OSHA Cooperative Efforts by ewghwehws


									        Volume 8 Number 4
           Summer 1997

U.S. Department of Labor                              From the Editor...
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary

Occupational Safety and Health Administration            Our summer issue has a special focus on OSHA’s
Greg Watchman, Acting Assistant Secretary             cooperative efforts and effective safety and health
                                                      programs. Safety and health program management is
   Job Safety & Health Quarterly is the official      the cornerstone of effective worker protection. The
magazine of the Occupational Safety and Health        cover story is the first of a two-part series that looks at
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It is
available by subscription from the Superintendent
                                                      how partnerships can help employers, workers, and
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,        OSHA.
Washington, DC 20402, for $9.50 per year, or             Our feature stories on Alaska and North Carolina also
$11.90 if mailed to a foreign address. Single         highlight the key element of excellence in safety and
copies are $3.00 (U.S.) or $3.75 (foreign).
See inserted order card.                              health management programs. Our Alaska story recaps
   The Secretary of Labor has determined that the     a recent onsite visit to a fish processing vessel for
publication of this periodical is necessary in the    approval in the Federal OSHA’s Voluntary Protection
transaction of the public business required by law    Programs. Our state plan partners in North Carolina
of this Department. Use of funds for printing this
periodical has been approved by the Director of       summarize how they improved their state program.
the Office of Management and Budget.                     One short piece updates OSHA’s activities in the
   Expressions of opinion in articles from sources    arena of online communication and information, and
outside the U.S. Department of Labor do not           another describes the “First North American Occupa-
necessarily represent the views of the Department.
Mention or depiction of companies or trade name       tional Safety and Health Week.” See also our regular
products in no way constitutes endorsement by the     departments such as What’s Happening? for current
Department of Labor.                                  activities and Mark Your Calendar for a listing of
   Material contained in this publication is public
domain and may be reproduced fully or partially
                                                      training courses. This issue also contains OSHA’s
without permission of the Federal Government.         semiannual agenda of regulations under development or
Source credit is requested but not required.          review. The Toolbox column takes a close-up look at
Permission is required only to reproduce copy-        ground-fault circuit interrupters in construction.
righted photos and other copyrighted material
contained herein.                                     SafeWorks shows how the Consultation Program helped
   Editorial communications should be addressed       one employer with guarding a wire nibbler machine,
to the Editor, Job Safety & Health Quarterly,         and FatalFacts details the hazards of trenching opera-
Occupational Safety and Health Administration,        tions.
200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington,
DC 20210.                                                Enjoy the issue.

Anne Crown-Cyr, Editor
Kerri L. Lawrence, Associate Editor
Susan Hall Fleming, Writer
Pat Foreman, Writer
Frank Kane, Writer                                    Anne Crown-Cyr
Photography: Courtesy of Exxon Chemical
Paramins, Linden, NJ, p. 11; Al Knewbow,              Editor
Potlach Corporation, p. 13; Courtesy of Hydro-
Chem, Canton, GA, p. 14; Courtesy of Icicle
Seafoods, Inc., Seattle, WA, pp. 17;21; Courtesy
of Yute Airline, Dillingham, AK, p. 18; Leauri
Lopes, Safety Director, Icicle Seafoods, Inc.,
p. 19; Bart Cox, Icicle Seafoods, Inc., pp. 20;22;
Courtesy of the National Administrative Office,
Hull, Quebec, Canada, p. 26; Courtesy of the
Texas Commission for Labor Cooperation, Dallas,
TX, p. 27; Courtesy of North Carolina Travel and
Tourism, pp. 28-29; North Carolina Department of
Labor, p. 30;33; Dan Dunkle, General Electric
Company, Bangor, ME, p. 38.
                                                                   Volume 8 Number 4
                                                                     Summer 1997

   FEATURES   OSHA Cooperative Efforts:
              A Good Deal for Workers and Employers
              by Judith Weinberg                                                       11

              Trekking North to Find a Star
              by Dan Hoeschen                                                          16

              Celebrating the First North American
              Occupational Safety and Health Week
              by Vivian Allen                                                          26

              North Carolina’s Final Approval:
              Recognition of a Better Program
              by Steve Sykes                                                           28

              OSHANET 1997
              by James Kallenborn                                                      34

DEPARTMENTS   From the Assistant Secretary                                             2

              OSHA Q&A                                                                 3

              What’s Happening?                                                        4

              Mark Your Calendar                                                       6

              OSHA Semiannual Agenda                                                   8

              Toolbox                                                                  37

              SafeWorks                                                                39

              FatalFacts                                                               40

                                   Job Safety & Health Quarterly     Summer 1997        1

         ne of the hottest topics for                                              The meetings were not intended
         OSHA during the summer                                                 to substitute for the procedures re-
         sizzle is safety and health                                            quired by the Small Business Regu-
programs. We’re committed to de-                                                latory Enforcement Fairness Act
veloping a proposed standard this                                               (SBREFA) but to serve as a pre-
year. And over the summer, we’ve                                                lude to OSHA’s compliance with
been seeking help from small busi-                                              the Act’s requirements for a panel
nesses.                                                                         to hear the views of representatives
   Both my predecessor, Joe Dear,                                               of small businesses that might be
and I believe strongly that safety                                              affected by such a standard.
and health programs are the best                                                   They also further President
hope for reducing workplace inju-                                               Clinton’s aim to have the widest
ries and illnesses. We know they                                                possible input from those affected
work. We’ve got proof.                                                          as we develop proposed standards.
   Participants in OSHA’s Volun-                                                This meant “getting out of Wash-
tary Protection Programs, with ef-                                              ington” to get the views of constitu-
fective safety and health programs,                                             ents at the grass-roots level.
have lost-workday injury rates                                                     I am aware that some small busi-
ranging from 35 to 90 percent be-       on our draft proposal. OSHA se-         ness organizations have voiced
low their industry averages. In ad-     lected half of the attendees and the    concerns about a rule for safety and
dition, for every dollar spent on       Office of Advocacy the other half.      health programs. But there is con-
safety and health programs, em-            We invited 20 participants to        siderable evidence that these pro-
ployers are likely to save between      each of the meetings held in At-        grams reduce injuries and illnesses.
$4 and $6 in workers’ compensa-         lanta, GA, Philadelphia, PA, Co-           Many states have become be-
tion expenses, reduced employee         lumbus, OH, and Portland, OR.           lievers in the effectiveness of such
turnover, and other related costs.      Each participant received a copy of     programs. Some require them even
   Safety and health programs ben-      the draft proposed standard before      for the smallest firms. Others have
efit businesses of all sizes. Estab-    the sessions. We also sent estimates    provisions in their workers’ com-
lishments employing fewer than 10       of the number of hours that most        pensation laws that encourage pro-
workers account for 17 percent of       small employers would need to           grams. These states have seen dra-
employment but experience more          expend to comply and estimates of       matic results in occupational injury
than 33 percent of workplace fatali-    the cost savings they could expect      and illness rates and declines in
ties. More than a million injuries      to reap by reducing injuries and ill-   workers’ compensation rates.
and illnesses a year occur in estab-    nesses through a safety and health         With the help of small businesses
lishments with fewer than 20 em-        program. We asked these small           themselves, OSHA can develop a
ployees.                                employers to provide comments on        standard that will reduce their in-
   Last fall, we met with small busi-   the feasibility of the proposed re-     juries and illnesses, cut costs, and
ness owners in Cleveland to discuss     quirements for their workplaces         improve employee morale without
the safety and health program con-      and the accuracy of our estimates.      imposing any undue burdens.
cept. With their help, we revised       We also wanted ideas on ways to
our working draft to add a longer       increase flexibility for small busi-
phase-in program for small em-          nesses while preserving the essen-
ployers and exempt small employ-        tial objectives of the standard.
ers from hazard documentation re-          We wanted to get their input on
quirements.                             how the draft proposed standard
   This summer, with the Office of      might be revised to provide small
Advocacy of the Small Business          business employers with greater         Greg Watchman,
Administration (SBA) we have            flexibility in compliance while pre-    Acting Assistant Secretary
held regional meetings to get addi-     serving the essential objectives of     of Labor for Occupational Safety
tional input from small businesses      the standard.                           and Health

