to kill a mockingbird study guide1 by 572pMwfm


									                               To Kill a Mockingbird
                                         Study Guide


To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                  Page 1
Pre-Reading Discussion:

            To develop an understanding of what stereotypes are and where they come from
            To understand the negative impact stereotypes can have on a group
            To expose and disprove stereotypes that exist
       Task: Analyze various stereotypes that exist and discuss their impact.
       A stereotype is a way of "labeling" categories of people in rigid ways - usually, unfavorable ways.

       The novel we are about to read is based around the impact of stereotypes and how they can tear a group

       Looking at the labels below, do they carry connotations that are stereotypical. If so, what are the
       qualities that are attached to the stereotype? Are some labels themselves clearly negative words that are
       substitutes for favorable, or at least neutral, terms?
                 Jock                        Preppie                     Bookworm
                 Dude                        Lawyer                      Motorcyclist
                 Grunge                      Townie                      Cheerleader
                 Babe                        Tomboy                      Gamer
                                             Redneck                     Computer Geek

What common stereotypes are there today that are not on the list? What impact are they having?

What impact do stereotypes have on people? Groups? Society as a whole?

How have stereotypes impacted our school? Country? World?

What we can do in the fight against stereotyping?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                       Page 2
Activity I
Only rarely will an author directly state during what time period a story is taking place, but because the
historical context of a story can be critical to the story, as in this case, the author does give us some clues. The
following sentence contains an allusion that allows us to date thistime period very accurately: “Maycomb
County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself.”
The sentence alludes to a line in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address, delivered to the United
States on March 4, 1933. After reading the four enclosed paragraphs from this speech, state what you know
about the conditions facing the country during the years this story took place.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s
First Inaugural Address
Washington, D.C., March 4, 1933
I am certain that my fellow Americans expect that on my induction into the Presidency I will address them with
a candor and a decision, which the present situation of our nations impels. This is preeminently the time to
speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly. Nor need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our
country today. This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let
me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself–nameless, unreasoning, unjustified
terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a
leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves, which
is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.
In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only
material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen;
government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the
currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their
produce; the savings of may years in thousands of families are gone.

More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence and an equally great number
toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.
Yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the
perils which our forefathers conquered because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be
thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a
generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. Primarily this is because the rulers of the exchange
of mankind’s goods have failed, through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted
their failure, and abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous moneychangers stand indicted in the court of public
opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.

What is the goal of his speech? Outline his main points and what they mean!

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                         Page 3
Introductory Research Project
It will be your job to teach the class about your topic so that they fully understand it. YOU CANNOT WRITE
    1. Language in Story (Mrs. Kitze-Ward)
    2. Author
            a. Find out the who, what, were when, why and how about Harper Lee’s life.
            b. How did her family influence this novel? (names) How did her upbringing influence TKAM?
            c. Why did she write this book? Where did the basis for this story come from?
    3. Setting Information: Black Tuesday, The Great Depression & the New Deal (Herbert Hoover)
            (Find images for as many of these as possible – CITE your images)
            a. Where does the story take place? What real place does that represent?
            b. What was this place like during the 1930’s? What was the South like in the 1930’s?
            c. Define what each of these things were during the 1930’s.
            d. Outline a 5 point timeline of the Great Depression
            e. What was life like for those living during this time?
    4. Life in the 1930’s:White v. Black (For each of yours find text and image – CITE your images)
            a. What were living, eating, etc conditions like for African Americans v. white people?
            b. What was education like?
    5. Jim Crow Laws
            a. What were they? Why were they created?
            b. What does Jim Crow mean?
            c. Read the laws and pick the ones that bother you the most to share out.
    6. Ku Klux Klan
            a. What was their role during the 1930’s? How did they impact life during this time?
    7. Scottsboro Boys Information
            a. What were the trials about?
            b. Who were they? What happened? Explain the trial. What happened to the boys?
            c. Who were the girls involved? What was wrong with their story?
            d. What was the result of the trials/
    8. Ku Klux Klan
            a. What happened to the KKK in the 1930’s?
            b. What had the KKK done previously – describe major events and players in the movement.
    9. Literary Terms
            a. Allusion                                                    g. Flat or Static character
            b. Characterization                                            h. Foreshadowing
            c. Climax                                                      i. Imagery
            d. Coming of Age                                               j. Inference
            e. Dialect                                                     k. Loss of Innocence
            f. Dynamic characters                                          l. Mood
            m. Symbol                                                      n. Theme
Did you find credible research for your project that you cited correctly in a Works Cited? 5 4 3 2 1 0
Did you answer all of the research questions completely and thoroughly? 5 4 3 2 1 0
Did you present your information to your team in a meaningful and interesting way? 5 4 3 2 1 0
Did you appear to understand your content area? It should NOT be regurgitated! 5 4 3 2 1 0

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                               Page 4
Research Project Jigsaw

