Psychology 101A, Spring 2006 - DOC by HC120104164428

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									PSYCHOLOGY 101A: Winter 2009
Exam #3, VERSION A, KEY

1. Research on lucid dreaming suggests that ______________________________.
   a) it is extremely rare – in one study, only about 10% of individuals reported having at least one
       incident of lucid dreaming in their lives
   b) it is fairly common – in one study, approximately 50% of individuals reported having at
       least one incident of lucid dreaming in their lives
   c) it is not possible to train oneself to increase the frequency of lucid dreams
   d) lucid dreams are easier to interpret than non-lucid dreams

2. Paul Ekman has found a set of facial expressions that seem to be recognizable across cultures and age
groups, one of which is _____________________
   a) Envy
   b) Disgust
   c) Shame
   d) Pride

3. In the Milgram study, participants were led to believe they were actually administering a series of
increasing shocks to another "participant" called the "learner.” In class, we discussed factors that made it
more or less likely for participants to obey instructions fully and administer the full set of "shocks". For
example, when another “learner” (also a confederate of the study) disobeyed the experimenter and refused
to continue, ___________________.
    a) participants were much more likely to obey fully (only 10% refused to continue)
    b) there was no effect on whether participants obeyed the experimenter fully
    c) participants were slightly less likely to obey (55% refused to continue)
    d) participants were much less likely to obey (90% refused to continue)

4. ______________ is a stimulant that affects the dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin systems.
Laboratory monkeys have become so addicted to this drug, they will press a lever 12,000 time to get
another dose.
    a) Cocaine
    b) Heroin (an opiate)
    c) Ecstasy
    d) Marijuana

5. Dana met Drew right before Dana was about to audition for a play and was feeling quite nervous. Sam
and Sasha met when they were at a wine tasting and Sam was feeling quite relaxed. Based on what you
know from Dutton and Aron‟s “Love on a Bridge” study, which of the following outcomes is most likely?
   a) Dana and Drew find companionate love with each other; whereas Sam and Sasha will find
       romantic love with each other.
   b) Sam and Sasha find companionate love with each other; whereas Dana and Drew will find
       romantic love with each other.
   c) Dana will probably ask Drew out on a date because Dana believes the arousal from the
       audition comes from romantic feelings for Drew.
   d) Sam will probably ask Sasha out on a date because of the pleasant feelings of relaxation associated
       with their meeting.
6. During a conversation with your brother, he becomes very interested in your college experience and
asks you what proportion of the student body drives American-made cars. To answer, you think about the
cars you‟ve seen parked on and near campus and estimate how many students drive American-made cars
and how many drive cars made in other countries. You have just used the ________________________
to answer this question.
    a) representativeness algorithm
    b) representativeness heuristic
    c) availability algorithm
    d) availability heuristic

7. After receiving a set of address labels from a non-profit organization, Dr. Bana felt obligated to send a
small cash donation to the organization. Dr. Bana‟s response to the gift best illustrates the impact of
______________.
   a) the mere exposure effect
   b) the just-world phenomenon
   c) the reciprocity norm
   d) the fundamental attribution error

8. Haley‟s parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was very happy about her gift until she
learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle on her birthday. Haley‟s decrease in happiness
with her gift illustrates the _____________________.
    a) relative-deprivation principle
    b) adaptation-level phenomenon
    c) catharsis hypothesis
    d) facial-feedback effect

9. You are sitting on the stairs in Red Square when you see a young woman trip and fall. You think,
“She must be really clumsy.” Then you see several more people trip at the exact same point as she did
and realize there is a loose brick in the square that makes almost everyone trip at that spot. Your initial
judgment that the first woman was particularly clumsy is an example of ____________________.
   a) self-serving bias
   b) the fundamental attribution error
   c) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
   d) cognitive dissonance

10. In the word “cats,” the letter “-s” is ____________________.
   a) neither a phoneme nor a morpheme
   b) a phoneme but not a morpheme
   c) both a phoneme and a content morpheme
   d) both a phoneme and a function morpheme

