Phonological Awareness in the Classroom

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					    Phonological Awareness in
         the Classroom
                                Compiled by
                       Laura Street, Speech Pathologist

                     Nikki Worthington, Speech Pathologist

                 Jane Francis Gooden, Speech Pathologist

Wednesday, January                                           1
04, 2012
                        Outline
     What is Phonological Awareness
     Why is it important
     The pieces of phonological awareness   + activities
     Phonics
     Sight words
     Reading strategies
     Resources and information
     Phonics Vs Whole Language




Wednesday, January                                          2
04, 2012
        Phonological Awareness -
                What??
There are many different „terms‟ used when describing
  early literacy skills and this can be confusing. A list
  of these terms and their definitions has been
  provided.
 Phonological Processing
 Phonological or Phonemic Awareness
 Rapid Automative Naming
 Phonological memory
 Phonics
 Phonology


Wednesday, January                                          3
04, 2012
 Why is Phonological Awareness
          important??

  Research has shown that phonological awareness is the most
   powerful predictor of success in learning to read and spell
                                  (Wagner and Torgeson, 1987)




Wednesday, January                                               4
04, 2012
     Why is Phonological Awareness
              important?
   A study of 288 5-year-old kinder children found that
    children who were successful at performing phonological
    awareness tasks‟ learnt to read words with greater ease
    (Torgesen et all., 1994)

   Catts and Kamhi (2005, p.130) claim that there is now
    “compelling evidence” regarding the importance of
    phonological awareness as a pre-requisite for learning to
    read.




Wednesday, January                                              5
04, 2012
             Phonological Awareness
               and ESL students
Considering    the large number of ESL
   students in Victorian schools – limited
   time is spent explicitly teaching how
   Australian sounds are made.




Wednesday, January                           6
04, 2012
      ESL Students – some facts
Mandarin    – The only final consonants are
   /n/, /ng/ and /r/.

Vietnamese    - /b/ & /d/ do not occur and
   there are no consonant clusters.

Somali    - /b/, /d/, /g/ are devoiced in word
   final and word initial position.

Wednesday, January                                7
04, 2012
             Phonological Awareness
               and ESL students
   Research indicates that all children - irrespective of their
    native language - are likely to benefit from early
    interventions that include phonological awareness training.

   There is a correlation between vocabulary development and
    effective literacy instruction in ESL students.

   When foreign language learners are explicitly taught the
    phonology (sound system) of the new language they are able
    to improve both their ability to learn the target language
    and improve their phonological awareness skills.

Wednesday, January                                                 8
04, 2012
             Phonological Awareness
               and older students.
   Many new arrivals from overseas start at
   school with little or no reading skills.

Those     children still experiencing reading
   difficulty in grades 3/4/5/6 would benefit
   from explicit teaching of the sound system
   as well as improving their phonological
   awareness skills.

Wednesday, January                               9
04, 2012
       The Pieces of phonological
               awareness
                        Word                         Rhyming
                       awareness
                                     Segmenting
                                     words to
                                     syllables
                      Alliteration   Segmenting     Blending


                                                    Practice,
                     Manipulating
                                                    experience,
                       sounds         substitutio
                                                    exposure
                                      n




Wednesday, January                                                10
04, 2012
                     Word Awareness
                      (sentences  words)
The    ability to break up sentences
   into words.
         Mynameislaura       My name is Laura

Compound    words are divided into
   their meaningful parts
         Treehouse        Tree house
                                          Love   and Reilly, 1996




Wednesday, January                                                   11
04, 2012
         Word Awareness Activities

Clap   words in sentences. Select sentences
   of increasing length.

Read   poems and books – students to tap
   each word in selected sentences.



Wednesday, January                             12
04, 2012
                        Segmentation
                        (words  syllables)
Words    can be broken into syllables
   or beats
         1syllable           cat, mouse, etc.
         2 syllable          Walking, doctor
         3 syllable          Hospital, elephant
         4 syllable          supermarket, television
         5 syllable          … abracadabra

         How        many in „supercalafrajelisticexpialidocious‟?