                          AUTHOR: Harper Lee


To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward         Page 5
              Life for Whites                            Life for Blacks

                                         Jim Crow Laws

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                     Page 6
        Ku-Klux Klan

             Scottsboro Boys

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward   Page 7
Literary Terms
   1. Allusion

   2. Characterization

   3. Coming of Age

   4. Dialect

   5. Dynamic characters

   6. Static character

   7. Foreshadowing

   8. Imagery

   9. Inference

   10. Loss of Innocence

   11. Mood

   12. Symbol

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward   Page 8
Map Activity
A. On the attached map, identify Alabama and shade in the other Southern states.
B. From the narrative in Chapter 1 and a map, locate the real city of Mobile and the actual Alabama River.
C. Mark the spot on the map where you think Finch’s Landing might be. Harper Lee sets it on the banks of the
Alabama River, some forty miles northeast of Saint Stephens, which is located on the Tombigbee River.
D. Locate where the fictional town of Maycomb would be. Lee places it some twenty miles neast of Finch’s
E. Speculate how this specific geographic location might affect the plot of To Kill A Mockingbird.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                 Page 9
Important Quotes
Please find the quotes and identify the speaker and why it’s important.
1. "I maintain that the Ewells started it all, but
    Jem, who was four years my senior, said it
    started long before that. He said it began the
    summer Dill came to us, when Dill first gave us
    the idea of making Boo Radley come out." (3)

2.    “Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired
     old town when I first knew it.” (6)

3. “The Cunninghams never took anything they
   can’t pay back – no church baskets and no scrip
   stamps. They never took anything off of
   anybody, they get along on what they have.
   They don’t have much, but they get along on it.”
   (Chp. 2, p.26)

4. "You never really understand a person until you
   consider things from his point of view--. . . --
   until you climb into his skin and walk around in
   it." (Chp. 3, p. 39)

5. “’Haven’t you ever walked along a lonesome
   road at night and passed by a hot place?’ ‘A
   Hot Steam’s somebody who can’t et to heaven,
   just wallows around on lonesome roads an’ if
   you walk through him, when you die you’ll be
   one too an’ you’ll go around at night suckin’
   people’s breath –“ (Chp. 4 p.49)

6.    “You are too young to understand it, ... but
     sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is
     worse than a whiskey bottle in the hand of--oh,
     of your father." (Chp. 5, p. 45)

7. "There are just some kind of men who--who're
   so busy worrying about the next world they've
   never learned to live in this one, and you can
   look down the street and see the results." (45)

8. “Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is
   on the public streets.” (p.46)

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                    Page 10
9. “The main one is, if I didn’t I couldn’t hold up
   my head in town. I couldn’t even represent this
   county in legislature, I couldn’t even tell you or
   Jem not to do something again” (Chp. 9, p. 75)

10. "Simply because we were licked a hundred
    years before we started is no reason for us not
    totry to win." (76)

11. "When a child asks you something, answer him,
    for goodness' sake. But don't make a production
    of it. Children are children, but they can spot an
    evasion quicker than adults, and evasion simply
    muddles 'em." (Cp. 9, 87)

12. “Your father’s right, Mockingbirds don’t do one
    thing but make music for us to enjoy. They
    don’t’ eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in
    corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their
    hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a
    mockingbird” (Chp. 10, 90)

13. "You're lucky, you know. You and Jem have the
    benefit of your father's age. If your father was
    thirty you'd find life quite different." (90)

14. Maybe I can tell you. If your father’s anything,
    he’s civilized in his heart. Marksmanship’s a
    gift of God, a talent – oh, you have to practice to
    make it perfect, but shootin’s different from
    playing the piano or the like. I think maybe he
    put his gun down when he realized that God had
    given him an unfair advantage over most living
    things. I guess he decided he wouldn’t shoot till
    he had to, and he had to today. . . . People in
    their right minds never take pride in their
    talents” (98)

15. "The one thing that doesn't abide by majority
    rule is a person's conscience." (Chp. 11, 105)

16. "I wanted you to see what real courage is,
    instead of getting the idea that courage is a man
    with a gun in his hand. It's when you know
    you're licked before you begin but you begin
    anyway and you see it through no matter what.
    You rarely win, but sometimes you do." (112)

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                    Page 11
17. "It's not necessary to tell all you know. It's not
    lady-like--in the second place, folks don't like to
    have somebody around knowin' more than they
    do. It aggravates 'em." (Cp. 12, 126)

18. “I know now what he was trying to do, but
    Atticus was only a man. It takes a woman to do
    that kind of work.” (Chp. 13, p. 134)

19. "I'll tell him you said hey, little lady." (Mr.
    Cunningham to Scout) (Chp. 15, p. 154)

20. “In Maycomb, grown men stand outside in the
    front yard for only two reasons: death &
    politics” (p. 193)

21. “A mob is always made up of people no matter
    what.” (210)

