802.11 and NICsPart 3 by WaringpyGuonadayclup

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									Ch. 2 – 802.11 and NICs
   Part 3 – 802.11 PHY
Topics

• Overview of Waves
• EM Spectrum
• 802.11 PHY Physical Layer Technologies
     – PLCP
     – PMD
•   802.11 Technologies
     – FHSS – 802.11
     – DSSS- 802.11
     – HR/DSSS – 802.11b
     – OFDM – 802.11a
     – ERP – 802.11g
•   Comparing 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g
Overview of Waves
Overview of Waves




• Wave is a “disturbance or variation” that travels through a medium.
• The medium through which the wave travels may experience some
   local oscillations as the wave passes, but the particles in the medium
   do not travel with the wave.
    – Just like none of the individual people in the stadium are carried
       around when they do the wave, they all remain at their seats.
Waves
www.ewart.org.uk




•   Waves are one way in which energy can move from one place to another.
•   The waves that you see at the beach are the result of the kinetic energy of
    water particles passing through the water.
•   Other types of energy (such as light, heat, and radio waves) can travel in this
    way as well.
Waves
www.ewart.org.uk




•   The distance between 2 peaks (or 2 troughs) is called a
    wavelength
•   The deepest part of a trough or the highest part of a peak
    is called the amplitude
•   The frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass by
    in 1 second
Longitudinal Waves

www.ewart.org.uk




•   Longitudinal sound waves in the air behave in much the same way.
•   As the sound wave passes through, the particles in the air oscillate back and
    forth from their equilibrium positions but it is the disturbance that travels, not
    the individual particles in the medium.
•   Rick talks in a loud voice.
•   When he talks he causes the air near his mouth to compress.
•   A compression wave then passes through the air to the ears of the people
    around him.
•   A longitudinal sound wave has to travel through something - it cannot pass
    through a vacuum because there aren't any particles to compress together.
•   It has a wavelength; a frequency and an amplitude.
Transverse Waves                                                interactive
                                                                activity 3.1.1




•   Transverse waves on a string are another example.
•   The string is displaced up and down, as the wave travels from left to right, but
    the string itself does not experience any net motion.
•   A light wave is a transverse wave.
•   If you look at the waves on the sea they seem to move in one direction ....
    towards you.
•   However, the particles that make up the wave only move up and down.
•   Look at the animation, on the right, although the wave seems to be moving
    from left to right the blue particle is only moving up and down.
Sine waves




• The sine wave is unique in that it represents energy entirely
    concentrated at a single frequency.
•   An ideal wireless signal has a sine waveform
•   With a frequency usually measured in cycles per second or Hertz
    (Hz).
•   A million cycles per second is represented by megahertz (MHz).
•   A billion cycles per second represented by gigahertz (GHz).
Sine waves

      Go to interactive activity
      3.1.2 Amplitude and
      Frequency


• Amplitude – The distance from zero to the maximum value of each
    alternation is called the amplitude.
      – The amplitude of the positive alternation and the amplitude of the
        negative alternation are the same.
•   Period – The time it takes for a sine wave to complete one cycle is
    defined as the period of the waveform.
      – The distance traveled by the sine wave during this period is
        referred to as its wavelength.
•   Wavelength – Indicated by the Greek lambda symbol λ.
      – It is the distance between one value to the same value on the next
        cycle.
•   Frequency – The number of repetitions or cycles per unit time is the
    frequency, typically expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).
Relationship between time and frequency
•  The inverse relationship between time (t), the period in seconds, and
   frequency (f), in Hz, is indicated by the following formulas:
         t = 1/f (time = 1 / frequency)
         f = 1/t (frequency = 1 / time)
Examples:
1 second
• t = 1/f 1 second = 1 / 1 Hz (1 cycle per second)
• f = 1/t 1 Hz = 1 / 1 second

½ second
• t = 1/f ½ second = 1 / 2 Hz (2 cycles per second)
• f = 1/t 2 Hz = 1 / ½ second

1/10,000,000th of a second
• t = 1/f 1/10,000,000th of a second = 1 / 10,000,000 Hz (cycles/sec) = 1 / 10 MHz
• f = 1/t 10 MHz = 1 / 1/10,000,000th of sec
Sine waves

Go to interactive
activity 3.1.2
Amplitude,
Frequency, and
Phase

                         180° Phase Shift

• One full period or cycle of a sine wave is said to cover 360 degrees
    (360°).
•   It is possible for one sine wave to lead or lag another sine wave by any
    number of degrees, except zero or 360.
•   When two sine waves differ by exactly zero° or 360°, the two waves
    are said to be in phase.
•   Two sine waves that differ in phase by any other value are out of
    phase, with respect to each other.
Analog to digital conversion

Go to interactive
activity 3.1.3




1. Analog wave amplitudes are sampled at specific instances in time.
2. Each sample is assigned a discrete value.
3. Each discrete value is converted to a stream of bits.
Bandwidth




• There are two common ways of looking at bandwidth:
   – Analog bandwidth
   – Digital bandwidth