2    Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997
Q: Many small businesses                respond to their specific questions      Q: Tuberculosis has been
are affected by OSHA      ’s            about complying with the MC stan-        makingheadlinesagain
new MethyleneChloride                   dard. Plans are currently underway       across the nation. Is the
(MC) standard? Is the                   to hold the seminars later this year.    disease on the uprise?
agency doing anything                                                            Does OSHA have any
special to help these em-                                                        standardscoveringwork-
ployers comply with the           Q: Does OSHA still have                        place exposure to TB?
newstandards?                     plans to address the
                                  growing number of ergo-                        A: Although tuberculosis (TB) is
A: Part of the “New OSHA’s” out- nomics issues in the                            preventable, the upsurge of recent
reach effort is to cooperate with workplace?                                     cases demonstrates that the battle
employers to enhance the protec-                                                 has not been won. From 1985 to
tion of workers. OSHA recognizes        A: Yes. In fact, OSHA just recently      1992, the number of active TB
that many small businesses need         created a new Internet web page on       cases increased 20 percent, revers-
detailed guidance to comply with        ergonomics and the prevention of         ing a previous 30-year downward
the agency’s new MC standard.           repetitive stress injuries. The new      trend.
And through a series of fact sheets     Web page, located at http://                This summer, OSHA plans to
and seminars the agency plans to        www.osha.gov/ergo, is just the first     publish a proposed standard on oc-
do just that.                           step in an outreach effort to edu-       cupational exposure to tuberculo-
   OSHA has produced 11 fact            cate employers and employees on          sis (TB). The proposal would cover
sheets geared to employers who          ergonomics and repetitive stress         5.3 million workers in about
need specific recommendations for       injuries.                                102,000 establishments including
work practices and engineering             Visitors to the new ergonomics        hospitals, nursing homes, hospices,
controls to limit MC exposures          website will find help in setting up     correctional facilities, homeless
during routine work activities. Tar-    effective workplace ergonomics           shelters, substance abuse centers,
geted toward industries that include    programs, OSHA publications and          immigration detainment facilities,
many small businesses where MC          articles on the subject, highlights      and laboratories.
exposures are common, the fact          from a recent national conference           The proposal is based largely on
sheets were developed with help         on ergo, information on corporate-       guidelines issued in 1990 by the
from employers and employees in         wide settlement agreements involv-       Centers for Disease Control and
those industries.                       ing ergo issues, OSHA special em-        reissued in 1994. The agency esti-
   The general fact sheets on expo-     phasis initiatives to avoid repetitive   mates that the proposed standard
sure monitoring and medical sur-        stress injuries in meatpacking and       would prevent 90 percent of TB
veillance will be useful to all em-     nursing homes, a listing of interna-     infections in hospitals and 70-90
ployers. Specific fact sheets cover     tional ergonomic standards, and          percent of TB infections in other
cold degreasing and other cold          links to technical OSHA informa-         work settings. Annually that would
cleaning operations, construction       tion.                                    translate to approximately 24,000-
work, furniture refinishing, flexible      OSHA intends to address ergo-         33,000 TB infections avoided;
polyurethane foam manufacturing,        nomics through a four-pronged            1,800-2,400 cases of active TB pre-
and vapor degreasing. Copies of the     program including training, educa-       vented; 140-190 lives saved; and
fact sheets can be found on the         tional, and outreach activities;         $89-$116 million dollars saved in
Internet at http://www.osha.gov         study and analysis of work-related       direct costs.
under Publications. Single copies       ergonomic hazards to identify in-           Job Safety & Health Quarterly
can be obtained from the OSHA           novative and cost-effective solu-        will have more information on TB
Publications Office at (202) 219-       tions; enforcement; and rulemak-         and OSHA’s proposed standard in
4667.                                   ing. The ergo web page is part of        future issues. The agency will pub-
   In addition, MC seminars will        the first phase of the education and     lish the proposal in the Federal
offer employers and employees           outreach effort.                         Register.
more in-depth guidance and will

                                                             Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997    3
Awards                                                                           For a copy of these publications,

   On June 24, 1997, at Fire-
                                        Publications                          contact the U.S. Department of
                                                                              Labor, OSHA Publications, P.O.
fighter’s Park in Margate, FL, the      NIOSH                                 Box 37535, Washington, DC
Occupational Safety and Health             The National Institute for Occu-   20013-7535; or call (202) 219-
Administration (OSHA) recog-            pational Safety and Health            4667. Please send a self-addressed
nized the following for “outstand-      (NIOSH) has issued an expanded        mailing label with your request.
ing skill, professionalism, and         version of its Criteria Documents        Another new OSHA booklet, As-
regard for human life”: Broward         on CD-ROM. The new two-disc           sessing the Need for Personal Pro-
County Fire-Rescue Squad 65,            CD-ROM set, entitled Criteria         tective Equipment (PPE)—A Guide
                         Haz–Mat        Documents Plus, contains the full     for Small Business Employers is the
                         32, Engine     text of all 143 Criteria Documents,   second in the Small Business Man-
     Certificate         20, Techni-    Special Occupational Hazard Re-       agement Series and helps employ-
          of             cal Rescue     views, Occupational Hazard As-        ers to comply with OSHA’s general
   Achievement Team, Air                sessments, and Joint Occupational     PPE requirements.
                         Rescue 85;     Health Documents; 57 Current In-         For a copy, contact the Superin-
                         Fort Lau-      telligence Bulletins; and 43 Alerts   tendent of Documents, U.S. Gov-
derdale Fire-Rescue units Engines       issued by NIOSH through Decem-        ernment Printing Office, Washing-
49 and 249; Battalion 13, Techni-       ber 1996. Price: $60.00.              ton, DC 20402, (202) 512-1800.
cal Rescue Team; Margate Fire and          To order, contact the National     Order No. 029-016-00179-4. Cost:
Rescue units Engine 18, Rescue 18,      Technical Information Service         $4.25.
Engine 58, Rescue 58; and Margate       (NTIS), Springfield, VA 22161; or
detective Nick Leischen, the lead       call (703) 487-4650; fax (703) 321- The National Safety Council
investigator. The rescue team mem-      8547. Request NTIS stock number           The National Safety Council of-
bers saved three people’s lives         PB97-502082.                           fers an Advanced Safety Certificate
when a 10-foot-deep trench caved                                               (ASC) to participants who com-
in outside the Beverly Manor Nurs-      OSHA                                   plete required courses at the
ing Home in Margate, FL. One man           Three new publications on Council’s training institute in Bal-
died in the accident, but as Margate    OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Pro- timore, MD. The ASC is the Na-
Mayor Mitch Anton notes, “With-         gram (VPP) are now available.          tional Safety Council’s program for
out you men and women, more than           So You Want to Apply to VPP? the development of safety profes-
one life would have been lost in this   Here’s How to Do It! outlines the sionals and targets skills that in-
accident.”                              elements an application should ad- crease compliance with regulatory
   On June 25, 1997, OSHA hon-                            dress when appli- standards, improve productivity,
ored Patricia D. Bieles with its                               cants apply and enhance employee participa-
“Champion of the Year” award.                                     for partici- tion in the safety and health pro-
Bieles, OSHA’s Workplace Vio-                                       pation in cess.
lence Program Coordinator, re-                                      OSHA’s        The National Safety Council
ceived recognition for her work in                                  VPP.       also offers a course entitled Fun-
developing voluntary workplace                                        You’ve damentals of Industrial Hygiene for
violence guidelines. The award rec-                                 Been Se- safety, health, environmental, and
ognizes employees who have dem-                                     lected to management personnel who have
onstrated exceptional performance                                  Be a VPP industrial hygiene on-the-job re-
in support of agency goals. Recipi-     Onsite Team Member! Now What? sponsibilities but lack the training
ents of the award must, among           explains the duties of a team mem- or experience in industrial hygiene.
other things, show leadership, ini-     ber.                                      For more information, contact
tiative, innovation, and creativity        What to Expect During OSHA’s the Safety Council of Maryland,
beyond that normally required by        Visit outlines the specific documen- Inc., at (410) 298-4770 or (800)
the job as well as outstanding cus-     tation needed for the visit and the 875-4770.
tomer service and substantial im-       steps OSHA follows in the onsite
provement in the quality of work.       review.