22. “People generally see what they look for and
    hear what they listen for, and they have a right
    to subject their children to it.” (233)

23. "I try to give 'em a reason, you see. It helps
    folks if they can latch onto a reason." (Chp. 19,
    p. 200)

24. "Cry about what, Mr. Raymond?" "Cry about
    the simple hell people give other people--
    without even thinking." (Chp. 19, p. 201)

25. "I don't know, but they did it. They've done it
    before and they did it tonight and they'll do it
    again and when they do it-- seems that only
    children weep. Good night." (Chp. 22, p. 213)

26. "It's like bein' a caterpillar in a cocoon, that's
    what it is," he said. "Like somethin' asleep
    wrapped up in a warm place." (Jem about being
    a child in Maycomb) (p. 215)

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                    Page 12
27. "There ain't one thing in this world I can do
    about folks except laugh, so I'm gonna join the
    circus and laugh my head off." "You got it
    backwards, Dill," said Jem. "Clowns are sad, it's
    folks that laugh at them." "Well, I'm gonna be a
    new kind of clown. I'm gonna stand in the
    middle of the ring and laugh at the folks. Just
    looks yonder," he pointed. "Every one of 'em
    oughta be ridin' broomsticks." (p. 216)

28. "Serving on a jury forces a man to make up his
    mind and declare himself about something. Men
    don't like to do that. Sometimes it's unpleasant."

29. "I guess Tom was tired of a white men’s
    chances and preferred to take his own.” (236)

30. "They’re perfectly willing to let him do what
    they’re too afraid to do themselves – it might
    lose ‘em a nick. They’re perfectly willing to let
    him wreck his health doing what they’re afraid
    to do, they’re . . .” (236)

31. "Jem how can you hate Hitler so bad an' then
    turn around and be ugly about folks right at
    home--" (Chp. 26, p. 247)

32. "Let the dead bury the dead this time, Mr.
    Finch." (Chp. 30, p. 276)

33. “Well, it’d be sort of like shootin’ a mocking
    bird, wouldn’t it?” (276)

34. “Atticus was right. One time he said you never
    really know a man until you stand in his shoes
    and walk around in them. Just standing on the
    Radley porch was enough.” (Chp. 31, 279)

35. “Atticus, he was real nice.”
    “Most people are, Scout, when you finally see
    them.” (281)

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                   Page 13
Year Time of Year             Chapter                          What Happens: Part 1
1933 Early summer                1       Introduction. Arrival of Dill. Children try to get Boo to come out.
      September                  2       Scout starts school: Miss Caroline Fisher. Description of
                                         Cunningham family.
      September                  3       Burris Ewell upsets Miss Caroline. Ewells described.
1934 Late   spring/early         4       Boo leaves gifts in tree. Dill comes back to Maycomb.
      Late spring/               5       Children attempt to send Boo a letter.
      early summer
      Late summer                6       Children try to spy on Boo.
      October/November           7       Boo leaves more gifts. Hole is filled with cement. Tom arrested
                                         for alleged rape
      Winter                     8       Cold winter. Snow in Maycomb. Miss Maudie's house burnt.
      Christmas                  9       Atticus agrees to defend Tom Robinson. Scout fights Cousin
1935 February                   10       Atticus shoots Tim Johnson (a rabid dog).
      Spring                    11       Jem beheads Mrs. Dubose's camellias and has to read to her. She
                                         overcomes her morphine addiction and dies.
                                                                        Part 2
      Summer                    12       Children go to First Purchase church with Calpurnia. Aunt
                                         Alexandra arrives.
      Summer                    13       Aunt Alexandra entertains Maycomb's ladies.
      Summer                    14       Dill returns to Maycomb.
      Summer                    15       The Old Sarum mob tries to lynch Tom. Scout intervenes and
                                         saves him.
      Summer                    16       The trial begins. The children sit in the black people's balcony.
      Summer                    17       Heck Tate (sheriff) testifies, followed by Bob Ewell.
      Summer                    18       Mayella Ewell testifies.
      Summer                    19       Tom Robinson testifies. Dill cries at the cross-examination of
      Summer                    20       Scout and Dill meet Dolphus Raymond outside. Atticus sums up
                                         for the defense. The children are found to be in the court.
      Summer                    21       The jury returns a verdict of guilty on Tom..
      Summer                    22       Jem cries at the verdict. Atticus receives presents from black
                                         community. Bob Ewell spits at Atticus and vows revenge.
      Summer                    23       Atticus is not frightened by Bob's threat.
      August                    24       The missionary circle meets for tea. News comes of Tom's death.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                               Page 14
      September                  25      School starts again. Miss Gates teaches about Hitler and the
      September                  26      B.B. Underwood writes an editorial on Tom's death.
      October                    27      Bob Ewell attempts revenge on Judge Taylor and Helen
                                         Robinson. Atticus is not worried. A pageant is planned.
      October                    28      Jem and Scout go to the pageant. Bob attacks them but is found
      October                    29      Scout describes the attack - Boo is revealed as the children's
      October                    30      Atticus thinks Jem has killed Bob Ewell. Heck Tate proves that it
                                         was Boo.
      October                    31      Boo and Scout go to see Jem. Scout takes Boo home.