Wednesday, January                                                   13
04, 2012
            Segmentation Activities
         Breaking words into beats/syllables
    Make    a list of 1-5 syllable words. Ask student
       to identify syllables/beats in words by:
         Clapping
         Touching their head or knees
         Jumping
         Tapping
         Clicking
         Hitting a drum etc.
          Ticking or colouring in parts of   a picture


    Love      and Reilly: The Train Game


Wednesday, January                                        14
04, 2012
                     Rhyming
This   requires recognition and
   production of words that rhyme;
   words that end with the same group
   of sounds
         E.g. Which words rhyme: sun, shirt, fun
         E.g. What word rhymes with cat?




Wednesday, January                                  15
04, 2012
                      Rhyming Activities
                      Recognising rhyming words
   Rhyming books – Identify and discuss rhyming words
    (e.g. Dr Seuss). E.g. “Sam and Ham rhyme because they
    have the same sounds at the end. Do „fox‟ and „box‟ and
    box have the same sounds at the end?”
   „Sounds of the Century Quiz‟
    Questions could include:
     Does ……………… rhyme with ……………….?
     Tell me the two words that rhyme: (give four options e.g.
      dog map kite lap)?

   Nursery rhymes – Learn and recite nursery rhymes.



      Wednesday, January                                          16
      04, 2012
                Rhyming Activities
                     Producing rhyming words
   Make silly rhyming sentences by asking the student to
    provide rhyming words e.g. The dog was lost in the…(fog)
   Change a popular nursery rhyme using new rhyming words.
   Sound Detective:
      E.g. I have five fingers and rhyme with band… (hand)


   Older students: Write a rap song.




Wednesday, January                                             17
04, 2012
                        Alliteration
The   ability to identify the first
   sound in words.
         Bat,       scarf, show

Produce   new words that begin with
   the same sound
         Bat,       bird, big, bite, basket



Wednesday, January                             18
04, 2012
                 Alliteration Activities

 Read books involving alliteration. E.g.
   Animalia, Each Peach Plum Pear, Sheep in a
   Shop.

Expand     on character names in books using
   alliteration e.g. „Hector and Maggie‟ =
   „Horrible Hector and Magnificent Maggie‟

Wednesday, January                              19
04, 2012
                      Segmentation
         (beginning, medial and final sounds)
Identification   of how many sounds are in
   words and working out the component
   sounds of blends
    E.g.
         Car       /k/ and /a/
         Cat       /k/, /æ/, /t/
         Skate       /s/, /k/, /ei/, /t/




Wednesday, January                              20
04, 2012
                 Sound Level Activities
                 Segmenting words into sounds
   Eye spy e.g. I spy with my little eye something
    beginning with the sss sound.

   Ask the student to select one word from each page of
    a book and discuss:
     What does the word mean?
     How many sounds (sounds at the start, middle and end)?
     How many letters?
     What does the word rhyme with?
     Does it remind the student of any other words?
     Why is it interesting?
     The student can write the word in a „Cool Words Book‟
       and draw a picture.


Wednesday, January                                             21
04, 2012
                Sound Level Activities

   Discuss the difference between long and short sounds.

   Activity:
     „Test‟    sounds by drawing snakes.
                     „vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv ’


                                   „p‟



Wednesday, January                                          22
04, 2012
•Identify sounds using counters or blocks. Different coloured
counters can be use to represent consonants vs vowels.
•Nonsense words can also be used to prevent reliance on sight
vocabulary.

       c        a    t     “Change the „c‟ sound to a „b‟”


      b         a    t

      b          r   u     sh    “Change the „b‟ sound to a „c‟”


       c         r   u     sh

Wednesday, January                                                 23
04, 2012
                     Blending Sounds
Individual    parts of words, either
   syllables or sounds are given and the
   child is required to „push them
   together‟, and discover the whole
   word
    E.g.       /r/ - /æ/ - /k/  rack


Wednesday, January                         24
04, 2012
                Sound Level Activities
                       Blending sounds
 Love   and Reilly blending activity:
   “I   know a family of „ipets‟ who live underground. They had fifty
      babies last week and each baby has a different name. You find
      the name by putting together the sounds I give you.”
      ar-d, m-ar, f-igh, p-oy-l, j-ar-g, s-n-ee etc

      Extend on the length and complexity of the words by inculding
      longer words and words containing consonant clusters.