• Analog bandwidth
   – Analog bandwidth can refer to the range of frequencies .
   – Analog bandwidth is described in units of frequency, or cycles per
     second, which is measured in Hz.
   – There is a direct correlation between the analog bandwidth of
     any medium and the data rate in bits per second that the medium
     can support.
Bandwidth




• Digital bandwidth
   – Digital bandwidth is a measure of how much information can flow
     from one place to another, in a given amount of time.
   – Digital bandwidth is measured in bits per second.
   – When dealing with data communications, the term bandwidth most
     often signifies digital bandwidth.
EM (Electromagnetic)
     Spectrum
Basics of EM waves




• EM (Electromagnetic) spectrum a set of all types of radiation when
    discussed as a group.
•   Radiation is energy that travels in waves and spreads out over
    distance.
•   The visible light that comes from a lamp in a house and radio waves
    that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic waves.
•   Other examples are microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays,
    and gamma rays.
Basics of EM waves




• All EM waves travel at the speed of light in a vacuum and have a
    characteristic wavelength (λ) and frequency (f), which can be
    determined by using the following equation:
•   c = λ x f, where c = the speed of light (3 x 108 m/s)
•   Wavelength x Frequency = Speed of light
•   Speed of light = 180,000 miles/sec or
                     300,000 kilometers/sec or
                     300,000,000 meters/sec
Basics of EM waves




        300,000 kilometers
        or 180,000 miles




       150,000 km 150,000 km

• wavelength (λ), frequency (f), speed of light (c)
• A wave of 1 cycle per second, has a wavelength of 300,000,000
    meters or 300,000 kilometers or 180,000 miles.
•   Speed of a bit doesn’t go beyond the speed of light, Dr. Einstein says
    we all go “poof” (my words, not his)
•   Speed is a function of increasing the number of waves, bits, in the
    same amount of space, I.e. bits per second
Basics of EM waves




•   Other interesting calculations
Size of a Wave
Size of a Wave




•   It’s important to visualize the physical size of a wireless
    signal because the physical size determines:
     – How that signal interacts with its environment
     – How well it is propagated from antenna to antenna
     – The physical size of the antenna (the smaller the signal
        size, the smaller the antenna)
Speed of Light

Speed of light = 186,000 miles/sec or 300,000,000 meters/sec (approx.)
   Start here                                          End here
                      1 second




                          186,000 miles

      Mile: 0                                       Mile: 186,000
1 mile
• 5,280 feet per mile; so 186,000 miles = 982,080,000 feet
• 63,360 inches per mile; so 186,000 miles = 11,784,960,000 inches
Wavelength                                All About Wavelength
http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/wavelength.html

• Speed of the wave = Frequency x Wavelength
• Wavelength = Speed of the wave or speed of light / Frequency
• Speed of light =
    – 186,000 miles/sec or
    – 982,080,000 feet/sec or
    – 11,784,960,000 inches/sec




• Wavelength = Speed of the wave or speed of light/ Frequency
• 10.93 feet = 982,080,000 feet per sec / 90,000,000 cycles per sec
  Speed of Light

                    Speed of light = 186,000 miles/sec
Mile: 0,                                                                   Mile:
beginning of            Length of rope 186,000 miles long                  186,000,
rope                                                                       end of rope


                 0 seconds
                             After 1/2 second

                                                       After 1 second




      0 second                                                          1 second

                                            1 second

  • Length of rope 186,000 miles long traveling at the speed of light,
       186,000 miles/second
  •    In 1 second we would see the entire length of rope go by.
  Speed of Light – 1 Hz

   Speed of light = 186,000 miles/sec
Mile: 0,                                                             Mile:
beginning of       Length of rope 186,000 miles long                 186,000,
rope                                                                 end of rope




                                    186,000 miles

    0 second                                                       1 second




  • So, if 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second, traveling at the speed of light….
  • The length of the wave would be 186,000 miles long (300,000,000
      meters).
  Speed of Light – 2 Hz

   Speed of light = 186,000 miles/sec
Mile: 0,                                                        Mile:
beginning of       Length of rope 186,000 miles long            186,000,
rope                                                            end of rope




                        93,000 miles


      0 second                                                1 second




  • 2 Hz is 2 cycles per second, traveling at the speed of light….
  • The length of each wave would be 186,000/2 or 93,000 miles long
      (150,000,000 meters).
Speed of Light – Let’s do inches

                  11,784,960,000 inches




     6,000,000,000 inches




•   11,784,960,000 inches in a mile
•   1 Hz wave = 11,784,960,000 inches (11 billion inches)
•   2 Hz wave = 11,784,960,000 / 2 = 6 billion inches (give or take)
•   What would a wave the size of 11 GHz wave be?
    Speed of Light – Lets do inches
                                                                                Mile:
Mile: 0,                   Length of rope 186,000 miles long                    186,000,
beginning of                                                                    end of rope
rope                       Length of rope 11.8 billion inches long
                   1   2                                                  11 billion




        0 second
                                              …
                                          1 inch