Chapter 1 Activity
In small groups, discuss what you notice about the town of Maycomb, specifically; what is apparent
about the different families, the pace of the town, and the racial divisions? List what you notice, making
references to the text. Next, discuss how each item on your list may influence the story and add an
element of verisimilitude. Write your comments beside each item. Be prepared to present your list and
commentary to the class.
Come up with a list of 5 things:





To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                               Page 15
Part II: Mood
A. In addition to providing information about time and place, physical descriptions of a place can create
a feeling in the reader by setting a mood for the story. How would you describe the feeling or mood set
by Harper Lee in the beginning of the book? What specific words contribute to the mood?
“Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets
turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow, it was
hotter then: a black dog suffered on a summer’s day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in
the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men’s stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning.
Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-o’-clock naps, and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with
frostings of sweat and sweet talcum.
People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of the stores around it,
took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer. There was no
hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside
the boundaries of Maycomb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people:
Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself.”

B. Think of a neighborhood with which you are very familiar. Describe that neighborhood and, in your
description, try to set a mood. The mood you strive to create could be one of boredom, excitement, or
any other emotional feeling.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                            Page 16
Chapter 1
1. Who is the narrator of this novel?

2.   How do we know that the narrator is an older person looking back to her youth?

3. What other information do we get in the first two paragraphs?

4. What is the setting of the novel?

5. What is the mood of Maycomb?

6. What do you learn in this chapter about Maycomb, Atticus Finch and his family?

7. Describe Calpurnia.

8. What do you learn about Dill's character?

9. What began the misery of the Radley house?

10. What, briefly, has happened to Arthur “Boo” Radley.

11. Why does the Radley place fascinate Scout, Jem and Dill?

Chapter 2
1. Why is Scout so looking forward to starting school?

2. Why does Jem not want anything to do with Scout at school? Is his behavior typical of an older

3. What do we learn about the Cunningham clan?

4. What do you think of Miss Caroline Fisher as a teacher? Can you find qualities which would make
   her good or not so good at her job?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                         Page 17
5. What picture of Atticus, as a father, do we get in this chapter?

Chapter 3
1. Who are the Ewells, and why are they allowed special privileges?

2. What compromise does Atticus make with Scout?

3. Who is Calpurnia? What is her place in the Finch household?

4. What is Walter Cunningham like? What does his behavior during lunch suggest about his home

5. What do you think of the way Atticus treats Walter?

6. Does Scout learn anything from Walter's visit? What do you think this is?

7. Atticus says that you never really understand a person “until you climb into his skin and walk around
   in it”. What does this mean? Is it an easy thing for Scout to learn? (In the last chapter of the novel,
   Scout repeats this, but she changes “skin” to “shoes” - this is probably not a mistake: Harper Lee
   suggests that Scout cannot clearly recall exactly what Atticus said.)

8. What do you learn in this chapter about the Ewells?

Comparison/Contrast Chart: Complete the Comparison/Contrast Chart for the Ewells and
  Burris Ewell and Family                                      Walter Cunningham


To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                            Page 18
Chapter 4
1. What does Scout think of current fashions in education?

2. What game do the children make up in this chapter? Do you think the game is an accurate version of
   what happens in the Radley’s home?

3. What information does Scout give us at the end of this chapter? Who do you suppose was inside the
   house and what did Scout hear?

4. What might be the cause of the laughter from inside the house?

Chapter 5
1. Describe Miss Maudie Atkinson? How typical is she of Maycomb's women? What do the children
   think of her?

2. When Miss Maudie says, “but sometimes the Bible in the hands of one man is worse than a whisky
   bottle in the hands of—oh, of your father.” What person is she criticizing, and what is the point of
   her criticism?

3. The children view Boo Radley as a strange and frightening figure. How do Miss Maudie and Atticus
   view Arthur Radley?

4. What does Miss Maudie tell Scout about Boo? How does this compare with what Scout already

5. Scout claims that “Dill could tell the biggest ones ” (lies) she ever heard. Why might Dill have told
   such lies?

6. What reasons does Atticus give for the children not to play the Boo Radley game? Do you think he
   is right? Why?

Chapter 6
1. Describe what the children were doing in the Radley yard and what they saw that made them run

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                            Page 19
2. Why is it important to Jem that he go back and get his pants before morning?

3. What line indicates that Jem decided what they did was wrong?

5. What might account for Jem’s change of heart?

Coming of Age Activity
In American literature, stories about young people frequently have “coming of age” as a major theme.
Of the three young people in this story, which one do you suppose is going to be the major character
who begins to understand the world? On the accompanying chart, list the reasons one might argue for or
against each character being the protagonist.