  Wednesday, January                                                     25
  04, 2012
                      Manipulating Sounds
The   ability to change sounds in words
   around
    E.g.
         take       the first sounds from
                     Bake  ache
                     Brake  rake
         Second       sound from
                     Smack    sack




Wednesday, January                           26
04, 2012
                      Substituting Sounds
The   ability to substitute one sound in a
   word for another sound.
    E.g.
         take       the /s/ and substitute with /p/
                     sale    pale


         take       the /n/ and substitute with /t/
                     snake    stake



Wednesday, January                                     27
04, 2012
 Phonologicalawareness activities require concept
  knowledge e.g. first, beginning, middle, last, end,
  noisy/quiet etc.
     Ensure  students have the necessary concept knowledge in
       order to be able to comprehend and complete tasks.

 Make  activities fun, exciting and active. Be
  creative!! Incorporate the use of art, craft,
  musical instruments, imaginary play, ball games
  etc.
 Think of new ways to use the resources you
  already have.

Wednesday, January                                               28
04, 2012
                     Phonics
    The knowledge of the letter/sound
               relationship

Children    with reading difficulties
   often lack confidence and knowledge
   in the area of phonics.

Wednesday, January                       29
04, 2012
                         Phonics:
                     Australian Sounds
In order to teach phonics it is important
 to understand how Australian sounds are
 made.
There are 44 sounds in Australian - English
 and this group of sounds is comprised of:
24 consonants and
20 vowels


Wednesday, January                             30
04, 2012
                 Describing sounds
Speech sounds are usually described using the
  following terms:

 Manner - how
 Placement - where
 Voiced/voiceless – vocal chords or not




Wednesday, January                              31
04, 2012
                 Describing sounds
Manner              – refers to the type of
 sound.
Placement – refers to the position of
 the articulators involved in making
 the sound.



Wednesday, January                             32
04, 2012
          Voiced Vs Voiceless
Voiced sounds are produced when the
 vocal folds vibrate i.e. /d/ or /a/
Voiceless   sounds are produced
   without the use of the focal folds
   which are left open i.e. /t/ or /s/


Wednesday, January                       33
04, 2012
                     http://www.sil.org/Mexico/ling/glosario/E005bi-OrgansArt.htm



Wednesday, January                                                                  34
04, 2012
                     Teaching Phonics
 Tools     of the trade:
     ABC Chart
     Consonant flash cards
     Vowel flash cards – short   and long
     Blend flash cards

 Drill:
     What sound does each letter make?
     What letter corresponds with each      sound?

 In order to achieve reading proficiency students require a
   high level of fluency in this area i.e. Immediate recall of
   sounds and letters.

Wednesday, January                                               35
04, 2012
   Emphasise the difference between „sounds‟ and „letters‟.
       Sounds are noises we make using our mouth, lips, tongue and
        teeth.

                     We hear and say sounds.
       Letters are used to represent sounds in words.

                 We see and write letters.
       Discuss single sounds that are represented by two letters e.g.
        ch, sh, th

   “That‟s the letter. Now tell me the sound?”


Wednesday, January                                                       36
04, 2012
 Cued       Articulation
   (Jane Passy) can be used in
    classroom activities to provide   ‘p’ as in pick
    visual cues for the
    discrimination of sounds e.g.
    Story time focusing on a
    particular sound.

 Cued    Articulation Song
    (see handout).

    Each sound has a
    corresponding colour.