                                                                               1 second




•   What would a wave the size of 11 GHz wave be?
•   Size of the rope divided by the number of pieces = size of each piece
•   About 1 inch! (11,784,960,000 in. per sec / 11,000,000,000 pieces or cycles or Hz)
•   Same as slicing up the 186,000 mile rope into 11 billion equal pieces.
•   Each piece is 1 inch, 11 billion pieces equal 11 billion inches, the size of our rope
    traveling at 186,000 miles per second.
   Speed of Light – Lets do inches
                                                                                 Mile:
Mile: 0,                Length of rope 186,000 miles long                        186,000,
beginning of                                                                     end of rope
rope                    Length of rope 11.8 billion inches long
                  1      2                                               1 billion




       0 second
                             11.8 inches

                                              …                                 1 second




   •   What would a wave the size of 1 GHz wave be?
   •   11 inches! (Actually, 11.8 inches because we rounded off values.)
             (approx.: 11,784,960,000 inches per sec / 1,000,000,000 cycles per sec)
   •   Same as slicing up the 186,000 mile rope into 1 billion equal pieces.
   •   Each piece is 11 inches, 1 billion pieces equal 11 billion inches, the size of our
       rope traveling at 186,000 miles per second.
RADM Grace Hopper




• Grace Hopper, “Mother of Cobol”
• The size of a nanosecond, 11.8 inches
• The distance the speed of light travels in
   a billionth of a second.
   Size of a 2.4 GHz WLAN
   wave
                                                                        Mile:
Mile: 0,              Length of rope 186,000 miles long                 186,000,
beginning of          Length of rope 11.8 billion inches long           end of rope
rope
                  1    2                                        2.4 billion




       0 second
                           4.8 inches

                                         …                            1 second




   • Same as slicing up the 186,000 mile rope into 2.4 billion equal pieces.
   • Each piece is 4.8 inches or 12 cm (.12 meters)
    (approx.: 11,784,960,000 inches per sec / 2,450,000,000 cycles per sec)
   • 2.4 billion pieces equal 11 billion inches, the size of our rope traveling
      at 186,000 miles per second.
   Size of a 5.8 GHz WLAN
   wave
                                                                           Mile:
Mile: 0,               Length of rope 186,000 miles long                   186,000,
beginning of           Length of rope 11.8 billion inches long             end of rope
rope
                   1    2                                          5.8 billion




        0 second
                            2 inches

                                           …                             1 second




   • Same as slicing up the 186,000 mile rope into 5.8 billion equal pieces.
   • Each piece is 2 inches or 5 cm (.05 meters)
       (approx.: 11,784,960,000 inches per sec / 5,800,000,000 cycles per sec)
   •    5.8 billion pieces equal 11 billion inches, the size of our rope traveling
        at 186,000 miles per second.
Basics of EM Waves
Basics of EM waves




• EM waves exhibit the following properties:
     – reflection or bouncing
     – refraction or bending
     – diffraction or spreading around obstacles
     – scattering or being redirected by particles
•   This will be discussed in greater detail later in this module.
•   Also, the frequency and the wavelength of an EM wave are inversely
    proportionally to one another.
Basics of EM waves

• There are a number of
  properties that apply to
  all EM waves,
  including:
   – Direction
   – Frequency
   – Wavelength
   – Power
   – Polarization
   – Phase.
EM Spectrum Chart




•   One of the most important diagrams in both science and engineering is the
    chart of the EM spectrum .
•   The typical EM spectrum diagram summarizes the ranges of frequencies, or
    bands that are important to understanding many things in nature and
    technology.
•   EM waves can be classified according to their frequency in Hz or their
    wavelength in meters.
•   The most important range for this course is the RF (Radio Frequency)
    spectrum.
EM Spectrum Chart




•   The RF spectrum includes several frequency bands including:
     – Microwave
     – Ultra High Frequencies (UHF)
     – Very High Frequencies (VHF)
•   This is also where WLANs operate.
•   The RF spectrum ranges from 9 kHz to 300 GHz.
•   Consists of two major sections of the EM spectrum: (RF Spectrum)
     – Radio Waves
     – Microwaves.
•   The RF frequencies, which cover a significant portion of the EM radiation
    spectrum, are used heavily for communications.
•   Most of the RF ranges are licensed, though a few key ranges are unlicensed.
 EM Spectrum Chart

Nasa.gov
Nasa.gov
www.britishlibrary.net
Licensed Frequencies
• Frequency bands have a limited number of useable different
    frequencies, or communications channels.
•   Many parts of the EM spectrum are not useable for communications
    and many parts of the spectrum are already used extensively for this
    purpose.
•   The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite resource.
•   One way to allocate this limited, shared resource is to have
    international and national institutions that set standards and laws as to
    how the spectrum can be used.
•   In the US, it is the FCC that regulates spectrum use.
•   In Europe, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute
    (ETSI) regulates the spectrum usage.
•   Frequency bands that require a license to operate within are called the
    licensed spectrum.
•   Examples include amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency
    modulation (FM) radio, ham or short wave radio, cell phones,
    broadcast television, aviation bands, and many others.
•   In order to operate a device in a licensed band, the user must first
    apply for and be granted the appropriate license.
ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical) &
U-NII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure)

