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Pope Becomes Ruler Of A State Again

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					Pope Becomes Ruler Of A State Again
Rome, June 7.--From 11 o' clock this morning there was another sovereign
independent State in the world.

At that time Premier Mussolini, as Italian Foreign Minister representing King Victor
Emmanuel--the first Italian Premier ever to cross the threshold of the Vatican--
exchanged with Cardinal Gasparri, Papal Secretary of State, representing Pope Pius
XI, ratifications of the treaties signed at the Lateran Palace on Feb. 11.

By that simple act the sovereign independent State of Vatican City came into
existence.

A few minutes later Swiss Guards, resplendent in multi-colored uniforms and bearing
rifles with fixed bayonets, marched out of the apostolic palace in which they have
been confined in the past, and took possession of the territory ceded by Italy. They
mounted guard at its frontier.

At the same time the historic bronze door leading into the Vatican Palace, one side of
which has been closed since 1870 as a sign of mourning for the loss of the Pope's
temporal power, were thrown completely open again, amid cheers from both inside
and outside the Vatican, to signify that peace had been re-established between the
Church and Italy.

Pope Sends Blessing to King

While the exchange of ratifications was in progress the Pope inaugurated the telegraph
office of Vatican City, entrusting Mgr. Pizzardo, substitute Secretary of State, to
dispatch the first telegram ever sent through that office. The telegram, which was
written in the Pope's own handwriting, was addressed to the King of Italy, and it
expressed the Pontiff's satisfaction at the ratification of the Lateran treaties. It
imparted the apostolic benediction to the King and Queen of Italy, the Italian people
and to the whole world. The telegram ended by imparting an apostolic benediction
also to the Premier. Before being dispatched the message was read by Cardinal
Gasparri to the Italian delegation, who appeared to appreciate it very much, especially
Signor Mussolini, who asked the Cardinal to convey his personal thanks to the
Pontiff.

Despite efforts made to keep the exact time of the exchange of the ratifications secret,
a good-sized crowd had gathered in St. Peter's Square this morning and warmly
applauded when the Italian delegation drove past in closed motor cars at 10:45 .
Premier Mussolini was seated in the first car with Under-Secretary Giunta. He was
followed in another car by Minister of Finance Mosconi, while Minister of Justice
Rocco was in a third car.

They all wore their full-dress diplomatic uniforms with the characteristic three-
cornered plumed hats. Signor Mussolini wore the collar of the Annunziata, which
makes him rank as a cousin of the King, as well as the broad sash of the Mauritian
Order and the insignia of the Sovereign Order of Malta. The rear was brought up by
two more automobiles bearing the secretaries.

The Italian delegation entered the Vatican under the Gate of the Mint and through the
Courtyard of the Parrot. They were saluted at both these places by a Swiss Guard and
they arrived finally in the Courtyard of St. Damascus, where a whole platoon of Swiss
Guards were drawn up as a military honor.

The Italian delegation was greeted here by Mgr. Pizzardo and Francisco Pacelli,
Vatican lawyer, who negotiated the Italo-Vatican treaties for the Vatican. Preceded by
two Swiss Guards and four Bussolanti quaintly dressed in crimson damask, they
proceeded up the spacious marble staircase, and on every landing a Swiss Guard stood
with presented arms.

At the entrance of Cardinal Gasparri's apartment they were greeted by Mgr.
Borgoncini- Duca, Secretary of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical
Affairs; Prince Massimo, the Vatican Postmaster General; Prince Aldobrandini,
Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, and other high Vatican officials.

Together they passed through the various large halls composing Cardinal Gasparri's
suite till they reached the Hall of Congregations, where the Cardinal himself awaited
them.

Cardinal Gasparri advanced to the door to greet Premier Mussolini and the other
members of the Italian delegation. Then every one left the room except the Italian
delegation, composed of Premier Mussolini, Signor Rocco and Signor Giunta, and the
Vatican delegation, composed of Cardinal Gasparri, Mgr. Borgoncinida, Mgr.
Pizzardo and Mgr. Pacelli.

Simple Ceremony Performed

After Cardinal Gasparri had taken his place at the head of the large table occupying
the centre of the room and the two delegations had disposed themselves at its sides,
the actual ceremony took place, the Cardinal and Premier handing each other the
original texts of the Lateran treaties, which had been signed respectively by the Pope
and the King.
The Vatican text was enclosed in a red velvet case with damasked edges and bearing
the Papal coat of arms. The Italian text was contained in a white morocco leather case
bearing the Italian royal arms.

