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Dropout Prevention in WV

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					Dropout Prevention in WV
          Shelly DeBerry
  Student Success Advocate Coordinator
  West Virginia Department of Education
       sdeberry@access.k12.wv.us
WV Dropout Data 2008-09

   124, 388 total enrolled grades 7 – 12
   3,527 students dropped out grades 7 – 12
   2.8 % statewide dropout rate
   4 counties had 4% and above dropout rate
   19 counties had 3% - 3.9% dropout rate
   3 counties had 0 – 1% dropout rate
   83.3% graduation rate using Leaver rate calculation
    (slightly above the national average)
Dropout Prevention Plan
   National Governor’s Association Grant to establish a
    state-wide dropout prevention plan.
       Policy and program audit

   House Bill 4593 – All counties are to develop a
    dropout prevention plan that includes:
       increasing the graduation rate for the county,
       identifying at the earliest age students who are at risk of
        dropping out and
       provide additional options to at risk students.
      Who Are Students At Risk?

    A student at risk is “someone who is unlikely to
    graduate on schedule with both the skills and the self-
    esteem necessary to exercise meaningful options in
    the areas of work, leisure, culture, civic affairs, and
    inter/intrapersonal relationships.”

                                                      (Bailey & Stegelin, 2003)




                        National Dropout Prevention
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        Dropout Prevention:
        A National Issue
    Students With Disabilities
       Nationwide, dropout rates among students with
        disabilities for all categories of disability combined
        is approximately double that of general education
        peers.
       Dropout rates vary substantially among the
        various categories of disability.

                          National Dropout Prevention
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Teen Pregnancy Statistics

       Teen girls in the bottom 20% of basic reading and math skills
        are five times more likely to become mothers over a two-year
        high school period than teen girls in the top 20%.
       Male and female students with low academic achievement are
        twice as likely to become parents by their senior year of high
        school compared to students with high academic achievement.
        (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2003)




                                                   National Dropout Prevention
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         Grade Retention and
         School Dropout

       One grade –
           increases risk by 40%

       Two grades –
           increases risk by 90%


        (Roderick, M. PDK Research Bulletin, No. 15, 1995)


                                        National Dropout Prevention
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    Characteristics of Dropouts
       Absent more than 10 days
       Participated in no school activities
       Received more counseling
       Disliked school
       Failed 3-5 classes
       Retained one year
       Received 5-9 discipline referrals             (Huffman, K.L., WVU
                                                      Dissertation, 1999)
       Were identified in middle school
                        National Dropout Prevention
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Reasons for Leaving School

       Classes were not interesting                                         47%
       Misses too many days and      43%
        could not catch up
       Spent time with people who                                           42%
        were not interested in school
       Had too much freedom and not 38%
        enough rules in my life
       Was failing in school                                                35%
        (The Silent Epidemic: Perspective of High School Dropouts, 2006)


                                               National Dropout Prevention
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     Students’ Reasons for
      Staying in School
        Supportive family
        Involvement with committed adult
        Persevering attitude
        Respectful relationship with teachers
        Satisfaction with learning experiences
        Relevant curriculum
        Fair discipline policies
         (Christenson et al., 2000)

                                      National Dropout Prevention
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Attendance and Truancy:
The Impact on Dropout


     Truancy (excessive absenteeism) has
      been identified as one of the top ten
      major problems in our schools.

      (DeKalb, J., 1999)




                           National Dropout Prevention
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Compulsory School Age

   House Bill 4593

   Raised to age 17 years old beginning with the
    Freshmen class of 2011-12.
     Variables Associated
     With Dropouts
     Status Variables
        Age, gender
        Socioeconomic background
        Ethnicity
        Native language
        Mobility
        Family structure

         (Lehr et al., Essential Tools, 2004)


                                         National Dropout Prevention
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     Variables Associated
     With Dropouts
     Alterable Variables
        Grades, retention
        Disruptive behavior
        Absenteeism
        School policies, climate
        Sense of belonging
        Attitude toward school
        Support in the home
         (Lehr et al., Essential Tools, 2004)