• Some areas of the spectrum have been left unlicensed.
• This is favorable for certain applications, such as WLANs.
• An important area of the unlicensed spectrum is known as the
    industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands and the U-NII
    (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure)
     – ISM – 802.11b, 802.11g
     – U-NII – 802.11a
•   These bands are unlicensed in most countries of the world.
•   The following are some examples of the regulated items that are
    related to WLANs:
     – The FCC has defined eleven 802.11b DSSS channels and their
        corresponding center frequencies. ETSI has defined 13.
     – The FCC requires that all antennas that are sold by a spread
        spectrum vendor be certified with the radio with which it is sold.
•   Unlicensed bands are generally license-free, provided that devices are
    low power.
•   After all, you don’t need to license your microwave oven or portable
    phone.
Fourier synthesis (More than we need…)

• When two EM waves occupy the same space, their effects
    combine to form a new wave of a different shape.
•   For example, air pressure changes caused by two sound waves added
    together.
•   Jean Baptiste Fourier is responsible for one of the great
    mathematical discoveries.
•   He proved that a special sum of sine waves, of harmonically related
    frequencies, could be added together to create any wave pattern.
•   Harmonically related frequencies are simply frequencies that are
    multiples of some basic frequency.
•   Use the interactive activity to create multiple sine waves and a complex
    wave that is formed from the additive effects of the individual waves.
•   Finally, a square wave, or a square pulse, can be built by using the
    right combination of sine waves.
•   The importance of this will be clarified when modulation is discussed.
Fourier synthesis

Go to interactive
activity 3.3.3




Whatis.com
• Fourier synthesis is a method of electronically constructing a signal
  with a specific, desired periodic waveform.
• It works by combining a sine wave signal and sine-wave or cosine-
  wave harmonics (signals at multiples of the lowest, or fundamental,
  frequency) in certain proportions.
 http://www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/handbook/Fourier_Synthesis.html



   Sound Example: Addition of the first 14 sine wave harmonics
resulting in the successive approximation of a sawtooth wave.
    802.11 Physical Layer
        Technologies

                      PLCP
                       PMD
  Note: The information presented here is just to
introduce these terms and concepts. Many of the
 “how’s” and “why’s” are beyond the scope of this
       material. Don’t get lost in the detail!
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




• We have looked at the data link layer, now we will look at the
    physical layer.
•   As you can see there are multiple physical layer technologies
    involved with both similarities and differences between them.
•   The job of the PHYs is to provide the wireless transmission
    mechanisms for the MAC.
•   By keeping the PHY transmission mechanisms independent of the
    MAC it allows for advances in both of these areas.
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




• The physical layer is divided into two sublayers:
   – PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Procedure)
   – PMD (Physical Medium Dependent)
• All of this is needed to help ensure that the data goes from the receiver
  to the transmitter over this “hostile” wireless environment with noise,
  and all kinds of “mean, nasty ugly things”. (Arlo Guthrie)
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Procedure)
• All PLCPs provide the interface to transfer data octets between the
  MAC and the PMD.
• “Primitives” (fields) that tell the PMD when to begin and end
  communications.
• The PCLP is the “handshaking layer” that enables the MAC protocol
  data units (MPDUs), fancy name for MAC frame, to be transmitted
  between the MAC over the PMD.
PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence
Procedure)
General 802.11 Frame
                                                          L IP Packet
                                                          L
                                                          C




                                                       PDSU


•   PPDU (PLCP Protocol Data Unit) adds “encapsulation”
•   The PDSU (PLCP Data Service Unit) is the data the PCLP is responsible for
    delivering.
     – Depending upon the protocol the encapsulated MAC frame is sometimes
        called the PSDU (PLCP Service Data Unit) or MPDU (MAC Protocol Data
        Unit). All these acronyms! You got to be kidding!
•   More on this after the PMD concepts
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




PMD (Physical Medium Dependent)
• The PMD is responsible for transmitting the actual bits it receives from the
  PLCP into the air, over the wireless, and sometimes hostile, medium.
• The PHY concepts and building blocks are:
     Scrambling
     Coding
     Interleaving
     Symbol mapping and modulation
• Let’s look at these to see what wireless technologies do in order to help
  transmit bits over a hostile wireless medium and increase the chance that the
  information can be read by the receiver.
PMD (Physical Medium Dependent)

Original Data Bits       Scrambler         Scrambled Data Bits


                                                  Transmission
                                                  Medium




Original Data Bits       Descrambler       Scrambled Data Bits


• Scrambling
    – A method for sending and receiving data to make it look more
      random than it is.
    – Receivers do not tend to like long strings of 0’s or 1’s.
    – The data is scrambled by the transmitter and descrambled by the
      receiver.
 PMD - Coding
                                                      Noise
 Spread Signal
 of coded bits


