II. (1223 1240) stellt man darüberhinaus neben zahlreichen hapax legomena ein
Naheverhältnis zum Wortgut von Autoren der zweiten Hälfte des 12. und des beginnenden 13.
Jahrhunderts fest. Diese Beziehung ist jedoch nicht nur lexikalischer Natur, auch in den
Metaphern und in den häufig gebrauchten sprichwörtlichen Redensarten zeigen sich
Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Germanos und Autoren, die etwa ein bis zwei Generationen vor
ihm tätig waren. Über den Werdegang des Patriarchen ist nur so viel bekannt: Er gehörte im
Jahre 1204 dem Patriarchalklerus an und brachte die Jahre danach bis zu seiner Einsetzung als
Patriarch in einem Kloster zu. In diesem Beitrag sollen auf der Grundlage von Reden, die
Germanos zu verschiedenen Anlässen des Kirchenjahres verfasste, der Bildungshintergrund
des Patriarchen und seine Beziehungen zu anderen Autoren beleuchtet werden.

Fictional Declaimers: P.Oxy.LXXI 4811
           Antonio Stramaglia

                    Quintilianus and Neronian Literature
                                         László Takács

       In Chapter I of Book 10 of the Institutio Oratoria Quintilian summarizes the history of
Greek and Roman literature up to his day, to be read by those who would like to become
perfect orators. In this famous chapter the last generation of good poets belongs to the age of
Nero. This summary is not only a short list of eminent writers, but rather a critical study of the
authors. In the different genres of literature   following the poets and writers of the Augustan
Golden Age      Quintilian mentions Persius, Lucanus, Caesius Bassus and, at the end of his
list, Seneca. Quintilian highly praises Persius and Caesius Bassus but criticizes the prominent
Annaei. The orator, who came back to Rome with Galba in 69 AD, lived in the capital during
the so-called Quinquennium Neronis. According to his confession he had been a frequent
visitor of famous houses, and he had personal contact with many important persons of the
Roman élite. In the paper I would like to point out that his view and judgment of the Neronian
literature is based on and influenced by his own experiments.

                                 Ovidius tragicus
                                       Ibolya Tar

       Über die verlorene Medea-Tragödie des Ovid können wir aufgrund des Medea-Briefes
in den Heroiden und der Mythos-Bearbeitung in den Metamorphosen ein Bild schaffen.
Aufgrund dieser Texte und der ovidischen Tragödienfragmente wird es versucht eine
Rekonstruktionsskizze zu geben. Zugleich wird das Problem der Medea-Tradition in der
römischen Tragödie und die Stelle des Ovid (dessen Tragödie dem römischen Werturteil nach
zu den besten gehörte) zwischen Ennius und Seneca untersucht.

    Die magischen Riten im Abbild der lateinischen Literatur
                                    Daniela Urbanová

       Neben den Göttern des griechischen Pantheons, die für jeden gebildeten Römer fester
Bestandteil und unabkömmliches Zubehör der literarischen Welt darstellten, leben in den
Werken römischer Autoren auch andere Mächte              die den altrömischen religiösen
Vorstellungen entsprechen. Im römischen Alltag stößt man auf alte Elemente volkstümlichen
Glaubens, wo Angst, Dämonen und Magie herrschen. In Rom war Hexerei aller Art seit jeher
bekannt und verwendet, was die in den Zwölftafelgesetzen vorgesehene Strafe für magische
Praktiken bezeugt    keine Strafe ohne Schuld. In der römischen Poesie und im Roman
begegnen wir der Magie vor allem im Liebesdienst. Sei es als Hilfsmittel bei unerwiderter
Liebesflamme oder langer Trennung, sei es um den Gegner zu beseitigen oder den Ehemann
blind zu machen. Die literarischen Zeugnisse magischer Riten sollen in diesem Beitrag im
Kontext der überlieferten epigraphischen Dokumentation lateinischer Liebesfluchtafeln und
der Rezepte aus griechischen magischen Papyri analysiert werden.