4    Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997
VPP Update                            Channelview, TX; Monsanto Co.,
                                      Carondelet Plant, St. Louis, MO;
  Recent additions to OSHA’s VPP      and Monroe Auto Equipment Co.,
Star list are Lucent Technologies,    Cozad, NE.
Optoelectronics, Breinigsville, PA;      Recent additions to OSHA’s VPP
Elano Corp., Dayton, OH; Frito-       Merit list are ALCOA, Massena,
Lay, Inc., Beloit, WI; Fort Howard    NY; Bayer Corp., Baytown, TX;
Corp., Rincon, GA; Monsanto           Westway Terminal Co., Jackson-
Chemical Co., Indian Orchard          ville, FL; Lucent Technologies,
                                      Microelectronics Group, Reading,
                                      PA; Lucent Technologies, Inc.,
                                      Merrimack Valley Works, North
                                      Andover, MA; and Monsanto Co.,
                                      W.G. Krummich Plant, Sauget, IL.
                                         Russell Corp.’s Sylacauga Plant,
                                      Sylacauga, AL, has now been in the
                                      Star Program for 9 years; and Geor-
                                      gia-Pacific Corp., Leaf River
                                      Pulp Operations, New Augusta,
                                      MS; General Electric (GE),
                                      Bay St. Louis, MS; Thrall Car
Plant, Springfield, MA; Union         Manufacturing Co., Winder, GA;
Camp Corp., Flexible Packaging        Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Colum-
Div., Hazelton, PA; Union Camp,       bus, MS; and Monsanto Chemical
Folding Carton Division, Clifton,     Co., Anniston, AL, have been in the
NJ; Georgia-Pacific Corp., Warm       Star Program for 3 years.
Springs Plywood Plant, Warm
Springs, GA; Milliken & Co.,
                                         Morton Powder Coatings, Read-
                                      ing, PA; Westinghouse Electric                     F.P.O.
Kingsley Plant, Thomson, GA;          Corp., Blairsville, PA; Amoco Oil
Milliken & Co., Newton Plant,         Co., Mandan, ND; Midas Interna-
Hartwell, GA; Georgia-Pacific         tional Corp., Bedford Park Manu-
Corp., Monticello Plywood Plant,      facturing Corp., Bedford Park, IL;
Monticello, GA; Georgia-Pacific       International Paper Liquid Packag-
Corp., Madison Plywood Plant,         ing Div., East Point, GA; and
Madison, GA; MASSPOWER, In-           Torcon Inc., JFK Medical Center,
dian Orchard, MA; Verotex             Edison, NJ, advanced from Merit
CertainTeed Corp., Wichita Falls,     to Star.
TX; Weyerhaeuser Customer Ser-           As of July 31, 1997, there were
vice Center, Cleveland, OH; Gen-      318 sites in the Federal VPP: 262
eral Electric Co., Power Generation   in Star, 48 in Merit, and 8 in Dem-
Div., Bangor, ME; Milliken & Co.,     onstration.
Sibley Plant, Lavonia, GA;               For more information on
Adirondack Resource Recovery          OSHA’s VPP, write the OSHA Di-
Associates, L.P.-Foster Wheeler,      rectorate of Federal-State Opera-
Hudson Falls, NY; Cerdec Corp.,       tions, 200 Constitution Avenue,
Drakenfield Products, Washington,     N.W., Room N-3700, Washington,
PA; PPG Industries, Inc., Appleton,   DC 20210; or call (202) 219-7266.
WI; Lyondell Petrochemical Co.,       See also Programs and Services
Alathon Technology Center, Alvin,     on OSHA’s Web site at http://
TX; Lyondell Petrochemical Co.,       www.osha.gov/.