                                     Frequency
• Coding
   – After the data is scrambled it is coded.
   – Coding is a mechanism that enables high transmission over a noisy
     channel (like wireless).
   – Coding does this by replacing sequences with longer sequences.
   – An example of a coding:
       • Scrambled data:        01101
       • Coded data:            000000 111111 111111 000000 111111
       • Transmission:          000000 X X111111 111111 X        X
                                                           000000 111111
   – The idea is that multiple bits are sent so if some bits can are corrupted
     (interference), the receiver can still determine the original bits.
   – This is effective because noise tends to happen in relative pulses and
     not across the entire frequency band.
802.11 Chipping Sequence – Barker
Sequence
Scrambled
Data Bit       Expanded Data Bit
                                           Transmitted
 1              11111111111                Chipped Sequence
                                   XOR      01001000111
                10110111000
               Barker Sequence



• 802.11 encodes data by taking 1 Mbps data stream into an 11 MHz
     chip stream.
•    The spreading sequence or chipping sequence or Barker sequence.
•    Converts a data bit into chips, 11 bits.
      – 0 into 00000000000
      – 1 into 11111111111
•    The expanded data bit is then exclusive ORed (XORed) with a
     spreading sequence (Barker) resulting in the chipped sequence
     which is transmitted over the wireless medium.
     802.11 Chipping Sequence – Barker
     Sequence
Original Data Bit
                                        XOR
 1
                                        0 XOR 0 -> 0
                                        1 XOR 1 -> 0
     Either one
                                        0 XOR 1 -> 1
  Scrambled
  Data Bit          Expanded Data Bit
                                                       Transmitted
     1              11111111111                        Chipped Sequence
                                        XOR            01001000111
                    10110111000
                    Barker Sequence


  Scrambled
  Data Bit          Expanded Data Bit
                                                       Transmitted
     0              00000000000                        Chipped Sequence
                                        XOR            10110111000
                    10110111000
                    Barker Sequence
    PMD Concepts and Building Blocks
    Original Data Bits        Scrambler            Block Coder
• Sometimes bit errors are not
     independent events but occur in             Block Interleaver
     batches, or bursts.
•    Because of this, interleavers are used
     to spread out adjacent bits and block of
     error that might occur.
•    The idea it to spread out the adjacent
                                                 Modulated over
     bits.                                       Transmission Medium
•    It might get a couple of us, but it can’t
     get us all (hopefully).
•    This along with the chipping sequence
     increases the chances that data still
     can be read by the receiver even with
     large blocks of data.                       Block Interleaver
•    We won’t go into the detail here.
    Original Data Bits        Descrambler         Block Decoder
PMD (Physical Medium Dependent)




•   The PMD is responsible for transmitting the actual bits it receives from the
    PLCP into the air, over the wireless, and sometimes hostile, medium.
     – Scrambling
     – Coding
     – Interleaving
     – Symbol mapping and modulation
•   These help transmit bits over a hostile wireless medium and increase the
    chance that the information can be read by the receiver.
802.11 Physical Layer
    Technologies

  FHSS – 802.11
  DSSS- 802.11
  HR/DSSS – 802.11b
  OFDM – 802.11a
  ERP – 802.11g
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




•   The radio-based physical layers in 802.11 use three different spread-spectrum
    techniques:
•   In 1997, the initial revision of 802.11 included:
     – Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS)
     – Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) – 802.11
     – Infrared (IR)
•   In 1999, two more physical layers were developed:
     – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) – 802.11a
     – High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (HR/DSSS) – 802.11b
•   In 2003, 802.11g was introduced which uses both HR/DSSS and OFDM:
     – Extended Rate Physical (ERP) layer - 802.11g
802.11 Physical Layer Technologies




              Original 802.11



Frequency allocation in the EM spectrum
• Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS)
• Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) – 802.11
• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) – 802.11a
• High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (HR/DSSS) – 802.11b
• Extended Rate Physical (ERP) layer - 802.11g
802.11 - Frequency-hopping
 spread-spectrum (FHSS)
802.11 - Frequency-hopping spread-
spectrum (FHSS)




• Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) WLANs support 1
    Mbps and 2 Mbps data rates.
•   Widely deployed in the early days (1997) of WLANs.
•   Electronics relatively inexpensive and had low power requirements.
•   Uses unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical)
    band
802.11 - Frequency-hopping spread-
spectrum (FHSS)




• Uses 79 non-overlapping channels. Across 2.402 to 2.480 GHz band
• Each channel is 1 MHz wide.
• Frequency hopping depends on rapidly changing the transmission
    frequency in a pseudo-random pattern, known as the hopping code.
•   The initial advantage of using FHSS networks was the greater number
    of networks that could coexist with relatively high throughput and low
    collisions.
•   With the advent of HR/DSSS this is no longer an advantage.
802.11 - Frequency-hopping spread-
spectrum (FHSS)

• The transmitter uses this hop
    sequence to select its
    transmission frequency.
•   The carrier will remain at a
    given frequency for a specified
    period of time, which is referred
    to as the dwell time.

• The transmitter will then use a small amount of time, referred to as the
    hop time, to move to the next frequency.
•   When the list of frequencies has been completely traversed, the
    transmitter will start over and repeat the sequence.
•   The receiver radio is synchronized to the hopping sequence of the
    transmitting radio to enable the receiver to be on the right frequency at
    the right time.
802.11 - Frequency-hopping spread-
spectrum (FHSS)




• FHSS radio hops between all of these channels in one of 78
    orthogonal (non-colliding) patterns.
•   Devices use all available channels equally in a 30 second period,
    about 0.4 seconds per channel.