The Cardinal and the Premier then signed a document drawn up in duplicate, the
original testifying that the exchange of ratifications had occurred.

The document contained, among others, the following phrase:

"The high contracting parties at the moment of exchange of the ratifications of the
Lateran treaties again affirm their desire loyally to observe in letter and spirit not only
the treaty of conciliation in its irrevocable reciprocal recognition of sovereignties and
in its definite elimination of the Roman question, but also are concerned at its lofty
aims tending to regulate the condition of religion and the Church in Italy."

Then Signor Mosconi signed a check for 750,000,000 lire (about $39,000,000) on the
Bank of Italy, payable to Cardinal Gasparri, and handed him a leather case containing
certificates of the Italian 5 per cent State loan of a nominal value of - 1,000,000,000
lire.

Ceremony Lasts 45 Minutes

Finally Cardinal Gasparri read the telegram sent by the Pope to the King, and the
Cardinal and Signor Mussolini then retired into the former's private study, where they
remained together for a quarter of an hour. The Italian delegation left the Vatican with
the same pomp and ceremony with which it was received. The whole affair took only
three-quarters of an hour, as forty-five minutes after entering the Vatican Signor
Mussolini was again being enthusiastically cheered on his way back by the crowd in
St. Peter's Square.

New Swiss Guard Salutes the Old

Soon afterwards twelve Swiss guards took up their station at a wooden barrier built
across the arch connecting St. Peter's basilica with the sacristy and marking the
boundaries of Vatican City. They stood stiffly at attention, with presented arms, and
rendered military honors when the Italian carabiniers, who had been on guard up to
the last minute in the territory ceded to the Vatican, marched past them off the ground
they are destined never to enter again.

The noon gun was booming when the commander of the Swiss Guard threw open the
bronze door, while a detachment of the Swiss Guard presented arms. This act, which
was a symbol of the cessation of friction between Church and State, caused loud
applause both inside the Vatican and outside in St. Peter's Square.

Church bells throughout Rome proclaimed the end of discord between Church and
State.

Later the crowd improvised a demonstration outside the Pope's windows, hoping the
Pontiff would bless them, but in this they were disappointed, for all of the windows of
the Vatican remained closed.

King Victor Emmanuel answered the Pope's telegram with the following:

"I am moved by the cordial telegram sent to me by your Holiness on the occasion of
the exchange of ratifications of the Lateran Treaties. I share your Holiness's hope and
raise a prayer to God that with today's act we may have a beginning of a new, happy
era in the relations between Church and State. With her Majesty the Queen and my
royal family, I thank your Holiness for the blessing imparted to us."

This, of course, is the first time the Pope and King of Italy have had any
communication or contact, even by correspondence.

New Government Announced

Rome, June 7 (AP).--Announcement of the government of the Vatican City State in its
new form followed on the heels of ratification.

Official announcement was made that Mgr. Borgongini-Duca has been named first
Papal Nuncio to Italy and will be made a titular Archbishop.

Professor Francesco Pacelli was named General Counselor to the Vatican City.

Cardinal Serafini was confirmed in the Governorship, with Bernardino Nogara as
Treasurer and Camillo Beccari as Secretary-General to the Governor.

Mgr. Pizzardo replaces Mgr. Borgongini-Duca as Secretary of the Congregation of
Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and his place is taken by Mgr. Ottaviani as
Under- Secretary of State.

There were several other changes in offices in conformance with these.

Pope Walks in Garden
Following the exchange of ratifications, Pope Pius did not seem unusually moved. He
took his customary walk for an hour in the Vatican gardens and then returned to his
desk in his private library to expedite current affairs of a routine nature.

What he will do with his new-found freedom is still a matter of conjecture, since the
Pontiff is keeping his own counsel. Public rumor has had it that his first exit from the
Vatican may occur on June 13, 16 or 24, any one of which dates in the Catholic
calendar would provide an occasion.

Also the date on which he will receive the Italian royal family has not been fixed, but
from the tone of today's telegrams the meeting is likely to be in the spirit with which
Abraham Lincoln referred to the Confederate States: "I shall treat them as if they had
never been away."

There has been a tacit understanding that the Pope would visit the Monte Cassino
Abbey some time this Summer, and his native diocese of Milan has clamored for a
visit from him.

				
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