                                                         Job Safety & Health Quarterly     Summer 1997   5
Conferences                          ern Idaho, and southeast Washing-
                                     ton. The conference will be held at
                                                                            can examine new products for im-
                                                                            proving indoor air quality, upgrad-
National Institute for               Four Rivers Cultural Center,           ing fire protection, and controlling
Occupational Safety and              Ontario, OR, and will include ses-     noise. For more information, call
Health (NIOSH)                       sions on job safety analysis,          (770) 447-5083, or fax (770) 446-
   On October 15-17, 1997, The       bloodborne pathogens, air quality,     3969.
National Institute for Occupational  workplace violence, ergonomics,
Safety and Health (NIOSH), in as-    construction safety, high-perfor-      Safety and Industrial
sociation with its public and privatemance organization, on-the-job-        Hygiene
sector partners, will host the “Na-  training, and conducting accident         On September 17-19, 1997, the
tional Occupational Injury Re-       investigations.                        State of Utah will hold its 14th an-
search Symposium” at the Appala-        On October 14-16, 1997, the 7th     nual “Safety and Health Industrial
chian Laboratories for Occupa-       annual Southern Oregon Occupa-         Hygiene” conference at the Univer-
tional Safety and Health in          tional Safety and Health Confer-       sity of Utah, Olpin Union Building.
Morgantown, WV. Some objec-          ence will focus on “Simplifying        Sessions will focus on topics such
tives of the symposium include, but  Safety for Success!” Sessions and      as personal protective equipment,
are not limited to, providing a fo-  workshops will deal with topics on     professional certification, employee
rum for the presentation of scien-   applied quality techniques to im-      motivation, workplace violence,
tific research findings and methods  prove safety, accident investiga-      silica, ergonomics, medical surveil-
in the field of traumatic occupa-    tion, safety committee operations,     lance, recordkeeping, and construc-
tional injury; fostering collabora-  required written programs, toxicol-    tion safety. For more information,
tion between researchers in the      ogy, latex sensitivity, air quality    contact Tori Burns at (801) 530-
various disciplines and between the  management, and hazardous mate-        6897, or fax (801) 530-7606.
public and private organizations     rial spill responses.
that conduct or sponsor traumatic       For more information on these       Steel Erection Negotiated
occupational injury research; and    conferences and on registration,       Rulemaking Advisory
identifying effective interventions, please contact Sharell McMurry or      Committee (SENRAC)
and increase injury prevention ef-   Laveryne Gray, Oregon OSHA                On July 24, 1997, in Washington,
forts based on research findings.    Conference Section, at (503) 378-      DC at the Department of Labor,
For more information, contact        3272, or fax (503) 378-5729.           SENRAC met and signed its consen-
Martha Brocato at (404) 634-0804                                            sus proposal for a revised steel erec-
(ext. 42), or fax (404) 634-6040.     OSHA Expo                             tion standard and to present it to
                                         On November 19-21, 1997, En-       OSHA. SENRAC was established in
Oregon State                          vironmental Engineers and Manag-      May 1994 to negotiate issues in-
   During September 10-12, 1997, ers Institute (EEMI) will sponsor          volved in revising OSHA’s steel erec-
Oregon OSHA will cosponsor an the “OSHA Compliance Expo” at                 tion standard. The committee in-
occupational safety and health con- the Georgia World Congress Cen-         cludes representatives of organized
ference at Central Oregon Commu- ter in Atlanta, GA. Cosponsors in-         labor, industry, public interests, and
nity College in Bend, OR. Many clude the Environmental Protection           government. The committee began
regional and national safety and Agency, the U.S. Department of             negotiations in mid-June 1994 and
health experts will discuss topics Labor, OSHA, the National Safety         has met 11 times since then. In De-
such as managing change in today’s Council, National Fire Protection        cember 1995, it reached consensus on
workplace, machine guarding, of- Association, the American Society          a proposed standard. In the ensuing
fice work station ergonomics, for Industrial Security, and the              months, OSHA prepared a preamble
trenching, emergency prepared- American Industrial Hygiene As-              and a notice of proposed rulemaking
ness, environment of care for hos- sociation. The expo provides solu-       to support the SENRAC text. The
pitals and clinics, and rock drilling tions for meeting today’s worker      proposal is available online at http://
and blasting.                         safety and health requirements, re-   www.osha.gov/ under What’s New.
   From September 30 through ducing the risk of accidents, im-
October 2, 1997, Oregon OSHA proving operations, minimizing                 Washington State
will address safety and health is- lost work time, and limiting em-          October 30-31, 1997, the State of
sues of eastern Oregon, southwest- ployer liability. Participants also      Washington will host the 46th

6   Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
                                                                                302 Tunneling and
                                                                                Underground Operations
                                                                                   Focuses on the safety and health
                                                                                aspects of underground operations
                                                                                and the related OSHA standards.
                                                                                Introduces basic tunneling opera-
                                                                                tions, from sinking the initial shaft
                                                                                to completion of the project.
                                                                                   Tuition: $415
                                                                                   Dates: 8/26/97 - 8/29/97

                                                                             601 Occupational Safety and
                                                                             Health Course for Other
                                                                             Federal Agencies
                                                                                Designed for full-time federal
annual “Governor’s Industrial            the inspection process, and various agency safety and health officers or
Safety and Health Conference” at         programs within OSHA.               supervisors assigned responsibili-
the Seattle Center in Seattle, WA.          Tuition: Federal and state       ties under Executive Order 12196
The conference will deal with top-                   personnel only          and CFR 1960.
ics such as workplace violence, the         Dates: 9/23/97 - 9/26/97            Tuition: $1,101
politics of regulatory safety and                                               Dates: 8/18/97 - 8/29/97
health, the big three hazards of         205 Cranes and Rigging
safety and health, partners in safety,   Safety for Construction                To register for courses or to ob-
emergency preparedness, and man-            Describes various types of mo- tain a training catalog, write the
aging change. For more informa-          bile and tower cranes used in con- OSHA Training Institute, 1555
tion call the conference hotline at      struction operations and provides Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL
(360) 902-5160.                          information on crane operations, 60018; or call (847) 297-4913. See
                                         inspection, and maintenance.        also OSHA Training and Regis-
                                            Tuition: $415
OSHA Training                               Dates: 9/9/97 - 9/12/97
                                                                             tration under Programs and
                                                                             Services on OSHA’s Web site at
Institute Schedule                       222 Respiratory Protection
121 Introduction to Industrial              Includes the requirements for
Hygiene for Safety Personnel             establishing, maintaining, and         OSHA Training
   Focuses on the general concepts       monitoring a respirator program.
of industrial hygiene, including the     Includes terminology, OSHA and         Institute
recognition of common health haz-
ards, such as air contaminants and
                                         ANSI standards, NIOSH certifica-
                                         tions, and medical evaluation rec-     Education Centers
noise, hazard evaluation through         ommendations.                          The OSHA Training Institute
screening and sampling, and con-            Tuition: $790                    also has a program for other insti-
trol methods for health hazards,            Dates: 8/21/97 - 8/29/97         tutions to conduct OSHA courses
including ventilation and personal                                           for the private sector and other fed-
protective equipment.                    225 Principles of Ergonomics eral agencies. These include East-
   Tuition: $1,039                          Provides an overview of ergo- ern Michigan University/United
   Dates: 9/9/97 - 9/19/97               nomic principles for the reduction Auto Workers, Ypsilanti, MI, (800)
                                         of stresses and strains on the 932-8689; Georgia Technological
143 Introduction to OSHA                 employee’s body. Includes work Research Institute, Atlanta, GA,
For Non-Technical                        physiology, vibration, anthropom- (800) 653-3629; Great Lakes
Personnel                                etry, cumulative trauma disorders, OSHA Training Consortium, St.
   Provides an overview of OSHA’s        video display terminals, manual Paul, MN, (800) 493-2060; Keene
history, terminology, structure, and     lifting, and temperature stress.    State College, Manchester, NH,
operations. Includes the OSH Act,           Tuition: $415                    (800) 449-6742; Maple Woods
                                            Dates: 8/26/97 - 8/29/97         Community College, Kansas City,
                                                            Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997     7
MO, (800) 841-7158; National            309a Electrical Standards          Location: Keene State College
Resource Center for OSHA Train-         Location: Maple Woods Com-         Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97
ing, Washington, DC, (800) 367-                   munity College           Location: Maple Woods Com-
6724; Niagara County Community          Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97                  munity College
College, Lockport, NY, (800) 280-       Location: Red Rocks Commu-         Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/18/97
6742; Red Rocks Community Col-                    nity College             Location: National Resource
lege/Trinidad State Junior College,     Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97                   Center for OSHA
Lakewood, CO, (800) 933-8394;           Location: Texas Engineering                  Training
The National Safety Education                     Extension Service        Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/18/97
Center, DeKalb, IL, (800) 656-          Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/26/97        Location: Niagra County Com-
5317; Texas Engineering Extension                                                    munity College
Service, Mesquite, TX, (800) 723-       500 Trainer Course in              Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97
3811; University of California, San     Occupational Safety and            Location: The National Safety
Diego, CA, (800) 358-9206; and          Health Standards for the                     Education Center
University of Washington, Seattle,      Construction Industry              Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/19/97
WA, (800) 326-7568.                     Location: Eastern Michigan         Location: Red Rocks Commu-
   For tuition rates and registration             University-United                  nity College
information, contact the institution              Auto Workers             Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/19/97
offering the courses and see also       Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97         Location: Texas Engineering
OSHA’s Web site.                        Location: Maple Woods Com-                   Extension Service
                                                  munity College           Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97
201a Hazardous Materials                Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/11/97         Location: University of Califor-
Location: Keene State College                     9/15/97 - 9/18/97                  nia, San Diego
Dates:    9/29/97 - 10/3/97             Location: National Resource        Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/19/97
Location: Niagara County                          Center for OSHA
          Community College                       Training                 510 Occupational Safety
Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/11/97              Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97(W)      and Health Standards for the
Location: Red Rocks Commu-              Location: Niagara County           Construction Industry
          nity College                            Community College        Location: National Resource
Dates:    9/29/97 - 10/3/97             Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/18/97                  Center for OSHA
                                        Location: Red Rocks Commu-                   Training
204a Machinery and                                nity College             Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97
Machine Guarding                        Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97         Location: Texas Engineering
Standards                               Location: Texas Engineering                  Extension Service
Location: Eastern Michigan                        Extension Service        Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97
          University-United             Dates:    9/29/97 - 10/3/97        Location: University of Wash-
          Auto Workers                  Location: University of Califor-             ington
Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/26/97                       nia, San Diego           Dates:    10/27/97 - 10/30/97
Location: Great Lakes OSHA              Dates:    9/8/97 - 9/12/97
          Training Consortium                                              521 OSHA Guide to
Dates:    9/9/97 - 9/12/97*             501 Trainer Course in              Industrial Hygiene
Location: Maple Woods Com-              Occupational Safety                Location: National Resource
          munity College                and Health Standards for                     Center for OSHA
Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97             General Industry                             Training
                                        Location: Eastern Michigan         Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/26/97 (W)
225 Principles of                                 University-United        Location: Texas Engineering
Ergonomics                                        Auto Workers                       Extension Service
Location: Georgia Technological         Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/19/97        Dates:    9/15/97 - 9/19/97
          Research Institute            Location: Georgia Technological
Dates:    9/9/97 - 9/12/97                        Research Institute       * Scheduled at University of Cincinnati,
Location: Keene State College           Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/26/97        Cincinnati, OH
Dates:    9/22/97 - 9/25/97                                                (W) Scheduled at West Virginia University,
                                                                           Morgantown, WV