• Note: Since FHSS is no longer used in 802.11 (a, b, g) we will not
    go into any more detail nor discuss the PLCP or modulation.
802.11 - Frequency-hopping spread-
spectrum (FHSS)

                    DSSS (Spread Spectrum) Signal (22 MHz)




                             FHSS Signal (1 MHz)




0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
                        Frequency MHz
802.11 - Direct-sequence
spread-spectrum (DSSS)
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)




• Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) defined in 1997 802.11
    standard.
•   Supports data rates of 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps
     – In 1999 802.11 introduced 802.11b standard (HR/DSSS) to support
       5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps, which is backwards compatible with
       802.11 (later).
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)




• DSSS uses 22 MHz channels in the 2.4 to 2.483 GHz range.
• This allows for three non-overlapping channels (three channels that
    can coexist or overlap without causing interference), channels 1, 6
    and 11 (coming).
•   Uses 2.4 GHz ISM band
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)

                    DSSS (Spread Spectrum) Signal (22 MHz)




                             FHSS Signal (1 MHz)




0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
                        Frequency MHz
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)
General 802.11 Frame
                                                         L IP Packet
                                                         L
                                                         C




                                                       PDSU


• DSSS adds the following fields to the MAC frame to form the DSSS
    PPDU (PLCP Protocol Data Unit).
•   We will look at these fields which will give us a better understanding of
    how the physical layer delivers bits over a wireless medium.
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)



                                                      PDSU

PLCP Preamble
• Sync– Provides synchronization for the receiving station.
• SFD (Start of Frame Delimiter) – Provides timing for the receiving station.
PCLP Header
• Signal – Specifies the modulation and data rate) for the frame
    – DBPSK – 1 Mbps (PLCP Preamble and Header always sent at this rate)
    – DQPSK – 2 Mbps
• Service – For future use
• Length – Number of microseconds required to transmit the MAC portion of the
  frame.
• CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) – CRC check for PCLP header fields.
PLCP and MAC Error Statistics
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)




Modulation
• DBPSK – 1 Mbps
   – Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying
   – One bit per phase change, two phases
   – Each chip maps to a single symbol
   – Uses one phase to represent a binary 1 and another to represent a
      binary 0, for a total of one bit of binary data.
• DQPSK – 2 Mbps
   – Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
   – Two bits per phase change, four phases
   – Maps two chips per symbol
   – Uses four phases, each representing two bits.
802.11 - Direct-sequence spread-spectrum
(DSSS)




• 802.11 DSSS
   – 802.11 DSSS uses a rate of 11 million chips per second or
     1 million 11-bit Barker words per second.
   – These 11 bit Barker words are transmitted over the 22 MHz spread
     spectrum at 1 million times per second.
   – Each word is encoded as either 1-bit or 2-bits, corresponding with
     either 1.0 Mbps or 2.0 Mbps respectively.
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-
sequence spread-spectrum
       (HR/DSSS)
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)




• In 1999 802.11 introduced
    802.11b standard
    (HR/DSSS)
•   Data rates of 1 Mbps, 2
    Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and 11
    Mbps
•   Backwards compatible
    with 802.11
•   Uses 2.4 GHz ISM band
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)




• HR/DSSS uses 22 MHz channels in the 2.4 to 2.483 GHz range.
• This allows for three non-overlapping channels (three channels that
  can coexist or overlap without causing interference), channels 1, 6 and
  11 (coming).
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)




(Once again)
• HR/DSSS uses 22 MHz channels in the 2.4 to 2.483 GHz range.
• This allows for three non-overlapping channels (three channels that
  can coexist or overlap without causing interference), channels 1, 6 and
  11 (coming).
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)
               Long




              Short




•   There are two PPDU frame types:
     – Long – Same as DSSS PPDU
     – Short – (above)
•   The short PPDU minimizes overhead.
•   The long PPD maintains backward compatibility with 802.11
•   Both are basically the same PPDU as DSSS, except:
     – Signal field includes addition data rates for 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps
ACU




    HELP Information
• Enables short radio headers. You can enable the client adapter to use
    short radio headers only if the access point is also enabled to support
    short radio headers and is currently using them for all connected client
    adapters. If an access point connects to any client adapters that
    are using long headers, all client adapters in that cell must also
    use long headers, even if both your client adapter and the access
    point have enabled short radio headers.
•   Short radio headers improve throughput. Long radio headers ensure
    compatibility with client adapters and access points that do not support
    short radio headers.
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)




• Remember 802.11 DSSS:
     – 802.11 DSSS uses a rate of 11 million chips per second or
       1 million 11-bit Barker words per second.
     – These 11-bit Barker words are transmitted over the 22 MHz
       spread spectrum at 1 million times per second.
     – Each word is encoded as either 1-bit or 2-bits, corresponding
       with either 1.0 Mbps or 2.0 Mbps respectively.
•   Regular phase shift encoding can only carry a few bits as detecting
    smaller phase shifts requires more sophisticated and expensive
    electronics.
•   IEEE 802.11 developed an alternative encoding method to Barker
    (802.11), the CCK (Complementary Code Keying).
802.11b - High-Rate Direct-sequence spread-
spectrum (HR/DSSS)




