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					Typology of Phonetic and
Phonological Systems of
  English & Ukrainian
PHONETIC SYSTEM OF A
     LANGUAGE

           PHONEMES

       Vowels            Consonants
 monophthongs
            diphthongs
   VOWELS IN ENGLISH &
       UKRAINIAN
• The number of vowels      • The number of vowels
  in English is 20 out of     in Ukrainian is 6 only:
  which 12 are                [i, e, u, a, o, y]
  monophthongs [ɪ, ı:,
  e, æ, ɒ, ɔ:, ⋀, ɑ:,
  υ, u:, ɜ:, ə]. The
  other 8 are
  diphthongs: [eı, ɜυ,
  ɑɪ, ɑυ, ɔɪ, ɪə, ɛə,
  υə].
    CLASSIFICATION OF THE VOWELS
    ACCORDING TO THE HORIZONTAL
       POSITION OF THE TONGUE
            English        Ukrainian

Front       ı: ɪ e æ       і е и

Central     ɜ: ə ⋀         -

Back        ɑ: ɔ: ɒ υ u:   аоу
   CLASSIFICATION OF THE VOWELS
ACCORDING TO THE VERTICAL POSITION
           OF THE TONGUE
                 English     Ukrainian

High variation   ı: ɪ u: υ   іиу

Mid-open         е ɜ: ə ⋀    ео

Narrow           æ ɑ: ɔ: ɒ   а
variation
CONSONANTS IN ENGLISH
    & UKRAINIAN


  In English – 24   In Ukrainian – 32
GROUPS OF CONSONANTS ACCORDING TO
  THE ROLE OF VOICE AND NOISE IN
     FORMING THE CONSONANTS

noise (the majority): voiced, voiceless;
sonorant: [m, n, r, l, w, j, ŋ], [м, н, нʹ р,
                                           ,
  рʹ л, j, в].
     ,
      GROUPS OF CONSONANTS
     ACCORDING TO THE WAY OF
     PASSING THE OBSTRUCTION
 plosive: [p, t, k, b, d, g], [б, п, д, дʹ, т, тʹ, ґ,
  к];
 fricative: [f, v, θ, ð , s, z, ʒ, h, j], [в, ф, з,
  зʹ, с, сʹ, ж, ш, г, х];
 affricative: [tʃ, dʒ], [дж, дз, ч, ц, цʹ, дзʹ].
  GROUPS OF CONSONANTS
ACCORDING TO THE PLACE OF
      OBSTRUCTION



In English: bilabial,       In Ukrainian: bilabial,
 labiodental, alveolar,        labiodental, alveolar,
                               median, back-lingual,
 median, back-lingual,
 post-alveolar [r, ʃ, ʒ],      dental [д, т, л, лʹ, н].
   interdental [ð, θ].
      GROUPS OF CONSONANTS
    ACCORDING TO THE PLACE OF
          OBSTRUCTION

• bilabials: [p ,b, m, w], [п, б, в, м];
• labiodentals: [v, f ], [ф];
• alveolar [d, t, z, s, n, l, tʃ, dʒ], [дʹ, тʹ, нʹ, ц,
  цʹ, ч, ш, з, зʹ, дзʹ, дз, с, ж];
• median: [j], [й, р, рʹ];
• back-lingual [k, g, ŋ], [ґ, к, х];
• glottal [h], [г].
          STAGES OF
        ARTICULATION
          retention stage
the                         the off-
on-                           glide
glide
    MERGING OF STAGES
       p            a:

p                        a:
           a:   p
INTERPENETRATION OF
     STAGES (I)
        t   l



t   l           t   l
INTERPENATRATION OF
     STAGES (II)
      t   ð

t     t   ð    ð
    INTERPENETRATION OF
         STAGES (III)
          N   n

N                   n
     ARTICULATORY
TRANSITIONS OF PHONEMES
• POSITIONAL                  • COMBINATORY
  – reduction                  –   assimilation
  – devoicing at the end of    –   dissimilation
    the words                  –   accommodation
  – prothesis                  –   haplology
                               –   dieresis
                               –   epenthesis
                               –   metathesis
                               –   substitution
                               –   elision
 Assimilation is a phonetic process
   when two adjacent consonants
within a word or at word boundaries
 influence each other in such a way
  that the articulation of one sound
  becomes similar or even identical
with the articulation of the other one.
       Assimilation may affect:

• - the work of an active organ, e.g., congress;
• - the point of articulation as in, e.g., congratulate;
• - the manner of production of noise, e.g., in let me
  as [ˈlemɪ];
• - the work of vocal cords, e.g., gooseberry;
• - the lip position, e.g., twenty;
• - the position of the soft palate, e.g., sandwich.
DEGREES OF ASSIMILATION

                       Assimilation


   Complete                Partial            Intermediate
      When the               when an                when an
  articulation of an        assimilated           assimilated
     assimilated        consonant retains     consonant changes
   consonant fully      its main phonetic       into a different
 coincides with that       features and       sound, but doesn’t
 of an assimilating       becomes only         coincide with the
         one.            partly similar in        assimilating
                       some features of its       consonant .
                        articulation to an
                       assimilating sound.
TYPES OF ASSIMILATION
                     Assimilation


 Progressive          Regressive           Double
   an assimilated      an assimilated       adjacent
    consonant is        consonant is       consonants
 influenced by the   influenced by the   influence each
     preceding           following            other.
     consonant.          consonant.
      When the articulation of a sound is
changed under the influence of the
neighbouring sound in the course of
language development assimilation is
historical.
      Contextual assimilation takes place
when the articulation of a sound changes
under the influence of the neighbouring
sounds in rapid colloquial speech or in
the living language.
     When a sound is influenced by an
adjoining sound assimilation is called
contact.
     When a sound is influenced by a
distant one assimilation is called distant.
Such cases are not typical of Present-day
English and Ukrainian Phonetics
(желізо – залізо).
   ACCOMMODATION
In accommodation the accommodated
sound doesn’t change its main
phonemic features, and is pronounced
as a principal variant of the same
phoneme slightly modified under the
influence of a neighbouring sound.
      In rapid colloquial speech certain
notional words may lose some of their
sounds. This phenomenon is called
elision. Elision can be historical and
contemporary. The English language is
full of “silent” letters; which bear
weakness to historical elision: e. g., walk,
knee, knight, castle, корисний, сонце,
чесний. In rapid colloquial speech
certain notional words may lose some of
their sounds: e. g., phonetics.
      The omission of certain syllables is
called haplology, rare in English (Englalond
> England), but spread in Ukrainian
(мінералологія - мінералогія,
трагікокомедія - трагікомедія). In rapid
colloquial speech certain notional words may
lose some of their sounds.
      The same concerns metathesis – the
change of syllables / sounds within a word
(суворий, намисто, ведмідь, бондар; third >
ðridda).
       The phenomenon opposite to assimilation in
which one of two similar phonemes is changed as a
result of their interaction is called dissimilation, but
the phenomenon of dissimilation is not typical of
present-day English & Ukrainian Phonetics: cf.,
Pluraris – Pluralis (in Latin) and Plural (in English);
верблюд, лицар.
        Substitution results into the use of a sound
typical of a particular language instead of the
resembling sound of another language (тези – міф,
архів).
       Epenthesis is the addition of an alien sound
into the existing sound complex: e. g., the French
word advantage is changed into the English word
advantage; ofn > ofen > oven; павук, Іспанія.
       Devoicing of the voiced consonants at
the end of words. It is not typical of English
though the sounds [b], [d], [g] may be seldom
partly devoiced. This phenomenon is typical
of Ukrainian (дід, дуб).
       Prothesis is the introduction of an extra
initial sound. Very rare in both languages
(вісім; Latin schola > Spanish escuela).
       Sounds in speech can be reduced, i.e.
change their quality or even fall out when
unstressed. This phenomenon is called
reduction.
TYPES OF REDUCTION

