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Nationalism

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					I. Nationalism after War of 1812
     A. Citizens proud to be Americans.
     B. Primary loyalty to the nation, than to
          state
     C. For extending powers to central
          government
     D. From a national rather than sectional
          point of view.
     E. Most nationalistic section - WEST
II. Economic Legislation & Nationalism
       • Dem-Rep Party since Jefferson’s
          administration
       • Party adopted Federalist ideas on the
          following issues in Clay’s American
          System:
    A. Second National Bank/ Rechartering in 1816
       1. Charter of 1st National Bank expired.
       2. More State banks but no specie
          reserves to back paper money
       3. No bank to deposit government funds.
     4. Charter Signed by Pres. Madison.
     5. Even supported by Dem-Rep – with
           national interest in mind.
B. Protective Tariff of 1816
     1. Tariff more for collection of revenue.
     2. “Infant industries” sprouted
           after embargo & before the War of
           1812, (i.e. New England mills
            & PA iron smelters) no
           competition.
     3. After war English dumped low-
           priced goods to unload stockpile;
           bad for new American industries.
     4. Need a tariff supported by all
           sections
C.   Internal Improvements - 3X vetoed.
     1. 1806 - National or Cumberland
           Road from MD to Wheeling
     2. 1815 - little money – only 20 miles
           of National Rd. completed.
     3. 1816 - More funds added that
           extended Road (110 miles) to
           Wheeling.
IV.   Supreme Court & Nationalism
      A. John Marshall
           1. Federalist appointed by John Adams
           2. Served 34 yrs. (1801-1835) as Chief
                 Justice
           3. Nationalistic ideas in decisions
      B. Major Cases
           1. Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
             a. Judiciary Act of 1801 - New circuit
                 courts; Adam’s Midnight Judges.
             b. Marbury went to Supreme Court
                  to force Madison to deliver
      appointment in accordance with
      Judiciary Act of 1789.
c.    Did not grant request since
      this action not mentioned in
      Constitution.
d. Marshall declared Constitution
       was the supreme law of the land.
e. That section of the Judiciary Act of
      1789 was declared
      unconstitutional.
f. Judicial Review
2.   Dartmouth College vs. Wood-
     ward (1819)
     a. New Hampshire revised
          college’s original charter to
          place college under state
          control.
     b. Marshall held that colleges and
          business interests granted by
          charters are fixed.
     c. State law was unconstitutional.
3.   McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
     a. Maryland placed a heavy tax on
        Fed. Bank’s Baltimore branch.
       (State was anti-bank)
     b. McCulloch (bank official)
        refused to pay the tax.
     c. Marshall denied power of
          state of Maryland to tax a
          federal agency.
     d. “the power to tax is the power
          to destroy
4. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
   a. Ogden operated under a NY state
       monopoly- was granted a ferry
      line on Hudson River between NY
      & NJ
   b. Gibbons ran a competing line
      under a federal license.
   c. Ogden sued to stop Gibbons.
   d. Court declared invalid - NY’s grant
      to Ogden.
   e. This violated Const’s right to
      control interstate commerce.
V. The West and Nationalism
   A. Routes to the West
      1. Turnpikes & Public Roads
         a. Lancaster Turnpike, Pa State Road,
            Cumberland (National) Road,
            Wilderness Road.
        b. Steamboats -
            •1807 - Robt. Fulton’s Clermont
            •1820’s - Several on Miss. R. (for
                cargoes & settlers)
         c. Canals -
            •1825 - Erie Canal - NY (Gov. De
                Witt Clinton) NY to Chicago.
            •Ohio & Indiana -
B. Growing Frontier Population is more
   Nationalistic from 1810 - 20.
   Causes:
   1. Availability of cheap land by Fed.
     Gov’t.
   2. Internal improvements.
   3. Protection against the Indians
C. Henry Clay’s American System - Proposal
    to make U.S. self-sufficient (1816)
     1. Protective tariff
     2. National Bank
     3. Federal program of roads & canals to
           unite the country, esp. the West.
VI.   Foreign Affairs & Nationalism
      A. Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
           1. Naval Disarmament with British on
                 Great Lakes & later along border
           2. British treated U.S. as equal; mutual
                 trust.
           3. Shared longest unfortified border -
                 5527 miles long- 49th parallel.
      B. Convention of 1818 - Treaty Line of
                 1818
           1. Border at 49th parallel from Lake of
                 the Woods to the Rockies
           2. Jointly occupied the Oregon
           Country.
C.   Purchase of Florida (1819)
     1. Florida housed hostile Indians &
          criminals
     2. Indians raided American Settlements
          in Georgia
     3. Western Florida already lost in the
          Pinckney Treaty (1795)
     4. Andrew Jackson in 1818 led military
          to crush Seminoles and capture
          two Spanish forts in Florida = a
          threat to Spanish control
     5. Adams-Onis Treaty
         a. Sec of State John Q. Adams &
               Sp. Minister Luis de Onis
               agreed to sell Florida for $5M
         b. Also called Transcontinental
               Treaty
         c. Condition: U.S. give up claims to
               Texas and Spain & accept the
               42nd parallel between Mexico
               & Oregon Country
D.   Monroe Doctrine (1823)
     1. Latin American Independence
               prevalent.
2. Causes for Doctrine:
      a. European alliances opposed
           to these revolutions
      b. Russian expansion into NA
3. Basic ideas of Doctrine: NA closed
           to further colonization
4. Expressed:
      a. nationalism
      b. isolationism
      c. America’s importance in world
           affairs
5. Russia agreed to 54 /40 parallel as
     southern boundary of Alaska

				
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posted:1/4/2012
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