11. In class, we discussed whether unconscious and conscious processes can occur in parallel
(simultaneously) or serially (one at a time). In particular, research suggests that _________________.
    a) the behavior referred to as “multi-tasking” involves multiple, conscious processes occurring in
       parallel
    b) the behavior referred to as “multi-tasking” involves switching rapidly between multiple,
       conscious processes (i.e., a serial process)
    c) it is not possible to engage in a conscious process and an unconscious process in parallel
    d) it is not possible to engage in two unconscious processes serially (one after another)

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12. The two sentences, “The dog bit the man,” and “The man bit the dog,” differ in _____________.
    a) semantic content but not syntax
    b) syntax but not semantic content
    c) both semantic content and syntax
    d) neither semantic content nor syntax

13. In Solomon Asch‟s studies on conformity, participants were in a room with nine confederates and
asked to judge the length of a line. After all of the confederates gave a clearly incorrect answer, the
participant was asked to give his or her answer out loud. What were the results?
    a) Very few participants (less than 5%) conformed and provided an incorrect answer
    b) On average, participants conformed approximately 90% of the time
    c) On average, participants conformed approximately 37% of the time
    d) If one of the confederates did not conform, it was more likely that the participant would conform
        than if all the confederates gave the incorrect answer.

14. Mildred and William are married and have a problem: sometimes in the middle of the night, William
will start moving violently in bed. For example, one night William repeatedly hit Mildred in the head
with his hand. The next morning, William said that he had been dreaming about playing tennis, which
might have accounted for his arm movements. They visited a sleep specialist who suggested that William
does not experience the full paralysis associated with a particular stage of sleep; in other words, the sleep
specialist has diagnosed William with ____________________.
    a) REM-sleep behavior disorder
    b) narcolepsy
    c) night terrors
    d) sleep apnea

15. According to Sternberg‟s theory of love, consummate love between two people involves which
components?
    a) intimacy, passion, and commitment
    b) intimacy, passion, and infatuation
    c) passion and commitment only
    d) intimacy and commitment only

16. Your friend Elizabeth tells you that she has come up with her own theory of emotion. She says, “I
know it sounds weird, but I think that you really only know what emotion you‟re feeling from what your
body does. So, when you see something scary, your body reacts, like your heart starts racing, and then
you kind of think, „Wow! My heart‟s racing!‟ and then realize that you‟re feeling afraid.” You reply,
“You know, your theory sounds a lot like the ___________________ theory of emotion. We learned
about that in Psychology 101.”
    a) Cannon-Bard
    b) Schachter
    c) James-Lange
    d) two-factor




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17. Over the course of a typical 8-hour night‟s sleep, _________________________________.
    a) we usually only experience one period of REM sleep
    b) we usually only experience one period of deep sleep
    c) the amount of time spent in REM sleep decreases while the amount of time spent in deep sleep
       increases
    d) the amount of time spent in REM sleep increases while the amount of time spent in deep
       sleep decreases

18. In class, we watched a video about the Stanford Prison Study. Which of the following is true about
this famous study?
    a) Approximately 60% of the participants left the study before it ended.
    b) One participant switched from being a prisoner to being a guard.
    c) The study was cut short and did not last the full two weeks as planned.
    d) Participants chose whether they would be prisoners or guards.

19. Two groups of women are taking a math exam. Before the test begins, one group is told that the test
they are about to take measures gender differences in mathematical ability. Research by Claude Steele
and his colleagues suggests that this group will probably _____________________.
    a) perform worse than the other group because of a phenomenon called in-group/out-group effects
    b) perform worse than the other group because of a phenomenon called stereotype threat
    c) perform better than the other group because of a phenomenon called in-group/out-group effects
    d) perform better than the other group because of a phenomenon called stereotype threat

20. In research by Baldwin (1992) that we discussed in class, two groups of 18-month-old infants were
shown a shiny, red toy they had never seen before. In Group #1, the infants‟ mothers looked into an
empty bucket across the room and said, “Wow! A blicket!” In Group #2, the infants‟ mothers looked at
the shiny, red toy and said, “Wow! A blicket!” Then infants in both groups were then shown several toys,
one of which was the same shiny, red toy from before. Then the experimenter asked, “Can you show me
the blicket?” Which of the following best describes the results of this study?
    a) Infants in Group #2 usually pointed to the shiny, red toy, but infants in Group #1 usually
        looked confused.
    b) Infants in Group #1 usually pointed to the shiny, red toy, but infants in Group #2 usually looked
        confused.
    c) Infants in both groups usually pointed to the shiny, red toy.
    d) Infants in both groups usually looked confused.

