' 2 - Categories EDM 6044 lesson 1 f by changcheng2


									Do the 2 "black and
white" problems on
the guided notes
Last week, problem
solving introduction.
Today, problem
solving building
blocks –concepts.
   A black man is wearing black.
    Black hood, black coat, black pants,
black socks, and black shoes. He walks
down a black road with no street lamps.
A black car comes toward him
with its lights off but stops in time.

♦ How did the driver see the man?
♦ What makes this problem difficult?
What should we know
about "black" and
"white" to fully
understand the song
"Ebony and Ivory"?
To understand a
problem, we use
that affect our
solution ideas.
What is a concept?
It is a category with
 boundaries to show if
 something is or is not
 in the category.
Dog Cat     Rose
Butterfly Love
Who can legally vote
in Hong Kong?
♦ Hong Kong citizen
♦ Over 18 years old
Types of Features
♦ Sufficient features
♦ Necessary feature
♦ Non-essential feature
 Both features together are sufficient.
 Each feature alone is necessary.
Classical Category   Classical

♦ Clear boundaries
♦ Distinct membership
♦ Specific features
Guess my category
♦ List people's names
♦ I'll say if they are or
 are not in the category
♦ Guess the category
What features
must a Chinese
person have?
Most categories do not have
 simple, fixed boundaries.
 So definitions are often not
 clear or precise.Non-classical

   Family Resemblances
 are similarities among
 category / concept members.
A word's many
meanings form
categories that have
family resemblances.
Give an example of
a Chinese person
  (not Ming)
A concept can have
more & less central
( vs. )       .
A robin is a bird. A
quetzal is also a bird.
Robins fly. Do
quetzals fly? What is
your reasoning?
 Reference Point
Think using central
Can an object be
Objects or ideas
associated with a
concept can be
named with it.
Even if we agree on category
definitions, which category should
we use to describe an object?

What am I holding in my hand?

How else could you describe it?
Basic level is the level at which a
 person interacts with the concept.
Basic Level Concepts are easier to
 ♦ Form an image
 ♦ Recognize
 ♦ Express/Describe
 ♦ Learn
 ♦ Remember
   Describe the perfect teacher
• Key concepts      Type of concept
      Concept / Category Summary
Old view
 Define a concept's features only.
 A concept either does or does not fit a problem situation.
        (black or white)
Improved view
 Define concept + its internal structure
      (links among examples)
 A concept might partially fit a problem situation
        (Life is not always black and white).
How to teach?
 Use concepts as building blocks to understand issues.
 Start with basic level concepts
 Highlight main features of each concept.
 Show links among different examples of one concept
 Which parts of a concept match the problem situation?
                        Final Project
♦ Anything related to the topic of problem solving
   - outside CUHK (no library papers)
   - 20-30 hours of effort
♦ Work alone, in pairs, or in a group of 3 or 4 (max: 4).
♦ Submit project proposal by week 3 (1-paragraph in English).
♦ Write a paper (2,000-3,000 words)
    - What did you do? Why and how is it consequential & important?
♦ Teach a person a complex activity & analyze his/her problem solving
    - Computer game, drawing, chess, badminton, ….
♦ Interview people at problem solving sites and compare them
    - Museum, workplace, playground, …

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