Wednesday, January                                     37
04, 2012
                     Sight Words
Knowledge    of the most frequently
   occurring words in text allows poor readers
   to access a great deal of the text they
   encounter without having to resort to
   decoding skills that they might not have
   yet mastered. (Multilit website)
These    words need to be learnt by rote and
   children should be able to read them
   quickly and consistently.
Wednesday, January                               38
04, 2012
                     Sight Words
There are a number of word lists
 available including:
Magic 100 words – M100W
Making up lost time in literacy –
 MULTILIT
Words should be placed on
 flashcards and practiced regularly
Wednesday, January                    39
04, 2012
                Reading Strategies
 Choose  a quiet place to work with minimum
   distractions.
 Select  an appropriate seating arrangement so that
   the student can see your face.
 Follow the students lead. Discuss pictures and
   word meanings.
 Use  modelling, repetition and positive
   reinforcement.

Wednesday, January                                     40
04, 2012
                 Reading Strategies
               Pause, Prompt and Praise
   Pause = When child comes across an unknown word pause
    before offering any help
   Prompt = If the child is still unable to decode the word then
    provide a clue. These may include providing the first sound,
    reading the rest of the sentence to gain context and
    discussing features of the word
   Praise = Praise the child regularly for fluent, accurate
    reading and when they are able to decode an unfamiliar
    word.




Wednesday, January                                                  41
04, 2012
                     Reading Strategies
                          Fluency
Fluent   readers are able to recognise,
   predict and decode text quickly and
   efficiently.

Dysfluent    readers have difficulty
   retrieving words and sounds rapidly and
   consistently which leads to slow and
   laboured reading.

Wednesday, January                           42
04, 2012
                     Reading Strategies
                     Improving Fluency
 Ensure  the child is reading books that match their
   reading ability. Children on a whole should be able
   to read 85% of the words in a book.

 Read  each page to the student prior to them
   having a go.

 Read     the same book more than once


Wednesday, January                                       43
04, 2012
      Free Resources on the World
               Wide Web
www.freereading.net
www.readingrockets.org
www.loveandreilly.com.au
www.speech-language-therapy.com
www.starfall.com
www.spellingcity.com
www.ictgames.com


Wednesday, January                  44
04, 2012
            Commercial Resources
Books and games are available from:
www.acer.edu.au/acerpress
www.loveandreilly.com.au
www.linguisystems.com (USA)
www.blacksheeppress.co.uk ( England)
www.funstuff.com.au
www.superduperinc.com (USA)

Wednesday, January                      45
04, 2012
           Whole Language Vs Phonics
                    Quote
Sometimes when I put my special
 education hat on, I see this
 controversy [whole language vs.
 phonics] as simply another issue of
 accessibility…



Wednesday, January                     46
04, 2012
Installing ramps at building entrances
  doesn‟t keep me (a temporarily able
  bodied person) out, but it does allow
  others in. Providing a sign language
  interpreter for a public meeting
  doesn‟t keep me from listening to the
  speakers, but it does allow our deaf
  citizens to participate..


Wednesday, January                        47
04, 2012
Teaching decoding and phonemic
 awareness doesn‟t hinder those lucky
 children who would become readers
 almost effortlessly, but it does allow
 those children who need the explicit
 instruction to become readers too.
 It allows them to access the world of
 literacy..


Wednesday, January                        48
04, 2012
If you think about it, opening up the
  world in this way also has benefits
  for the rest of us. In the first
  example, those of us who may be
  pushing a child in a pram can use the
  ramps that were originally installed
  for users of wheel chairs.



Wednesday, January                        49
04, 2012
In the second example, as I‟m listening
  to the speaker, I can perhaps benefit
  from the interpreter‟s use of body
  language and other nonverbal
  expression to enrich my
  understanding of the speaker‟s
  intentions.



Wednesday, January                        50
04, 2012
Surely, there is such an enrichment for
 the able reader who is exposed to the
 wonderful songs, word play, and word
 games that we use for teaching,
 decoding and phonemic awareness.
                     - Paula Stanovich, 2000




Wednesday, January                             51
04, 2012
Wednesday, January   52
04, 2012
       Thank you for your attendance.




Wednesday, January                      53
04, 2012

				
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