               Identifying the Protagonist Through His or Her Coming of Age
                  Reasons For                              Reasons Against




To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                         Page 20
Chapter 7
1. Jem has been acting odd since he went to get his pants that night. What surprised him that night?

2. Who do you suppose was responsible for the gifts in the knothole and Jem’s pants? Why does he do

3. Why is Jem so upset the knothole is plugged?

4. Why is Jem crying at the end of this chapter?

Chapter 8
1. Why does Atticus make the children leave the house and stand in front of the Radley house?

2. Who put the blanket around Scout’s shoulders and what does Jem realize?

3. What does Atticus mean when he says, “looks like all of Maycomb was out tonight, in one way or

4. Why does Scout quiz Atticus about his visit to the Radley house? How much does Atticus tell her?

5. What is the “near libel” which Jem puts in the front yard? How do Miss Maudie and Atticus react to

6. Why does Atticus save Miss Maudie's oak rocking chair?

7. Explain what Atticus means by telling Jem not to let his discovery “inspire ” him to “further glory”?

8. Is there any reason why Jem might now do as his father says?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                           Page 21
Mood Activity
Descriptive writing uses words to create visual images. Notice in the following paragraph that we are
able to see Miss Maudie and Scout sitting on the porch, as well as the sky and birds they observe.
Through the use of specific details, the writer conveys a mood, an image, and imagery. “In
summertime, twilights are long and peaceful. Often as not, Miss Maudie and I would sit silently on her
porch, watching the sky go from yellow to pink as the sun went down, watching flights of martins sweep
low over the neighborhood and disappear behind the schoolhouse rooftops.”

As you read, record any passages from the text that you feel are rich in both visualizing an image and
mood. On the right side of the chart, identify the mood or feeling the excerpt conveys to the reader.

                          Descriptive Images that Convey Mood
   Description                                  Identify Mood/Feeling/Sense Emphasized

“Summer was our best season: it was sleeping on
the back screened porch in cots, or trying to sleep in
the treehouse; summer was everything good to eat;
it was a thousand colors in a parched landscape; but
most of all summer was Dill.”

“Ground, sky and houses melted into a mad
palette, my ears throbbed, I was suffocating.
could not put out my hands to stop, they were
wedged between my chest and knees.”

“Every night sound I heard from my cot on the
back porch was magnified three-fold; every scratch of
feet on gravel was Boo Radley seeking revenge, every
passing Negro laughing in the night was Boo Radley
loose and after us; insects splashing against the screen
were Boo Radley’s insane fingers picking the wire to
pieces; the chinaberry trees were malignant, hovering,
alive. I lingered between sleep and wakefulness until I
heard Jem murmur.”

“The moon was setting and the lattice-work shadows
were fading into fuzzy nothingness. Jem’s white
shirt-tail dipped and bobbed like a small ghost
dancing away to escape the coming morning. A
faint breeze stirred and cooled the sweat running
down my sides.”

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                           Page 22
Chapter 9
1. How well does Atticus feel he should defend Tom Robinson? Is it usual for (white) lawyers to do
   their best for black clients in Alabama at this time?

2. Why does Atticus think that he can’t win Tom Robinson’s case?

3. Who calls Scout a coward; why does she walk away?

4. Why is Atticus worried about Scout learning to “keep her head” in the next few months?

5. In the last sentence of this chapter, what does Scout mean?

Chapter 10
1. Why is it a sin to kill a mockingbird?

2. Why are the children a little disappointed and a little ashamed when they compare Atticus to other

3. What does Atticus do that surprises the children and makes them feel proud?

4. Why does Jem say that they should not tell anyone at school about the incident?

5. Near the end of this chapter Atticus cuts off Heck Tate as he is speaking to Jem. What might Heck
   have been about to say, and why would Atticus want to stop him from saying it?

Chapter 11
1. Describe Mrs. Dubose.

2. Why does Jem knock the top off her flowers?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                          Page 23
3. What does Atticus mean when he says, “The one thing that doesn’t abide by majority rule is a man’s

4. What is Jem’s punishment for knocking the tops off of Mrs. Dubose flowers? Why is the time period
   extended each day?

5. What does Atticus say real courage is? Why, in Atticus's view, was Mrs. Dubose “a great lady”?

6. Chapters ten and eleven are the last two chapters in the first part of the book. Explain why Harper
   Lee chooses to end the first part here.