• 802.11b uses CCK (Complementary Code Keying) instead of Barker.
• CCK uses an 8-bit complex chip code.
• Based on sophisticated mathematics.
     – CCK uses a set of 64 8-bit code words
     – These code words have unique mathematical properties that allow
        a receiver to distinguish them correctly from each other.
     – The 5.5 Mbps rate uses CCK to encode 4-bits per carrier.
     – The 11 Mbps rate uses CCK to encode 8-bits per carrier.
•   Like DSSS 2 Mbps data rate, both the 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps rates
    uses DQPSK modulation technique.
  802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing)
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




•   In 1999 802.11 introduced 802.11a standard same time as 802.11b
•   Uses OFDM encoding.
•   Data rates from 6 Mbps, to 54 Mbps
•   Not compatible with 802.11b
•   Uses 5 GHz band U-NII (Unlicensed National Information
    Infrastructure).
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




• Because 802.11a uses a higher frequency its devices require higher
  power, which means they use up more precious battery power on
  laptops and portable devices.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




• 802.11a U-NII bands (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure)
   – 5.15 GHz to 5.25 GHz
   – 5.25 GHz to 5.35 GHz
   – 5.725 GHz to 5.825 GHz
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)


                              4



                   8




• Uses four 20 MHz channels in each of the three U-NII bands
• Each 20 MHz 802.11a channel occupies four channels in the U-NII
    band (36 – 39, 40 – 43, etc.)
•   Offers 8 lower and mid-band non-interfering channels
     – As opposed to 3 with 802.11b/g
     – Not all cards accept the upper band frequencies
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




                                  www.networkcomputing.com/1201/1201ws1.html



• Offers 8 lower and mid-band non-interfering channels
   – As opposed to 3 with 802.11b/g
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




• The fields are similar to other PPDU frame formats 802.11 and
    802.11b.
•   The Signal field specifies the data frame for the DATA part of the
    frame: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




                                            www.networkcomputing.com/1201/1201ws1.html

•   OFDM works by breaking one high-speed data carrier into several lower-speed
    subcarriers, which are then transmitted in parallel.
•   Each high-speed carrier is 20 MHz wide and is broken up into 52
    subchannels, each approximately 300 KHz wide.
•   OFDM uses 48 of these subchannels for data, while the remaining four are
    used for error correction.
•   OFDM uses the spectrum much more efficiently by spacing the channels much
    closer together.
•   The spectrum is more efficient because all of the carriers are orthogonal to one
    another, thus preventing interference between closely spaced carriers.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




                                      www.networkcomputing.com/1201/1201ws1.html

• Orthogonal is a mathematical term derived from the Greek word orthos,
    meaning straight, right, or true.
•   In mathematics, the word orthogonal is used to describe independent
    items.
•   Orthogonality is best seen in the frequency domain, looking at a
    spectral analysis of a signal.
•   OFDM works because the frequencies of the subcarriers are
    selected in such a way that, for each subcarrier frequency, all
    other subcarriers will not contribute to the overall waveform.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




                                   www.networkcomputing.com/1201/1201ws1.html

• It is the different frequencies used (5 GHz and 2.4 GHz) and the
  different structure of the operating channels (OFDM and DSSS-
  HR/DSSS) that makes 802.11a incompatible with 802.11b devices.
• There are “dual band” access points that can operate in multimode
  modes (802.11a, b and g) – coming.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)

48 subchannels for data




• OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a mix of
    different modulation schemes to achieve data rates from 6 to 54 Mbps.
•   Each subchannel in the OFDM implementation is about 300 KHz wide.
    802.11a uses different types of modulation, depending upon the data
    rate used.
•   The 802.11a standard specifies that all 802.11a-compliant products
    must support three modulation schemes.
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)

48 subchannels for data




(How the modulation works is not important here.)
• BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) – 1 bit per subchannel
• QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) – 2 bits per subchannel
• 16 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Moduation) – 4 bits using 16 symbols
• 64 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Moduation) – 6 bits using 64 symbols
802.11a – OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing)




• Coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM)
    delivers higher data rates and a high degree of multipath reflection
    recovery, thanks to its encoding scheme and error correction.
•   The OFDM signal is subject to narrowband interference or deep fading.
•   When this occurs the channel’s ability to carry data may go to zero
    because the received amplitude is so low.
•   To keep a few faded channels from driving the bit error to high, OFDM
    applies an error correction code COFDM across all the subchannels.
•   COFDM is beyond the scope of this curriculum.
802.11g – Extended Rate
  Physical (ERP) layer
    802.11g – Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
    layer




•   IEEE 802.11g standard was
    approved on June 2003.
•   Introduces ERP, Extended Rate
    Physical layer support for data
    rate up to 54 Mbps.
•   2.4 GHz ISM band
•   Borrows OFDM techniques from
    802.11a
•   Backwards compatible with
    802.11b devices
802.11g – Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
layer


