MUSCULAR, SKELETAL, AND INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS

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MUSCULAR, SKELETAL, AND INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS Powered By Docstoc
					MUSCULAR, SKELETAL, AND
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMS
      Body organization

Cells  Tissues  Organs 
 Organ Systems  Organism
     4 Types of Tissue
1. Connective Tissue-
   Support, protect, and
   insulate- blood, bone
2. Nervous Tissue- nerve
   cells and their supporting
   cells.
3. Muscle Tissue- 3 types
   (smooth, cardiac,
   skeletal) to hold body
   together and permit
   motion
4. Epithelial Tissue-lines
   and protects most of the
   parts of the body.
Summarize the importance of skin
in maintaining homeostasis in the
              body.
The integumentary system has multiple roles in
 homeostasis, including protection (immune and
 defense??), temperature regulation, sensory
 reception, biochemical synthesis, and absorption.
 Not to mention keeping the body and its cells from
 drying out.
Its parts are skin, hair, and nails.
 Largest organ of the body (~15% total body
 weight)
Identify the different layers of the skin
        and their components
Epidermis: Outer layer
 Protects against
   infection
 Thin layer of flattened,
  dead cells containing
  keratin- helps water proof
  the skin and protect living
  cells
 Melanocytes- determine
  skin color through the
  production of melanin.
 Cells live for 1 month
  dead cells are constantly
  coming off.
DERMIS- Second layer of
skin:
•Sweat glands –sweat
evaporates off skin and cools
body
•Blood vessels- dilate
 and constrict to
 regulate temperature
•Lymph vessels
•Nerves
•Varies in thickness
•Oil glands
•Hair follicles
            Vitamin D
 When exposed to ultraviolet
  light, skin cells produce vitamin
  D, a nutrient that aids the
  absorption of calcium into the
  bloodstream.
    Identify the major cause of skin
                 cancer
 Skin cancers are a
  rapidly growing portion
  of all cancers
  diagnosed each year.
 Increased sun
  exposure and a
  decreased ozone layer
  are a major cause of
  cancer.
  3 Major Kinds of Skin Cancer
 Basal Cell Carcinoma



 Squamous Cell Carcinoma



 Melanoma
           Skeletal System

Function of Skeleton:
 Support
 Protection
 Assists in movement
 Storage of minerals
 Production of blood cells
 Storage of chemical energy
         Two Major Divisions
 Axial: skull and supportive bones such as
  vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
 Appendicular: Bone of the arms, legs,
  shoulder, pelvic girdle
Structure of the bones:
 Bones grow from their ends, in the cartilage
  plates
 Bone marrow found in the middle of bones
  produces red and white blood cells
 Main types of bone tissue:
  – Compact Bone – Hard, compact outer covering of
    bones which provide the greatest strength
  – Sponge Bone – Less dense inside layer of bones
    with lots of holes
              Types of Joints
Types of Joints   Types of         Examples
                  Movement
Ball-and-socket   All types        Shoulders and
                                   hips
Pivot             Rotation         Top of spine


Hinge             Bending and      Elbows,
                  straightening    knuckles, knees
Gliding           Sliding motion   Wrists and
                                   ankles
     Types of connective tissue
 Cartilage-bears
  mechanical stress
  without distortion.

 Ligament-tough band
  that connects bones to
  bones.

 Tendon-thick band that
  attach muscle to bone.
Objective 5
Disorders of the Skeletal System

 Leukemia- a kind of cancer in which
  abnormal white blood cells multiply in an
  uncontrolled manner.
 Osteoporosis- a disease resulting in the
  loss of bone tissue. The cancellous bone
  loses calcium, become thinner and may
  disappear altogether.
 Fracture- broken bone.
Types of fractures
            3 Types of Muscle
Skeletal Muscle

   Skeletal movement
   Attached to bones
   Contractions are short and strong
   Maintain body temperature
   Supports soft tissue (gut)
   Voluntary muscle
Smooth Muscle
 Found in internal organs and blood
  vessels.
 Made up of sheets of cells ideally shaped
  to form a lining for organs. (digestive,
  reproductive tracts).
 Contractions slow and prolonged.
 Squeezes, exerts pressure on organ it
  surrounds
Cardiac Muscle

 Found only in the heart.
 Involuntary
 Adapted to conduct the electrical impulses
  necessary for rhythmic contraction.
 Slow to fatigue

				
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posted:1/4/2012
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