Plot & Theme Activity
Review the list below and decide which incidents support each plot line:

Plot Line #1: “The Mystery of Boo Radley”
Plot Line #2: “Jem Grows Up”
Plot Line #3: “The Trial.”
Record the incidents on the Plot Chart in the appropriate categories. Note: Some events may seem to fit
in more than one category because plot lines frequently intertwine. Select the plot line that seems the
best fit to you and be able to support your decision.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                           Page 24
You will have to add events of your own. Most of the major ones have been included here.
Chapter 1
Jem and Scout meet Dill.
Dill dares Jem to touch the Radley house.
Chapter 4
Jem and Scout find gifts in the oak tree.
The children act out Boo’s life story.
Chapter 5
Miss Maudie remembers Arthur Radley as a boy.
Chapter 6
Jem loses his pants.
Chapter 7
Jem tells Scout that he found his pants folded and mended.
Chapter 8
Boo Radley covers Scout with a blanket.
Chapter 9
Scout gets into a fight with Cecil Jacobs.
Scout fights with Francis.
Chapter 10
Atticus kills the rabid dog.
Chapter 11
Jem reads to Mrs. Dubose

Plot line #1 - The Mystery of Boo Radley


Plot line #2 - Jem grows up


Plot line #3 - The Trial


Theme Portion
Now you must identify the emerging theme for each of the plot lines and enter it in the appropriate space on the
chart. Some potential themes are:
Loss of Innocence
Man’s Inhumanity to Man
Coming of Age
The Nature of Evil
The Brotherhood of Man
To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                   Page 25
Chapter 12
1. At the beginning it is apparent that this is novel which deals with the passage of a youth from innocence to
maturity. In what sense is Jem “coming of age”?

2. Why does Cal speak differently in the Finch household, and among her neighbors at church?

3. The mature narrator (Scout) seems to be upset by the way both the African-American and white churches
regard women. What is it specifically that upsets her about what the churches teach?

4. What is “linin’” and why is it done?

Chapter 13
1. Why does Aunt Alexandra come to visit?

2. How does Aunt Alexandra involve herself in Maycomb?

3. What are her ides on family and breeding? How does Atticus feel?

Chapter 14
1. How does Atticus explain rape to Scout?

2. What does Jem tell Scout she should do when dealing with Aunt Alexandra and how does she react to his

3. Why does Dill run away from home?

4. What does Jem do that shocks Dill and Scout?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                    Page 26
Chapter 15
1. What is the mood in Maycomb as the trial approached; what is Jem worried about?

2. Why does Jem think that something is wrong when Atticus leaves?

3. For what reason do the men come to the jail? What group are they part of?

4. How does Scout stop them?

Chapter 16
1. What does Atticus say about mobs and men over the breakfast table?

2. What is significant about Mr. Dolphus Raymond?

3. What news does Scout get from the “Idlers’ Club”? What is it that confuses her?

Chapter 17
1. Who is the first person to take the stand and testify?

2. What does Atticus spend much of his time asking Mr. Tate?

3. Where do the Ewells live, and what does this say about their social position in Maycomb county?

4. How does Mr. Ewell act when he first takes the stand, and how does Judge Taylor react to him?

5. What is Mr. Ewell’s version of what happened?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                               Page 27
6. Why does Atticus want Ewell to write his name?

Chapter 18
1. What is Mayella’s version of what happened?

2. Why does Mayella think that Atticus is mocking her?

3. What is Atticus’ strategy in questioning Mayella?

4. What is wrong with Tom Robinson’s arm?

5. What question is the key to Tom’s defense?

Chapter 19
1. What did Mayella do to get the other children out of the house?

2. What did Tom’s running away from the Ewell’s house suggest? What else could he have done?

4. Why does Dill begin to cry?

4. What is Tom actually guilty of?

Chapter 20
1. Why does Dolphus Raymond drink Coca-Cola and pretend it is liquor?

2. How does Dolphus Raymond explain Dill’s crying?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                         Page 28
3. How is Atticus’ closing statement in defense of Tom Robinson also an attack upon racism?

Chapter 21
1. Why is Jem so certain that Tom Robinson would be acquitted?

2. What is unusual about how long it takes the jury to reach a verdict? Is the verdict predictable or not?

3. As Scout waits for the verdict, she thinks of earlier events. What are these and how do they remind us of the
   novel’s central theme?

4. What does Reverend Sykes say about his experiences in court?

Chapter 22
1. What does Atticus mean when he says, it “seems that only children weep”? Why does he think it’s good for
the kids to know what goes on?

2. Why do the African-American folks in town bring food to Atticus and how does Atticus react?

3. Why does Dill want to be a clown when he grows up?

3. What does Miss Maudie mean when she says, “…we’re making a step–it’s just a babystep, but it’s a step”?

5. How does Jem use a metaphor of a cocoon to describe himself?

6. Do you think Bob’s threat is real?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                       Page 29
Chapter 23
1. How does Atticus take the threat that Bob Ewell makes?

2. If Tom is found guilty on appeal, what will his punishment be? Why?

3. Atticus says, “…it’s all adding up and one of these days we’re going to pay the bill for it.” What is he
   referring to?

4. At the end of this chapter, what conclusion does Jem draw about Boo? What led him to this conclusion?

Chapter 24
  1. Who are the Mrunas and who is J. Grimes Everett?