8    Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997
                                                                            Revision of Certain Standards Pro-
   Published in April and October each year,                                mulgated Under Section 6(A) of
                                                                            the Williams-Steiger Occupational
     the agenda includes all regulations                                    Safety and Health Act of 1970
 expected to be under development or review                                 1218-AB55

    by the agency during that period. The                                   Flammable and Combustible
     following list is from the agenda as                                   Liquids
    published in the Federal Register 62
                                                                            Process Safety Management
      (80):21965-21980, April 25, 1997.                                     of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

                                      ing Suffocation/Explosions in Con- Revocation of Certification
Prerule                               fined Spaces)                      Records for Tests, Inspection, and
Title and Regulation Identifier       1218-AB47                          Training
Number (RIN)*                                                            1218-AB65
                                      General Working Conditions in
Standards Advisory Committee on       Shipyards (Part 1915, Subpart F) Revision of Certain Standards Pro-
Metalworking Fluids                   (Phase II) (Shipyards: General mulgated Under Section 6(A) of
1218-AB58                             Working Conditions)                the Williams-Steiger Act (Phase II)
                                      1218-AB50                          1218-AB66
Control of Hazardous Energy
Sources (Lockout/Tagout) (Section
610 Review)
                                  Fire Protection in Shipyard Em-
                                  ployment (Part 1915, Subpart P)
                                                                            Final Rule
1218-AB59                         (Phase II) (Shipyards: Fire Safety) Respiratory Protection (Proper Use
                                  1218-AB51                           of Modern Respirators)
Occupational Exposure to Ethylene                                     1218-AA05
Oxide (Section 610 Review)        Permissible Exposure Limits
1218-AB60                         (PELs) for Air Contaminants         Safety and Health Regulations
                                  1218-AB54                           for Longshoring (Part 1918) and
Fire Brigades                                                         Marine Terminals (Part 1917)

Proposed Rule
Steel Erection (Part 1926) (Safety
Protection for Ironworking)

Safety and Health Programs (for
General Industry)

Occupational Exposure to Tubercu-

Confined Spaces for Construction
(Part 1926) (Construction: Prevent-

                                                        Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997    9
(Shipyards: Protecting Longshor-     Accreditation of Training Programs
ing Workers)                         for Hazardous Waste Operations
1218-AA56                            (Part 1910)
Access and Egress in Shipyards
(Part 1915, Subpart E) (Phase I) Prevention of Work-Related Mus-
Shipyards: Emergency Exits and culoskeletal Disorders                                        GEORGIA WORLD
Aisles)                             1218-AB36                                               CONGRESS CENTER
1218-AA70                                                                                 NOVEMBER 19-21, 1997
                                    Indoor Air Quality in the Work-
Glycol Ethers: 2-Methoxyethanol, place                                                        ATLANTA, GA
                                                                                                         Sponsered by:
2-Ethoxyethanol, and Their Ac- 1218-AB37
etates: Protecting Reproductive
Health                              Occupational Exposure to
1218-AA84                           Hexavalent Chromium (Preventing
                                    Occupational Illness: Chromium)
Walking Working Surfaces and 1218-AB45                                                    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS & MANAGERS
Personal Fall Protection Systems                                                          Visit the AEE Homepage at:www.aeecenter.org

(Part 1910) (Slips, Trips, and Fall Nationally Recognized Testing                                      Co-sponsered by:
Prevention)                         Labs Programs: Fees
1218-AB04                           1218-AB57

Recording and Reporting Occupa- Fall Protection in the Construction                      U.S. EPA Region IV
                                                                                           Headquarters          U.S. Department of Labor
tional Injuries and Illnesses (Sim- Industry
plified Injury/Illness Recordkeep- 1218-AB62
ing Requirements)
1218-AB24                            Completed
Powered Industrial Truck Operator
Training (Industrial Truck Safety
                                     Actions                                                                              National Fire
                                                                                                                     Protection Association
Training)                          Methylene Chloride (Preventing
1218-AB33                          Occupational Illnesses: Methylene
Abatement Verification (Hazard 1217-AA98
Correction)                                                                              American Sociaty for        American Industrial
                                                                                          Industrial Security        Hygiene Association
1218-AB40                          Control of Hazardous Energy
                                   (Lockout)—Construction (Part
Permit Required Confined Spaces 1926) (Preventing Construction
(General Industry: Preventing Suf- Injuries/Fatalities: Lockout)
focation/Explosions in Confined 1218-AB30                                             For More Information Write
1218-AB52                                                                                OSHA COMPLIANCE EXPO
                                                                                      4025 Pleasantdale Road, Suite 420,
Eliminating and Improving Regu-                                                            Atlanta, GA 30340-4264
1218-AB53                                                                                                       Or

Long Term                            *Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
                                     Identification Number. For copies of OSHA fi-
                                                                                          FAX US AT (770) 446-3969
                                                                                           OR CALL (770) 447-5083
                                     nal rules published in the Federal Register,
Scaffolds in Shipyards (Part         contact the Superintendent of Documents,
1915—Subpart N) (Phase I) (Ship-     Government Printing Office, Washington, DC           Act now to secure your FREE expo
                                                                                        passes for the OSHA Compliance Expo!
yards: Safer Scaffolds)              20402, for $8.00 a copy prepaid. Subscriptions
1218-AA68                            are available at $651 per year.