                       REDUCTION


QUANTITAT              QUALITATIVE
                        the quality of a
                                           ZERO
   IVE                 vowel is changed.   the omission of
the reduction of the                       a vowel
length of a vowel is                       or a consonant.
 observed without
changing its quality
         TYPES OF SYLLABLE

Depends on the   Depends on the Depends on the
stress           initial sound  final sound

 Stressed        Covered       Close



 Unstressed      Uncovered     Open
                A SYLLABLE
          • OPEN                      • CLOSE
open syllables (are, ear, а-   close syllables (art, act,
  раб);
                                 ось).
open covered syllables (we,
  play, ми, два).                The number of close
                                 syllables in English
  The number of open             (73%) exceeds their
  syllables in English           number in Ukrainian
  contains 27% & in              (34%).
  Ukrainian – 66%;
SYLLABLE FORMATION &
  SYLLABLE DIVISION
1)   an unstressed short vowel, a long monophthong or a diphthong separated
     from a succeeding stressed vowel by a consonant sound, forms an
     uncovered open syllable: ago, alike, elect, idea, осінь, араб;
2)   when 2 vowels are separated from each other by a cluster of consonant
     sound the syllable boundary lies before the consonants: agree, asleep,
     admire. It isn’t so in Ukrainian: ін-ші, ох-кав;
3)   an unstressed short vowel, a long monophthong or a diphthong used
     after a single consonant or a cluster of consonants and before the
     following syllabic consonant forms an open covered syllable: Ukraine,
     together, turkey, houses;
4)   a short stressed vowel [ɒ, e, æ, ⋀, υ] separated from the following
     single syllabic consonant always occurs in a close syllable. The
     boundary separating the syllable is within the consonant: lit|tle, fat|ten;
5)   a short vowel separated by 2 consonants forms with the succeeding
     consonants a close syllable. Hence, the boundary between the syllables
     lies after the following consonants: nice–ly, good–ness, hot–ly.
  Word-stress as singling out one or more
           syllables in a word
• English word stress is • Ukrainian word stress
  dynamic with a tonetic   is dynamic with a
  component.               duration component.
• It is free.            • It is free.
• English rhythm is      • Ukrainian rhythm is
  stress-timed.            syllable-timed.
            TYPES OF STRESS

                       TYPES OF STRESS


  Word stress            Sentence stress          Logical stress


Dynamic (force) -   Quantitative        Tonetic (Japanese,      Depending
(Ukrainian,         (Greek)             Chinese, Norwegian,     on the place
English)                                Lithuanian)             within the
                                                                word




                             Stable (Czech,                Free
                            Hungarian, Polish,          (Ukrainian,
                            Georgian, French)            English)
TYPES OF WORD STRESS
 • PRIMARY    • SECONDARY
             In English falls on the
             syllable separated
             from the nuclear
             syllable by one
             unstressed syllable:
             pro˛nunci'ation,
             ˛recog'nition, etc.
         WORDS WITH TWO
            STRESSES
      • ENGLISH                    • UKRANIAN
•  Compound adjectives:          Such cases are
  'well-'known, 'absent–
  'minded, etc.                  optional:
• Composite verbs also have      за′гально′освітній,
  two primary stresses, e. g.,   ко′ристо′любивий.
  to 'get 'up, to 'give a'way,
  etc.
• Words with the prefixes:
  un-, in-, dis-, sub-, ex-,
  under-, re-.
        INTONATION


Intonation is a complex unity of
speech melody, sentence stress,
tempo, pausation, and timbre.
            FUNCTIONS OF
             INTONATION
• to divide an utterance into sense groups; that is to
  organize human utterances semantically;
• to organize utterances into groups according to the
  demands of communication;
• intonation organizes utterances syntactically as
  well defining clauses of coordination and
  subordination;
• the emotive aspect of utterances can be defined
  and expressed only by means of intonation.

				
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posted:1/4/2012
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