   2. What are some of the popular opinions among the missionary circle concerning blacks?

   3. Why does Aunt Alexandra thank Miss Maudie with her eyes?

   4. What is ironic about the concern the ladies of the Missionary Society have for the living conditions of
      the Mrunas?

   5. Why did Tom run for the fence?

Chapter 25
1. Why does Scout say that Jem is getting more like a girl?

2. To what did Mr. Underwood’s editorial compare Tom’s conviction and death?

3. What remark does Mr. Ewell make on hearing of Tom’s death and what seems to be the significance of the
remark? Why does Jem not want to tell Atticus? Do you agree?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                    Page 30
Chapter 26
1. How does Scout feel about the way they once treated Boo Radley?

2.   What do the children talk about in current events?

3. Why is Scout surprised that her teacher hates Hitler?

4. Why does Jem react so violently when Scout asks him this question?

Chapter 27
1. What are some of the things Bob Ewell starts doing?

2.   What is different about Halloween this year? Why?

3. What is Scout’s role in the pageant; of what is her costume made?

Chapter 28
1. Comment on the way this chapters reminds the reader of earlier events in the novel.

2. What is the night of the pageant like?

3. How does Scout feel about Jem in this chapter; what does she say about him?

4. On the walk home, how does Scout’s costume turn out to be a life-saver? What happens by the tree?

5. Who do you suppose the villain is? Who would you guess the hero to be?

6. What does Heck Tate find under the tree?

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                 Page 31
Chapter 29
  1. When do you suppose Boo Radley came out of his house?

   2. How does Scout describe Boo?

Chapter 30
  1. Who does Atticus think killed Bob Ewell? Why doesn’t he want it covered up?

   2. Who really did stab Ewell, and why did Heck decide not to tell anyone of this? Why does Heck insist
      that Bob Ewell’s death was self-inflicted? Is this true?

   3. What does Scout compare Boo’s exposure to?

Chapter 31
  1. How do the events of the final chapter explain the first sentence of the whole novel?

   2. Comment on the way the writer summarizes earlier events to show their significance.

   3. What are some of the words Scout uses in this chapter to describe Boo Radley?

   4. What is going through her mind as she stands on the Radley’s front porch?

   5. What is Atticus’ final statement about people?

   6. At the end of the story, Atticus reads to Scout. Comment on his choice of story. Does it have any
      connection with themes earlier in the novel and in its ending.

Character Chart:
In order to follow the intermingling of the characters in the small Maycomb community of To Kill a
Mockingbird, you will be creating a character flow chart (see example below) which illustrates the connections
they share. Taking all of the characters from the novel, you will create a chart, detailing the description of each
character, the major role they play in the story, and using color-coded lines, the ways in which they

Follow the steps below when creating your chart:

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                      Page 32
   •   On an 8 ½” x 11” sheet of paper write all of the characters in the story from the attached pages.
   •   Spread them out so that you have plenty of room for drawing arrows and filling in the important details
       of each relationship
   •   Draw arrows connecting each character as they relate to other characters. Then, along each of the arrow
       lines, fill in all the details of each particular relationship.
   •   Write a brief description of each character.
   •   Draw or find pictures from the Internet or from magazines that represent each character. There are
       plenty of sites and magazines where you can find pictures of people to use.
   •   Create a system of color-coding your chart lines to help in understanding the different relationships.
       (How you do this is up to you to decide—example topics: family connections, friend connections,
       professional connections, enemy connections, etc.)
   •   Remember, as always, the key is to be as neat as possible.