10   Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
OSHA Cooperative Efforts:
A Good Deal for Workers
and Employers
Part One of a Two-Part Series on OSHA Partnership Efforts
by Judith Weinberg

       he Occupational Safety and                                                                      Partnerships and
       Health Administration                                                                           mentoring go hand in
       (OSHA) has been taking the                                                                      hand. Exxon Chemical
advice it gives employers: Exam-                                                                       extends mentoring to
ine your safety and health pro-                                                                        Epicor, Inc.
grams, see what works and what                                                                         From left to right: Bill
doesn’t, build on your successes,                                                                      Warvel, Exxon Chemical
and make improvements where                                                                            Paramins; John Griffiths,
needed. One result of this self-ap-                                                                    Epicor; and Rose
praisal is a growing agencywide                                                                        Bussiculo, Epicor Presi-
commitment to cooperative part-                                                                        dent, demonstrate their
nerships, which are proving to be a                                                                    improved labeling system
good deal for workers, employers,                                                                      during a site walkthrough.
and OSHA.1
   OSHA’s interest in partnerships
is not new. Two well-established                    to improve worker safety and             be a central tenet of the agency, but
programs, OSHA Consultation and                     health. The agency is vigorously         OSHA needs new approaches if it
the Voluntary Protection Programs                   applying many of the lessons first       is going to help employers do more
(VPP), which make up the agency’s                   learned in these two “voluntary          to protect their workers.
Office of Cooperative Programs,                     programs” to many new programs
for years have worked coopera-                      and initiatives to augment and en-       Safety and Health
tively with employers and workers                   hance OSHA’s traditional stan-           ProgramManagement
                                                    dards-setting and enforcement ac-           The major lesson that has
                                                    tivities.                                emerged from OSHA’s voluntary
  OSHA partnerships include alliances with             Spurring this change is OSHA’s        programs is the value—both in in-
employers and workers who have implemented
effective safety and health programs; busi-
                                                    recognition that its past attempts to    juries and illnesses prevented and
nesses that want to do the right thing by their     command and control U.S. work-           dollars saved—of employers and
workers but need technical assistance, train-       places, while contributing to a more     employees working together to cre-
ing, and other consultative services; labor         than 50-percent drop in the overall      ate an effective workplace safety
unions; industry associations; 25 states and ter-
ritories that operate their own OSHA-approved       workplace death rate, were not able      and health program. For anyone
workplace safety and health plans; 47 state and     to prevent many needless deaths,         new to the concept, the place to
other agencies that deliver onsite consultation     injuries, and illnesses. Fair but firm   begin is OSHA’s voluntary “Safety
services under cooperative agreements with
OSHA, occupational safety and health profes-        enforcement of workplace safety          and Health Program Management
sionals, insurance companies, educators; and        and health standards continues to        Guidelines” (Federal Register

                                                                       Job Safety & Health Quarterly           Summer 1997     11
(16):3904-3916, January 26,                      compensation and related costs                    program for all consultants. The
1989).2                                          come down, the impact injuries and                OSHA consultation service is avail-
   The 1989 guidelines describe                  illnesses have on workers’ families               able to private sector employers in
four major elements essential to an              lessens, and relations between man-               every state and to state and local
effective program:                               agement and employees improve                     government employers in 25
• Management commitment and                      overall. OSHA has many programs                   states.4
   employee involvement,                         to help employers get from here to                   Using well-trained state profes-
• Worksite analysis of existing and              there. Take a look at the OSHA                    sional safety and health staff,
   potential hazards,                            Onsite Consultation Program, for                  OSHA provides free onsite consul-
• Hazard prevention and control,                 example.                                          tation to employers, upon request.
   and                                                                                             Consultant training has been a con-
• Safety and health training.                    The O SHA Consultation                            stant within the program. Early
   In the years since publication, a             Program                                           consultant training reflected the
growing body of evidence contin-       OSHA offered its first structured                           program’s original focus: Identifi-
ues to confirm that when employ-    program of cooperative assistance                              cation and correction of specific
ers, managers, and employees work   to employers in 1975.3 Working                                 worksite hazards. But in 1984,
                                                  with an initial con-                             OSHA announced an important
                                                  gressional appro-                                shift in emphasis. Based on its first
The major lesson that has                         priation of $3 mil-                              10 years’ experience, OSHA con-
                                                  lion, OSHA estab-                                cluded it could best protect work-
emerged from OSHA’s                               lished a free onsite                             ers by encouraging employers to
voluntary programs is the                         consultation service                             develop effective workplace safety
                                                  directed primarily to                            and health management systems.
value…of employers and                            small employers and                              Experience had shown that hazards
employees working together to delivered by the                                                     are likely to recur if not continu-
                                                  states under coop-                               ally addressed within the param-
create an effective workplace                     erative agreements                               eters of an ongoing safety and
safety and health program.                        with OSHA to                                     health management system—a
                                                  worksites that re-                               good worksite program. The pro-
                                                  quested assistance.                              gram began training its more than
                                                  The program grew                                 650 consultants and state project
together within the framework of a rapidly, fueled by employer inter-                              managers in comprehensive work-
comprehensive safety and health est and increased funding from the                                 place safety and health program
program tailored to the company, Congress. By 1977, OSHA was                                       assessment and assistance. As a re-
myriad benefits ensue. Injuries and able to assume up to 90 percent of                             sult of this initial phase of safety
illnesses drop, employee morale the Consultation Program’s costs                                   and health program training, the
and productivity improve, workers’ and to begin a nationwide training                              scope of employer services ex-
                                                                                                   panded as consultants began en-
                                                                                                   couraging employers to take a
  For a copy of OSHA’s safety and health program management guidelines, contact OSHA Pub-          broader approach to worker protec-
lications, U.S. Department of Labor, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535; call (202)
219-4667 or fax (202) 219-9266; or under Federal Register Notices on OSHA’s Web site at            tion by working with them to
http://www.osha.gov. See also, Anne Crown-Cyr and Susan Hall Fleming, “Safety and Health:          implement comprehensive safety
A Plus for the Bottom Line,” Job Safety & Health Quarterly 8(2-3):10-15, Winter/Spring 1997.       and health programs instead of just
  Authorized under section 7(c)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Public
Law 91-596, December 29, 1970, as amended by P.L. 101-552, §3101, November 5, 1990), the
                                                                                                   correcting hazards. The second
Consultation Program began as a joint federal-state effort to help small employers engaged in      phase of this safety and health pro-
hazardous operations.
                                                                                                   gram assistance course is being
  Private sector consultation is available in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia, Guam,   delivered now and throughout the
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, either with 90-percent federal funding under section
7(c)(1) of the OSH Act (consultation) or 50-percent federal funding in eight states under sec-     summer, again, to all OSHA con-
tions 18 and 23(g) of the OSH Act (state plan). Consultation services are also available in the    sultants nationwide.
public sector in states that operate OSHA-approved state plans: Alaska, Arizona, California,          Both of these courses emphasize
Connecticut, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico,
New York, Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah,            OSHA’s approach of encouraging
Vermont, Virginia, the Virgin Islands, Washington, and Wyoming.                                    employers to request “full service”