      Lucian and the Characters of Theophrastus once again
                                            Ivo Volt

       This paper takes up an old suggestion that Lucian may have known and imitated the
Characters of Theophrastus. Some noticeable parallels between Lucian s works and the
Characters were collected by M. D. Macleod in 1974 and by B. Baldwin in 1977, but the
possibility is explicitly rejected by the latest editor of the Characters, James Diggle (2004),
who considers these resemblances too slight to prove direct imitation. Indeed, in most cases it
can be argued that both authors are just using a colloquial form of expression. I address the
topic from another angle, looking at the use of Theophrastean titles in the corpus of Lucian.
Although no direct influence of Theophrastus on Lucian can be proved, it will be seen that
Lucian is very much fond of using the same terms that Theophrastus has chosen as titles for
his thirty sketches. When we combine these terms with shared colloquial expressions, we get
some quite interesting results. Whether this suggests that Lucian has read the Characters, or
rather that both writers had a common interest in collecting vices and worked in a popular
tradition full of such material, must remain a speculation.

               The Topos of Comparing Rhetoric to Music
                                      Kamila Wys ucha

       The ancients noticed a strong connection between oratory and music, which, as they
concluded, was rooted in poetry. The link was made owing to the fact that, originally, music
was an element of poetry, since verses were sung to the sound of a string instrument. As for
eloquence, although it belonged to prose, it made wide use of poetical language.

       It is my objective to present and analyse the comparisons that Cicero draws between
oratory and music in his rhetoric treaties. He based his texts on the works of the most
prominent Greek authors, therefore it is essential to refer to Greek rhetoric thought as well
and present their attitude to the role of music in writing about eloquence.

       It seems that the comparison to music was so often drawn, especially by Cicero, that it
was a rhetorical topos, despite the fact that neither Greek or Latin source of topika mentions it
as such. Nevertheless, in some lists of loci a comparatione, a vague remark about music can
be found.

       Therefore, a question arises if the comparison neglected by the ancient rhetoricians
during the composing of the lists of loci and topika can be regarded, if at all, as a topos or
perhaps a rhetorical locus.

                      Pindar s Consistent Inconsistency
                                       Maria G. Xanthou

       Chronologically placed in the heyday of New Criticism and based on a long tradition
of literary criticism using Rhetorisierung, E. L. Bundy laid emphasis on the rhetorical nature
of Pindaric discourse, as the Subject Index (pp. 125-135) of Studia Pindarica [henceforth SP]
(1962) indicate, based on a close reading of the ancient text, as the text proper of SP reveal.
The momentum of (what I call) New Ritualistic Movement (Kowalzig 2007) in the
postmodern era of classical studies is urging the vast majority of the scholars to focus on a
corrective effort. This effort entails that we should at least add to the Bundyan interpretative
model a flare of contextualization or the most abandon it at all. It is true that the appeal of the
so-called contextual turn proves to be large. Sketching thus the fundamental principles
underlying the two major modern interpretative modes in Pindaric criticism looks as if these
two modes represent two antithetical poles that almost exclude one another.

       As a result the paper focuses on selected passages of epinician odes, upon which it is
attempted to apply the ritualistic interpretative mode in juxtaposition to the Bundyan one. Its
ultimate goal is to prove that the best way to approach Pindar s epinician poetry is always to
have in mind that our poet is consistently inconsistent, since the hic et nunc of each ode
determine and shape the rhetorical devices that the poet has at his disposal and he finally uses
in the ode.

    Socrates and Aesop: Notes on Plato s Portrait of the Arch-
                                    Christos Zafiropoulos

       The paper will discuss the surprising affinities between the literary portrait of Socrates
in Plato and that of Aesop in his novelistic Life of Aesop. In the last five years an ever
increasing number of scholars, classicists as well specialists on early Christian literature,
touches upon the comparison of these two unconventional wise men. Additional aspects of
these affinities will be presented, together with the discrepancies between these two portraits,
thus enriching bibliography. As regards the Platonic corpus, particular emphasis will be given
to Phaedo and the Apology. The concluding remarks will attempt to place Plato s use of
Aesop s legendary life and death in a new context that will be inscribed in his broader aims
regarding the utilization of his master s life and exemplary death.

      Vaticanus Graecus 305,Theodoros Prodromos and his
                     Manuscript Tradition
                                       Nikos Zagklas

       The purpose of this paper is not only to present the content of codex Vat. Gr. 305, but
also to show the existence of a tight relationship between Theodoros Prodromos poetry and
the aforementioned manuscript. The codex includes about one hundred works of Prodromos,
and therefore it can be considered as a small prodromic anthology. What is the context of its
composition and production? How is this manuscript indicative of the thirteenth century
trends? Furthermore, an attempt will be made to address some of the questions concerning
Prodromos rich manuscript tradition. Prodromos poetry is preserved in about five hundred
manuscripts. Is this a factor in the popularity of Prodromos? Does this apply to the Byzantine
poets in general?


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