                                         National Dropout Prevention
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     Categories of Factors Contributing
     To Students Dropping Out


      Individual factors
      Family factors

      School factors

      Community factors




                   National Dropout Prevention
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         Individual Factors

        Lack of future orientation
        Inadequate peer relationships
        Drug abuse
        Pregnancy
        Special learning needs
        Depression


                         National Dropout Prevention
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         Family Factors

        Poverty
        Low expectations
        Abuse
        Mobility of family
        Parent level of education
        Language and literacy levels


                         National Dropout Prevention
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         School Factors

      Lack of program for challenged students
      No significant, interested adult

      Lack of alternatives for learning

      Lack of active learning instruction

      No individual learning plans

      Behavior and discipline issues

      Retention policies



                       National Dropout Prevention
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     Community Factors

        Lack of involvement with schools
        Lack of support for schools
        Non-caring environment
        Low expectations
        Violence
        Few recreational facilities


                      National Dropout Prevention
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                            Center/Network
     While no one factor or even several
     factors put students at risk, combinations
     of factors can help identify potential
     dropouts.




                   National Dropout Prevention
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                         Center/Network
        The Bad News
     About Dropout Prevention
      Awareness is lacking by most people
      Apathy is common and the issue is seen as
       someone else’s problem
      Applied knowledge is not always
       used by decision makers
      Acquisition of information about
       success is inadequate
                        National Dropout Prevention
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                              Center/Network
       The Good News
     About Dropout Prevention
            Identifiable
            Independent
            Interrelated
            Irrefutable


                     National Dropout Prevention
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                           Center/Network
         Sixth Grade Predictors of
         “Falling Off Track”

      Attending school 80% or less of the time
      Receiving a poor final behavior mark

      Failing math

      Failing English


         (Balfanz and Herzog, 2006)




                                      National Dropout Prevention
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                                            Center/Network
        Dropout Prevention Is Not
     Rocket Science
                but it is
                   Brain Surgery                      Academic
                                                     Achievement


                                       Behavior               Civic
                                      Modification        Responsibility




                      National Dropout Prevention
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                            Center/Network
Effective Strategies for Increasing
Graduation Rates



      Dr. Jay Smink, Executive Director
        National Dropout Prevention
                Center/Network
               Clemson University
     A School and
     Community Perspective

Systemic renewal
School and community collaboration
Safe learning environments



              National Dropout Prevention
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                    Center/Network
     Systemic Renewal
        Policies
        Populations
        Personnel
        Programs
        Practices
        Partners
        Pennies
                 National Dropout Prevention
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                       Center/Network
School-Community Collaboration


     Schools can no longer be islands in
     communities with no bridges to the
     mainland. Bridges must be built to
     connect schools, homes, and
     communities.

     (Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2001)


                                     National Dropout Prevention
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                                           Center/Network
Creating Safe Learning Environments

     A Safe Learning Environment
      Provides  a warm and welcoming atmosphere that
       fosters a spirit of acceptance and caring for every
       child
      Is   free of intimidation, violence, and fear
      Clearlycommunicates behavior expectations that
       are consistently enforced and fairly applied
      Builds   positive, responsible character
                            National Dropout Prevention
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                                  Center/Network
Early Interventions
Family Engagement
Early Childhood Education
Early Literacy Development




               National Dropout Prevention
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                     Center/Network
Family Engagement

 When families are engaged in children’s
 learning, students are more likely to:
        Attend school regularly
        Display more positive attitudes about school
        Graduate from high school and enroll in
         postsecondary programs
        Refrain from destructive activities such as alcohol
         use and violence
                                                 (Henderson & Mapp, 2003)


                          National Dropout Prevention
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                                Center/Network
Early Childhood Education

 Impact of Early Childhood Education . . .
 Perry Preschool Study – High-quality Head Start
 programs
      Decreased level of school dropouts
      Lowered truancy

      Reduced teen pregnancy

      Lessened need to be in Special Education
         (Barnett, 1995)


                           National Dropout Prevention
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                                 Center/Network
Early Literacy Development

     Research
        At-risk students who have a strong reading teacher
         for two consecutive years can be successful
         readers. (Wren, 2003)
        Reading aloud to children is the
         single most important activity for
         building the knowledge required for
         success in reading.
         (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2002).