12     Job Safety & Health Quarterly                   Summer 1997
consultation, which gives employ-
ers information on the identifica-
tion and control of workplace
safety and health hazards and in-
cludes assistance on the develop-
ment, implementation, or “fine tun-
ing” of an employer’s entire safety
and health management program.
This means that the consultant, the
requesting employer, and his/her
employees join hands in a volun-
tary long-term partnership aimed at
improving the workplace environ-
ment. The effectiveness of this ap-              Potlach Corporation, Consumer Products Division, Lewiston, ID, celebrates
                                                 Merit status in OSHA’s VPP. From left to right: Chris Brown, Safety
proach is being put to the test
                                                 Coordinator, Potlatch; Steve Brown, Potlatch and VPPPA Director at Large;
throughout OSHA’s Region
IV(Atlanta),5 where the CASH pi-                 Dan Hoeschen, Region X, OSHA; Frank Radle, Vice President, Potlatch,
                                                 Lewiston; Dick Terrill, Region X OSHA Administrator; Lee Anne Elliott,
lot program—Comprehensive As-
                                                 VPPPA Executive Director; Kent Lang, VPPP Facilitator, Potlatch; and
sistance in Safety and Health—en-
courages employers to request full-              Craig Nelson, Vice President, Potlatch, Corporate.
service consultation instead of the
limited, hazard-based service.6                  tions. Participating employers may               since demonstrated the accuracy
   Another incentive program,                    reapply annually for continuing                  of its original twofold premise:
SHARP (Safety and Health                         SHARP recognition.                               • Effective safety and health pro-
Achievement Recognition Pro-                        To complement its onsite ser-                    gram management is essential to
gram), recognizes employers who                  vices, the OSHA Consultation Pro-                   worker protection.
establish comprehensive, effective               gram also provides onsite and                    • A voluntary, cooperative, proac-
safety and health programs. Partici-             offsite training to employers and                   tive partnership of management,
pation in SHARP is open to small,                employees, participates in coopera-                 labor, and OSHA can be a valu-
high-hazard employers who re-                    tive training seminars and safety                   able complement to the tradi-
quest full-service consultation ser-             and health conventions, provides                    tional approach of standards pro-
vices; involve their employees in                outreach services in support of                     mulgation and enforcement.
the development, operation, and                  OSHA special emphasis enforce-                      As OSHA’s premiere recogni-
improvement of all elements of the               ment programs, and participates                  tion program, VPP encourages ex-
site’s safety and health program;                actively in other agency initiatives.            cellence in private sector work-
work with project consultants for                                                                 place safety and health. 7 The
at least 1 year to improve worker                VoluntaryProtection                              worksites that meet the VPP’s rig-
protection at the site; and meet                 Programs                                         orous participation requirements
other program requirements. In re-                 Another popular program,                       have succeeded in implementing
turn, employers receive public rec-              OSHA’s Voluntary Protection                      safety and health programs that go
ognition for their exemplary efforts             Programs (VPP), began in 1982                    well beyond OSHA standards to
and achievement, reap the benefits               with a handful of supporters                     provide comprehensive, systems-
of extensive professional support                within the agency and consider-                  based, effective worker protection.
and assistance, and may be eligible              able doubts about the program’s                  Common to all these worksites, re-
to receive a 1-year exemption from               ability to significantly affect                  gardless of their size or industry,
OSHA’s general scheduled inspec-                 worker safety and health. VPP has                are employers who assume respon-
                                                                                                  sibility for operating an effective
  With headquarters in Atlanta, this region covers Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Missis-
                                                                                                  program, and employees who play
sippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.                                             crucial roles by working with man-
  See “Region IV—Redirecting Consultation’s Emphasis for Lasting Results,” Job Safety &           agement to ensure high levels of
Health Quarterly 6(4):19-21, Summer 1995.                                                         protection.
  For copies of So You Want to Apply to VPP? Here’s How to Do It! and What to Expect During
OSHA’s Visit, see Publications at http//:www.osha.gov/, or call (202) 219-7266.

                                                                         Job Safety & Health Quarterly             Summer 1997     13
   There are currently 318             and health managers, union safety opportunity for benchmarking
worksites participating in the fed-    representatives, and other experi- safety and health programs.”
erally operated VPP program and        enced employees from established                  Experience has shown that the
50 worksites participate in state-run  VPP sites the opportunity to serve program’s benefits go beyond its cost
VPPs.8 The rapid growth of the         as full-fledged members of VPP savings to OSHA. Volunteers and
VPP has strained OSHA’s ability to     onsite review teams. These non- their employers also benefit. The
                                                           OSHA team mem- volunteers’ practical experience, in-
                                                           bers are known as sistence on workplace safety and
                                                           OSHA Volunteers health excellence, and empathetic
                                                           or Special Govern- response to site problems are real
                                                           ment Employees pluses that have made believers of
                                                           (SGEs). Their will- previous doubters within OSHA.
                                                           ingness, and their OSHA’s Region II (New York)9 VPP
                                                           employers’ very Manager Norman Deitch comments,
                                                           substantial com- “I was in favor of the program but
                                                           mitment to the VPP skeptical about the ability and knowl-
                                                           and to partnership edge of the SGEs. I thought they
                                                           with OSHA—em- might not have a proper understand-
                                                           ployers pay the ing of the concept of systems and that
                                                           salaries and travel they might be more standards ori-
                                                           expenses of em- ented. After working with many
                                                           ployees who serve SGEs, I’ve become a very strong
                                                           as volunteers—are advocate of the program. They have
Members of the Georgia Consultation Program                what make this in- all demonstrated excellent knowl-
participate in Hydrochem’s Safety Committee meet-          novative program edge and ability in all aspects of the
ing. From left to right: Wendy Jones, Safety Consult- possible. Dennis VPP and have performed very well
ant, Georgia Consultation; Paul Middendorf, Georgia Scullion, Manager as active team members.”
Consultation Program Manager; Monroe Bailey,               of Audits and As-
Hyrdochem; David Ray, Hydrochem; and Lee Wynn, sessments for Oc- Mentoring
Health and Safety Manager, Hydrochem.                      cidental Chemical             Another VPP effort, the OSHA-
                                                           Corporation, Dal- Voluntary Protection Programs Par-
conduct the increasing numbers of las, TX, who has been involved in ticipants’ Association (VPPPA)
required pre- and post-approval site worker safety and health for more Mentoring Program, formalized in
reviews and, at the same time, pro- than 20 years, comments, “I view 1994, is a joint effort between
vide the technical assistance and the SGE concept as a logical ex- OSHA and the private, non-profit
support that interested applicants tension of the partnership between association that fosters communi-
often need. So the agency and its government, labor, and manage- cation among VPP member sites
VPP partners have been coming up ment that has made VPP so suc- and promotes workplace and envi-
with new ways to manage the pro- cessful. Participating in VPP re- ronmental safety and health excel-
gram and spread its message.           views gives me the chance to share lence. The program pairs a work
                                       my industry and company best site interested in applying to the
Volunteers                             practices, and to compare them VPP (or to the Department of
   One way the VPP is tackling the against the best practices of other Energy’s Voluntary Protection Pro-
resource problem and simulta- industries and companies with out- grams10) or in improving its safety
neously creating new forms of part- standing safety and health pro- and health program with a VPP site
nership is by using qualified vol- grams. As an SGE, I have a great that has volunteered to share its
unteers to augment the OSHA
teams that travel to VPP applicants’ 8 Eleven of the 25 OSHA-approved state plans (Arizona, California, Iowa, North Carolina, South
and participants’ worksites to as- Carolina, Utah, Wyoming, and Tennessee) currently have their own VPPs. Others are under
sess the effectiveness of their safety development. Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S.Virgin Islands.
                                         Covers New
and health programs. The OSHA 10 The Department of Energy’s VPP is fashioned after OSHA’s program. Participation is open to
Volunteers Program gives safety private contractors employed at DOE-owned facilities.