21. Some psychologists suggest that hypnosis involves dissociation, meaning that when hypnotized,
individuals _________________.
    a) conform to the expectations of the hypnotizer
    b) pretend to be hypnotized when they are not
    c) appear to be hypnotized, but do not experience alleviation of pain
    d) experience a split between different levels of consciousness

22. Olivia knows that she should save money, but continues to shop online almost every day. This
conflict between her beliefs and her behavior leads to a state of tension called _______________.
    a) self-perception theory
    b) cognitive dissonance
    c) an illusory correlation
    d) the fundamental attribution error

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23. After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was
trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head and she started to visualize
the problem in a new way. Amira‟s sudden realization of the solution after a period of time illustrates
_______________.
    a) the belief perseverance phenomenon
    b) the availability heuristic
    c) insight
    d) a mental set

24. You are having lunch with your friend George at a fast food restaurant when he spills ketchup on his
shirt. He reaches for a napkin and realizes he did not pick up any napkins before sitting down. He curses
and says, “EVERY time I forget a napkin, I spill all over myself!” You realize that George is not thinking
of all the times when he spills and does have a napkin or when he does not spill and does have a napkin.
George‟s perception of a connection between the distinctive events of spilling on himself and forgetting a
napkin illustrates _______________________.
    a) fundamental attribution error
    b) an illusory correlation
    c) the representativeness heuristic
    d) in-group/out-group effects

25. One study on napping (Takahashi & Arito, 2000) showed that for sleep-deprived individuals, a nap of
approximately __________________ yielded a temporary enhancement of memory and logical thinking
that lasted an average of three hours.
    a) 90 minutes
    b) 60 minutes
    c) 20 minutes
    d) 5 minutes

26. In the three weeks after your friend Jackie recently found out that her husband was cheating on her,
she became increasingly angry about his actions. She visited a therapist who suggested that Jackie should
engage in some violent but harmless acts, such as punching a pillow and screaming, so as to release her
strong feelings of anger. Jackie‟s therapist‟s advice illustrates the __________________.
    a) adaptation-level principle
    b) James-Lange theory
    c) relative deprivation principle
    d) catharsis hypothesis

27. When light enters the eye, signals from the retina interact with the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the
hypothalamus, which inhibits the activity of the pineal gland, thereby reducing the amount of
________________ released into the blood stream.
    a) adenosine
    b) cataplexy
    c) sugar
    d) melatonin




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28. In our discussion of consciousness, we touched on a case study in which a woman who had damaged
her left visual cortex could not consciously see anything in her right visual field. However, when asked to
guess the location of stimuli presented in her right visual field, her responses were significantly better
than chance. Researchers refer to this individual‟s ability to guess accurately as ________________.
    a) blindsight
    b) perceptual constancy
    c) manifest content
    d) latent content

29. You are visiting a therapist for the first time and you tell her about a dream you had about the Queen
of England. She says that when people dream about queens, they are actually dreaming about their
mothers. The notion that there are universal symbols within dreams that represent the same thing for
everyone is typical of the ___________________ theory of dreaming.
    a) activation-synthesis
    b) problem-solving
    c) dissociation
    d) Freudian

30. A group of individuals who believe the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue.
Research on group interaction suggests that after discussing this topic with a group of like-minded
individuals, the members of the group will be __________________.
    a) convinced that the death penalty should not be abolished
    b) sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished
    c) in favor of a more moderate position on the issue
    d) even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished

31. In class, we discussed individual differences in sleep patterns, and three types of individuals: morning
types (MT), evening types (ET), and neither type (NT). Research on these categories suggests that
_________________.
    a) most people are morning types (MT)
    b) most people are evening types (ET)
    c) most people are neither type (NT)
    d) it is easy to switch from being a morning type (MT) to an evening type (ET) and vice-versa

32. You are walking down the street with your friend Jamie and you see a very attractive woman walking
arm-in-arm with a much less attractive man. Jamie says, “Isn‟t it true that men tend to be in romantic
relationships with women who are more attractive than they are?” You respond by saying, “We learned
about this in Psychology 101 on Valentine‟s Day, and _____________________.”
    a) you‟re right that men tend to be in relationships with women who are more attractive than they are
    b) actually, women tend to be in relationships with men who are more attractive than they are
    c) actually, romantic couples tend to be fairly well matched in attractiveness
    d) actually, both romantic couples and friendship pairs tend to be fairly well matched in
        attractiveness

33. Research about dreaming suggests that __________________________.
    a) very few dreams (~10%) contain negative content or emotion
    b) very few dreams (~10%) are about recent events in people‟s lives
    c) the majority of dreams (~80%) are about childbirth or early infancy
    d) the majority of dreams (~80%) contain negative content or emotion

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34. According to the textbook‟s definition of aggression, which of the following individuals‟ actions
most clearly represent aggression?
    a) A noisy neighbor who often mows his lawn at 8 o‟clock on Saturday mornings
    b) A child who tries to hit another child with a rock
    c) An assertive salesperson who interrupts your evening meal with a telephone sales pitch
    d) A careless motorist who accidentally hits a small child running in the street

35. In an experiment by Schachter and Singer we discussed in class, college men were injected with
epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter‟s accomplice (a confederate) who was told to act
either euphoric or irritated. Some participants (Group A) were told the injection would make them feel
aroused, others (Group B) were told the injection would have no effect. Which of the following best
describes the results?
    a) Most participants in Group A and Group B indicated they experienced the same emotion (either
        euphoria or irritation) as the accomplice.
    b) Participants in Group A tended to experience the same emotion (either euphoria or irritation) as
        the accomplice, but participants in Group B were not influenced by the accomplice‟s emotion
    c) Participants in Group B tended to experience the same emotion (either euphoria or
        irritation) as the accomplice, but participants in Group A were not influenced by the
        accomplice’s emotion
    d) Most participants in Group A and Group B were not influenced by the accomplice‟s emotion

36. According to research on romantic relationships, ____________________________.
    a) companionate love tends to increase over time, whereas passionate love tends to decrease
       over time
    b) passionate love tends to increase over time, whereas companionate love tends to decrease over
       time
    c) both companionate and passionate love increase over time
    d) both companionate and passionate love decrease over time

37. Last week, Jenny received a very good grade on her math exam, but unfortunately, she also lost her
favorite pair of earrings. According to the self-serving bias, Jenny will most likely _______________.
   a) make a dispositional attribution about both the good grade (a positive outcome) and losing her
        earrings (a negative outcome)
   b) make a dispositional attribution about the good grade (a positive outcome) and a situational
        attribution about losing her earrings (a negative outcome)
   c) make a situational attribution about the good grade (a positive outcome) and a dispositional
        attribution about losing her earrings (a negative outcome)
   d) make a situational attribution about both the good grade (a positive outcome) and losing her
        earrings (a negative outcome)

38. After receiving very bad news, people usually __________ the duration of their negative emotions.
    a) overestimate
    b) accurately estimate
    c) slightly underestimate
    d) radically underestimate




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39. Whorf‟s linguistic determinism hypothesis emphasizes that ____________________________.
    a) infancy is a critical period for language development
    b) words shape the way people think
    c) all languages share a similar grammar
    d) our ability to speak multiple languages influences our social status

40. Repeatedly saying the word “me” (or making any “eeeeeee” sound repeatedly) puts people in a better
mood than repeatedly saying “you” (or making any “oooooo” sound repeatedly). The effects of these
actions on mood most clearly demonstrate the ________________________.
    a) catharsis hypothesis
    b) feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    c) adaptation-level phenomenon
    d) facial feedback effect




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