                                                            802.11g
                    802.11g             802.11g                                 802.11g


                                        802.11g                                 802.11g
                                                  802.11b
          802.11g

                              802.11g                                 802.11g



         Rates up to 54 Mbps (802.11g)                Lower rates
•   In an environment with only 802.11g devices, transmission will occur at the
    highest data rates that the signals allow.
•   As soon as an 802.11b device is introduced to the BSS, 802.11b device(s) can
    only operate at 802.11 data rates.
•   802.11g devices will have lower data rates, however there are contradictions
    on what that is.
•   Some documentation states that it will be at 802.11b rates. Other
    documentation states that it will be at 802.11g rates but with additional
    overhead causing overall throughput to decrease. (I will test this.)
802.11g / 802.11b
Compatibility
             Can’t hear 802.11g OFDM
             messages during CCA
             (Clear Channel
             Assessment), so will
             transmit and may cause         802.11b
                                                           802.11g
             collisions

802.11g compatibility with 802.11b, From the Broadband.com White Paper
• Protection Mechanisms: “Air Traffic Control”
    – 802.11b radios do not hear the 802.11g OFDM signals.
    – Protections mechanisms prevent 802.11b clients from transmitting, thinking
      the medium is free, when 802.11g devices are transmitting.
    – 802.11g devices still communicate at the 802.11g data rates when
      protection is in use.
    – 802.11g devices must transmit a short 802.11b rate message signal to
      802.11b products to not transmit for a specified duration, because an
      802.11g OFDM message is being transmitted.
    – The 802.11b protection message causes additional overhead and reduced
      throughput for the 802.11g devices when at least one 802.11b device is
      present.
802.11g / 802.11b Compatibility

RTS/CTS                               CTS-to-self

                      CTS

                            RTS                                   CTS
                            802.11g
            802.11b                                 802.11b         802.11g


802.11g compatibility with 802.11b, From the Broadband.com White Paper
• Two 802.11 Protection Mechanism Standards: RTS/CTS and CTS-to-self
    – RTS/CTS protection mechanism is the same 802.11 MAC operation
        earlier discussed between the 802.11g client and the AP, with all devices,
        including 802.11b, hearing the CTS from the AP.
    – CTS-to-self protection mechanism sends a CTS message, using an
        802.11b data rate, instead of the AP doing it, followed immediately my the
        802.11g message.
• In either case, 802.11g throughput is still greater than the 802.11b throughput
   at the same distance.
• Maximum 802.11g throughput with mixed clients is 15 Mbps, or a data rate of
   about 33 Mbps.
802.11g – Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
layer
802.11g uses 5 PPDU formats



        Long PPDU for
        802.11 and
        802.11b
        compatibility

       Short PPDU for
       802.11b
       compatibility

                                Data Rates 6, 9,
                                12, 18, 24, 36, 48
                                and 54 Mbps
802.11g – Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
layer
                         802.11b compatibility:
           “Long PPDU”   Backwards
                         compatibility with
                         802.11




        “Short PPDU”     802.11b compatibility:
                         Minimizes overhead




                           802.11g: Higher data rates
802.11g – Extended Rate Physical (ERP)
layer




• The four lower data rates of 802.11g (1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps), like 802.11b
    uses CCK (Complementary Code Keying) - (802.11 uses Barker).
     – CCK uses an 8-bit complex chip code.
     – Based on sophisticated mathematics.
     – CCK allows for the backward compatibility with 802.11b
•   The higher data rates of 802.11g (6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54
    Mbps) uses COFDM (like 802.11a).
     – 802.11a is not compatible with 802.11g, different frequencies.
       Comparing
802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g
Data Rates at Varying Distances
                     5 GHz radio signals do not
                     propagate as well as 2.4 GHz
                     radio signals, so 802.11a devices
                     are limited in range compared to
                     802.11b and 802.11g devices.




                                       Broadband.com
Relative Ranges

Broadband.com




•   802.11a requires more APs for the same coverage area.
  Expected Throughputs

Broadband.com




  •   Throughput includes overhead including MAC frame and
      MAC operations, PLCP header, etc..
WLAN User Requirements and
Technology Characteristics
                                                            Broadband.com




•   It is forecasted that 802.11g will quickly replace 802.11b.
•   802.11g Access Points automatically support 802.11b.
•   Dual-band 802.11a/g and 802.11g Access Points become the two technologies
    to consider when migrating to 802.11g from 802.11b networks.
•   Dual-band 802.11a/b Access Points become immediately obsolete.
ACU and various client adapters




•   Cisco ACU works with all adapters.
ACU and various client adapters




• Once the initial ACU application is downloaded and installed for one
    adapter, you need to download and install it for any other adapters as
    well.
•   Subsequent installation will only install the drivers associated with that
    adapter.
ACU and various client adapters




• You can use the same profiles with the different adapters.
PLCP and MAC Error Statistics
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps4555/pr
oducts_data_sheet09186a00801ebc29.html
Ch. 2 – 802.11 and NICs
   Part 3 – 802.11 PHY

								
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