pp Collisions at the Tevatron

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					                   Notre Dame
               High Energy Physics
                  Theory Group

• The Group:
   – 5 graduate students (details later)
   – 1 postdoc
      • David Diego
   – 3 teaching and research faculty
      • Ikaros Bigi, Antonio Delgado, Chris Kolda
      • Kolya Uraltsev (visitor)

• Student Openings: Delgado “yes”, Kolda “possibly”
        Current Students

•   Brian Dudley      -   U.S.
•   Joel Griffith     -   U.S.
•   Pokie Olson       -   U.S.
•   Ayan Paul         -   India
•   Dipajan Ray       -   U.S.
                   Notre Dame
               High Energy Physics
               Experimental Group

• The Group:
   – 7 graduate students (details later)
   – 7 research faculty/postdocs
      • Leo Chan, Dan Karmgard, Jeff Kolb, Nancy Maranelli, Dmitri
        Smirnov, Wenfang Wang, Jadzia Warchol, + new hire
   – 3 technicians plus 1 engineer
      • Jeff Marchant, Mike McKenna, Mark Vigneault, Barry Baumbaugh
   – 6 teaching and research faculty
      • Mike Hildreth, Colin Jessop, Kevin Lannon, John LoSecco
         Randy Ruchti, Mitch Wayne
               Current Students

BaBar:    Kyle Knoepfel     - U.S.

  DØ:     Jyotsna Osta      - India

 CMS:    • Ted Kolberg       - U.S.
         • Jamie Antonelli   - U.S.
         • Sean Lynch        - U.S.
         • Doug Berry        - U.S.
         • David Morse       - U.S.
                Now (15 billion years)

                Stars form (1 billion years)

                Atoms form (300,000 years)

                Nuclei form (180 seconds)

                Protons and neutrons form (10-10
                        we work here
                Quarks differentiate (10-34 seconds?)

                ??? (Before that)

Anna Goussiou
        What is the Universe Made of?
• A very old question, answered many ways during the eons

• The only way to answer this question is by directly confronting
  Nature by experiments that can lead to definite conclusions

• Experiments have told us:
   – complexity often arises from simple building blocks
       • Periodic Table of the Elements, Nuclear Structure
       • fundamental constituents are small particles
   – diverse phenomena can be manifestations of the same
     underlying physics
       • the moon’s orbit, a falling apple
   – intuition may not necessarily be trustworthy
       • our world is really Quantum Mechanical, even though we
         don’t see this in everyday life
      Fundamental Forces of Nature
                               Relative Strengths
•   Gravity                      10-40
•   Electromagnetism             10-2
•   Weak Nuclear Force
                           }   ElectroWeak Force
•   Strong Nuclear Force         1

The ElectroWeak and Strong forces combine to
  form the Standard Model of Particle Physics
             On to “Big Questions”

• Particle Physics experiments may be able to answer

   – What IS mass?
   – Why is there matter at all?
   – What is Dark Matter?
   – What is the space-time structure of the

 Growing synergy between particle and astrophysics
  – both fields working together on these questions
• To answer these, we use the language of
  Quantum Field Theory, the theory that results
  when Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity
  are merged:
• Although very successful from the experimental point of
  view and some predictions have been tested to great
  accuracy, it is far from being a complete theory:
  – the higgs is still to be discovered
  – the rôle of the higgs itself introduces certain problems
     into the theory
• Therefore theorists go beyond the SM in order to address
  questions of physics at TeV scales
• Let me summarize the research interests of the other two
  senior members of the group:
   – Professor Bigi is interested in flavour physics, i.e., the
     physics that deals with the interaction between the
     different families of quarks and leptons. These
     processes are rare in the SM and evidence for new
     physics can come in an excess of some of this effects.
     He is also a susy fan.
   – Professor Kolda is interested in supersymmetry as a
     direction for physics BSM. Supersymmetry predicts the
     existence of new particles to be discovered at the LHC
     and provides us with a nice explanation for the EW
• In my case I am interested in the EW sector and
  studying models that may provide us with an
  explanation of what the higgs is and why it is much
  lighter than the Planck mass
  – There are models where the higgs is a fundamental
     particle and the scale is protected by a symmetry:
     susy, little higgs
  – There are even models without a higgs
• My work is on the study of different models, their
  viability both on the theoretical side, i.e. no
  inconsistencies, and on the experimental side, i.e. they
  do not contradict any measurement we have already
• It is a great opportunity that LHC will start to collect data
  next years and to probe the TeV scale so it will be a
  challenging time for particle physics .
• Because of that we have to take advantage of our
  experimental colleagues that have a major rôle in CMS

• As a last word I should say that the group is also
  interested on any interplay of particle physics and
  cosmology taking into account that there is a very good
  astro group here in ND.
               Experimental Projects
• DØ/CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron
   – proton-antiproton collisions at 2.0 TeV
   – widespread current effort in Run II (soft/hardware, physics)
• BaBar at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
   – e+e- collisions at ~10 GeV
   – Studies of CP Violation, potential effects of new physics
• CMS at the CERN LHC
   – proton-proton collisions at 14.0 TeV
   – detector development, construction, testing, commissioning
   – Quarknet program for H.S. students, teachers
• International Linear Collider
   – R&D on Muon System, Beam Instrumentation

             FERMILAB Accelerator Complex

                          Tevatron                     p

     p source
                        Main Injector
 CDF & DØ Experiments:
                         & particle
 • World’s highest energy Recyclercollisions
 • Search for mechanism of mass generation (Higgs boson)
 • Direct searches for other New Physics
 • Precision measurements of fundamental particles
                 Hildreth, Lannon, Ruchti, Wayne

              International Linear Collider R&D:
              • ILC: explore New Physics at the TeV Scale with
BaBar Experiment:
• Understanding the precision measurements
                     origins of matter in the Universe
                  • R&D: Detector Development at ND,
  (CP Violation and the matter-anti-matter asymmetry) FNAL,
• Searching for new Accelerator Instrumentation at SLAC, KEK
                     physics at high mass scales with
  precision measurements of rare processes               Hildreth, Wayne
          Jessop, LoSecco
             World Travel
      CERN: The Large Hadron Collider

The CMS Experiment at the LHC:
• World’s highest energy collisions (7x Tevatron) starting late 2008
• Focus of High Energy Physics for the next decade
• Search for breakdown of the Standard Model, New Physics at the
  TeV scale. We have no idea what will be found
            Hildreth, Lannon, Jessop, Ruchti, Wayne
Chooz, France

                            Double Chooz Experiment:
                            • reactor-produced neutrinos
                            • Attempt to measure a
                              fundamental parameter of the
                              neutrino mass matrix (ne - nt
                            • understand origin of neutrino
LHC Physics Center at Fermilab
        • Center for US involvement in CMS
           – “local” center of software/analysis
           – preparing to be very active in
             commissioning CMS
        • Close!
        • Easy way to get involved “part time”
           – developing tutorials, example analysis
             packages, etc.
           – nucleus of consultants for newcomers
        • “Senior” ND personnel involved
• Not an easy game, but the payoff could be HUGE
   –   Origin of mass?
   –   Understanding Energy Scales for the Fundamental Forces?
   –   New forms of matter (Supersymmetry)?
   –   Structure of Spacetime
• Tevatron will be collecting up to 2x the current dataset
  over the next 2 years or so, CMS coming very fast
   – lots of scope for new phenomena to appear
• Double Chooz starting very soon
• Fascinating time to be a particle physicist:
   – If we don’t find new things at the Tevatron, the LHC will
       • huge jump in energy and data quantity
   – Within the coming years, we will have answers!
       • (and more questions, of course)

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