To Kill a Mockingbird Characters
Miss Maudie Atkinson: Maudie Atkinson is a strong, supportive woman who lives across the street from the
Mr. Avery: A good-natured if somewhat coarse neighbor of the Finches who helps fight the fire at Miss
Maudie's house at risk to his own Life.
Calpurnia: She has helped to raise Jem and Scout since their mother's death four years ago.
Stephanie Crawford: The "neighborhood scold" who is always ready to gossip about anything or anyone.
Walter Cunningham Jr.: A poor but proud classmate of Scout's.
Walter Cunningham Sr.: He paid for legal service with goods such as firewood and hickory nuts; he has pride
Link Deas: A local farmer who once employed Tom Robinson.
Mrs. Gertrude Farrow: One of the hypocritical members of Aunt Alexandra's missionary circle.
Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose: The mean neighbor who Jem and Scout have to read to.
Bob Ewell: He is despised by Maycomb society as a shiftless drunkard. He provides little support to his large,
motherless family, and is reputed to beat his children (and perhaps sexually abuse them too, as Mayella's
testimony hints).
Mayella Ewell: The eldest daughter of Bob Ewell, Mayella Ewell lives a lonely life keeping house for her
father and seven siblings without assistance.
Atticus Finch: Atticus Finch, Scout's widowed father, is a member of one of Maycomb County's oldest and
most prominent families.
Miss Caroline Fisher: Scout's first-grade teacher who is a newcomer to Maycomb. She misunderstands the
social order of Maycomb and punishes Scout for trying to explain it.
Miss Gates: Scout's hypocritical third-grade teacher who condemns Hitler's persecution of the Jews even as she
discriminates against her own students and complains about blacks "getting above themselves."
Jack Finch (aka Uncle Jack or John Hale Finch): Atticus's younger brother, a doctor who left Maycomb to
study in Boston.
Aunt Alexandra (aka Alexandra Finch Hancock): Atticus's sister, Alexandra Finch Hancock, is a
conservative woman concerned with social and class distinctions and bound to the traditions of the South. She
tries to counteract her brother's liberal influence on his children by reminding them of their family's eminence
and by trying to make Scout behave in a more ladylike manner.
Scout Finch (aka Jean Louise Finch): The narrator of the novel, Jean Louise "Scout" Finch is almost six years
old at the time her story begins.
Jem Finch (aka Jeremy Finch): Four years older than his sister Scout, Jeremy "Jem" Finch seems to have a
deeper understanding of the events during the three years of the novel, for his emotional reactions to them are
Francis Hancock: Scout and Jem's cousin and Alexandra's grandson.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                  Page 33
Mr. Gilmer: The circuit prosecutor from Abbottsville who leads the case against Tom Robinson.
Rachel Haverford: Dill Harris's sympathetic aunt, who lives next door to the Finches.
Dill Harris (aka Charles Baker Harris): Small and devilish, Charles Baker "Dill" Harris is Scout and Jem's
summer friend.
Grace Merriweather: A member of Alexandra's missionary circle who has a reputation as the "most devout
lady in Maycomb" even though she is a hypocritical bigot.
Boo Radley (aka Arthur Radley): A local legend for several years, Boo is rumored to wander the
neighborhood at night and dine on raw squirrels and cats. He has spent the last fifteen years secluded in his own
Nathan Radley: Boo's hardhearted older brother who spoils Boo's secret game with the children by filling the
empty treehole with cement.
Dolphus Raymond: A local man from a good white family with property who has a black mistress and
children. He fosters a reputation as a drunk to give townspeople a reason to excuse his flaunting of social
Reverend Sykes: The minister of Maycomb's black church.
Heck Tate:The sheriff of Maycomb who is sympathetic towards Atticus and who insists on keeping Boo
Radley's role in the death of Bob Ewell a secret.
Tom Robinson: Tom Robinson is a mild-mannered, conscientious black man whose kind acts earn him only
trouble when Mayella Ewell accuses him of rape.
Judge John Taylor: The deceivingly sleepy but fair judge whose sympathy for Tom Robinson can be seen in
the fact that he appointed Atticus, whom he knew would do his best, as Robinson's public defender.
B. B. Underwood (aka Braxton Bragg Underwood): The owner and editor of the local newspaper who was
ready to defend Atticus and Tom Robinson from the lynch mob with a shotgun even though he is known to
"despise" black people.

Theme Topics

JUSTICE                                                     RESPONSIBILITY
MALE ROLE MODEL                                             FAIRNESS
PARENTING                                                   CITIZENSHIP
COURAGE                                                     Education:
                                                            Race Prejudice
                                                            Social Class Prejudice


Sex Prejudice

Respect of the Individual.

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                                                                   Page 34
JUGGLE LETTERS 1 - To Kill A Mockingbird
Miss Maudie's flowers
It plugged up the tree hole.
= 3. ILAJ
It housed Tom Robinson while he waited for a trial.
= 4. MAR
Tom's left one had been cut off.
= 5. KLIN
Mr. Deas; He escorted Helen
= 6. RIEF
It destroyed Miss Maudie's home.
= 7. OUSTC
Two of these carved from soap were in the tree.
= 9. HBC
Dill's initials
=10. WELLE
Bob or Mayella
=11. LALU
Woman at Cal's church who made Scout feel unwelcome.
=12. RTLAI
Process by which innocence or guilt is determined
What one gets at school
=14. OOB
Object of the Radley Games
Place from which Scout watched the trial

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                 Page 35
JUGGLE LETTERS 2 - To Kill A Mockingbird
= 1. SEKAC
Miss Maudie made little ones for the children.
Gossipy neighbor
= 3. BCH
Dill's initials
= 4. AHM
Scout's pageant costume
Name of the town and county
Preconceived idea
What one gets at school
Time of year when Dill visited usually
=10. AILJ
It housed Tom Robinson while he waited for a trial.
=11. OT
___ Kill A Mockingbird
=12. ISKD
Scout, Jem and Dill, for example; children
Finch housekeeper, cook & nanny
=14. IKLL
To end the life of something
=15. BOO
Object of the Radley Games

To Kill a Mockingbird: Mrs. Kitze-Ward                Page 36

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