                                           National Dropout Prevention
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                                                 Center/Network
Basic Core Strategies


      Mentoring

      Service-Learning

      AlternativeSchooling
      After-School Program Experiences




                   National Dropout Prevention
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                         Center/Network
Mentoring

 Mentoring has many formats …
 Traditional:      One adult with one student
 Peer:             One older youth with a younger
                   youth
 Group/Team: One or more adults with several
             youth
 Telementoring:    One adult with one youth using
                   the Internet
                    National Dropout Prevention
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                          Center/Network
Service-Learning

     Essential Elements of Good Service-Learning
     Programs
        Integrated into the curriculum
        Active learning
        Interesting and exciting
        Connected to community


                           National Dropout Prevention
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                                 Center/Network
Alternative Schooling

     Innovative Approaches
      Self-contained classrooms
      Magnet schools
      Separate alternative schools
      School-within-a-school
      Residential programs
      Middle College/Early College
                        National Dropout Prevention
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                              Center/Network
         Afterschool Program Experiences

Components of Successful Programs
        Academic focus
        Enrichment and accelerated learning
        Supervised recreation
        Community service
        Collaboration and partnerships
        Active family involvement
                          National Dropout Prevention
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                                Center/Network
Making the Most of Instruction


      Professional development
      Active learning
      Educational technology
      Individualized instruction
      Career and technical education

                    National Dropout Prevention
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                          Center/Network
Professional Development


     The single largest factor affecting
     the academic growth of students
     is the differences in the
     effectiveness of individual
     classroom teachers.

     (Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, Sanders, 1998)



                                           National Dropout Prevention
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                                                 Center/Network
Active Learning


     Teaching Strategies Include
        Cooperative learning
        Multiple intelligences/learning styles theory
        Project-based learning




                          National Dropout Prevention
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                                Center/Network
Educational Technology

     Research on Using Technology
        Is a positive influence on students at risk of failure
         (Day, 2002)


        Teaches “real work applications” to help students
         succeed outside the classroom
        Increases student motivation, raises the success
         rate of students performing complex tasks, and
         changes classroom roles and organization
                        (Means, 1997)

                             National Dropout Prevention
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                                   Center/Network
Individualized Instruction

 Encourages the learner to be the producer
 of knowledge with...
        Problem-based learning & reciprocal teaching
        Peer tutoring
        Cooperative learning
        Journaling
        Hands-on projects
        Role play and simulation
                        National Dropout Prevention
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                              Center/Network
Career and
Technical Education

Career Technical Education (CTE) includes a
wide array of career-based instruction
        K-12 career education
        A comprehensive guidance program
        School- and work-based experiences




                         National Dropout Prevention
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                               Center/Network
Career and
Technical Education

     Impact of CTE
        Enrollment in CTE does not increase the likelihood
         of students dropping out. (USDE, 2003)
        Career guidance increased students remaining in
         school from 50% to 85%. (Bauer, 1992)
        Higher percentages of CTE experiences lower the
         probability of dropping out. (Plank, 2001)

                        National Dropout Prevention
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                              Center/Network
          GRADUATION RATES
                Is it GOOD enough?
                Can we do BETTER?
           What can we do to be the BEST?


     DROPOUT PREVENTION PLAN
       Does it reflect the BEST research available?
            How can we do it even BETTER?
       Will it be GOOD enough for your children?
                      National Dropout Prevention
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                           Center/Network
         Contact Information

       National Dropout Prevention
             Center/Network
           Clemson University
                209 Martin Street
             Clemson, SC 29631-1555
     Phone: 864-656-2599 Fax: 864-656-0136
            E-mail: ndpc@clemson.edu
           www.dropoutprevention.org
                 National Dropout Prevention
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                       Center/Network
“Every school-day in America, 171 school
 buses loaded with children leave school
 never to return. That is our daily
 dropout rate.”




Quoted by Franklin Schargel in his book: "Helping Students Graduate, published by: Eye on
   Education.

				
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