14    Job Safety & Health Quarterly               Summer 1997
experience and expertise. OSHA           other likely communities having                   second booklet, What to Expect
and the VPPPA are working to-            both a willing VPP mentor site and                During OSHA’s Visit, helps the site
gether to refine the program, but the    several small businesses ready to                 prepare for OSHA’s onsite review
association has assumed responsi-        accept VPP’s challenge.                           once its application has been ac-
bility for its day-to-day operation.
The Mentoring Program is work-
ing: 16 sites that have gone through          The worksites that meet the VPP’s rigorous
the mentoring process have im-
proved their safety and health pro-           participation requirements have succeeded in
grams enough to meet the VPP’s                implementing safety and health programs
rigorous participation require-
ments, and OSHA personnel have                that go well beyond OSHA standards to
had to spend less time on these               provide comprehensive, systems-based,
sites’ applications.
   Cluster mentoring is another               effective worker protection.
way OSHA leverages resources
and involves its partners in a project
to help other companies develop          VoluntaryCompliance                               cepted. The third booklet in the se-
and improve their worker protec-         Tools                                             ries, You’ve Been Selected to Be a
tion programs. The cluster concept          OSHA uses a variety of means,                  VPP Onsite Team Member! Now
began as a pilot project in Linden,      in addition to the Consultation Pro-              What?, is to help prepare VPP
NJ, in the summer of 1995, when          gram and VPP, to assist employers                 onsite team members for their roles
the Linden Industrial Association        and workers who choose to follow                  in the onsite review and evaluation.
and Exxon Chemical Company’s             its voluntary guidelines. The                     These publications are available
Linden plant, a VPP participant,         agency produces numerous book-                    from the OSHA Publications Of-
agreed to work with OSHA to men-         lets and other materials—many                     fice, P.O. Box 37535, Washington
tor four small businesses. These         available free of charge—that ad-                 DC, 20013-7535; phone (202) 219-
four businesses, selected by the as-     dress a wide range of workplace                   4667, or fax (202) 219-9266. These
sociation from firms that volun-         safety and health topics.11 For ex-               and other OSHA materials are
teered to participate, met as a group    ample, OSHA has three interactive                 available on OSHA’s Web site at
with Exxon’s safety manager. The         computer software expert systems                  http://www.osha.gov/.
sessions focused on bringing the         to help employers understand and                     Partnerships don’t stop here,
businesses’ safety and health pro-       comply with OSHA standards on                     though. OSHA also works closely
grams up to VPP quality levels and       cadmium, asbestos, and permit-re-                 with its approved state plans to im-
then preparing their VPP applica-        quired confined spaces standards.12               prove worker safety and health,
tions. All four firms completed the      The agency continues to work on                   which is the topic for part two of
mentoring and went on to be ap-          additional user-friendly aids and is              this series. This, along with grants,
proved for VPP’s Merit program.          exploring the feasibility of a future             training and education, and en-
They are now working towards             expert system devoted to compre-                  forcement programs will appear in
qualifying for VPP’s top level Star      hensive safety and health programs.               the fall 1997 issue of Job Safety &
program.                                    Three new VPP publications also                Health Quarterly.
   This project demonstrated the         are now available. The first, So You
feasibility of group mentoring. The      Want to Apply to VPP? Here’s How Weinberg is a writer-editor in
mentored businesses benefitted, not      to Do It!, is a step-by-step work- OSHA’s Directorate of Federal-
only from Exxon’s expertise, but         book for those who are seriously State Operations, Washington, DC.
also from tackling similar problems      ready to apply to the program. The
together in a spirit of cooperation.
OSHA is now aiming to replicate          11
                                            For a single free copy of “OSHA Publications and Audiovisual Programs-OSHA 2019,” which
the Linden plant’s success else-         lists materials available to the public, send a self-addressed mail label to the OSHA Publications
where. The agency is working with        Office, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535.
                                            Available online at www.osha.gov under Compliance Assistance, or by mail from the Office
the U.S. Small Business Adminis-         of Policy, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room 3641, Washington, DC 20210, Attn: Ed Stern.
tration and the VPPPA to identify

                                                                 Job Safety & Health Quarterly                    Summer 1997           15
                   Trekking N orth to
                      Find a Star
                                                    by Dan Hoeschen

            hen I think about “the       Inc., to help work out our schedule                  I’d been on the Bering Star in
            great Alaska wilderness”     for the visit. I guess you could say              March 1994 for a pre-approval VPP
            these days, a popular        this was a “fishing expedition” of                review at Dutch Harbor, AK, an
film does not first come to mind.        sorts, since Leauri was arranging                 island on the Aleutian chain. At that
In fact, last year at about this time,   for us to be onboard Icicle’s P.V.                time, our team recommended the
I was in Alaska surrounded by            Bering Star,1 a fish processing ves-              vessel be approved for VPP at the
rough seas and fish, lots of fish—       sel, to do a site evaluation for                  Merit level.4 In consultation with
but it was a personal adventure I        OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Pro-                  the vessel manager, we had set 11
won’t soon forget.                       grams (VPP).2                                     Merit goals which, if completed in
   The trip had been planned for            VPP is built on the foundation                 2 years, could qualify the Bering
weeks. I had been in constant com-       of voluntary workplace safety and                 Star for VPP Star status, the high-
munication with Leauri Lopes,            health excellence and cooperation                 est recognition level in the pro-
Safety Director for Icicle Seafoods,     among industry, labor, and govern-                gram. Now we were to evaluate the
                                         ment. The program recognizes                      progress of the vessel’s safety and
                                         workplaces with comprehensive                     health program in meeting these
                                         safety and health programs that                   goals.
VPP is built on                          exceed OSHA standards. During a                      We needed to be aboard when
                                         typical VPP onsite review, the                    the Bering crew would be process-
the foundation                           OSHA team3 conducts a complete                    ing fish. Since it was nearing the
of voluntary                             review of the participants’ safety                end of the herring season, trying to
                                         and health program, writes a draft                guess when tenders would off-load
workplace safety                         report while onsite, and makes its                to the Bering Star was a hit and
                                         recommendation for VPP status at                  miss proposition. On the Friday
and health                               the closing conference.                           before I left, I knew it only looked
excellence and                           1
                                           The processing vessel P/V Bering Star is a 210-foot barge converted to a fish processing vessel.
cooperation                              The vessel is towed to Alaskan fishing waters each season to process crab, herring, and salmon.
                                         A seasonal processing crew of 110 and 15 supervisors work aboard the vessel.
among industry,                          2
                                           The VPP is an OSHA program, initiated in 1982, which provides recognition to workplaces
                                         with comprehensive health and safety programs that exceed OSHA standards. (See cover story
                                         in this issue, page 11.) Although Alaska has a state occupational safety and health program, it
labor, and                               does not cover the maritime industry or fish processing vessels; therefore, Federal OSHA has
                                         jurisdiction and is responsible for VPP.
government.                              3
                                           Usually a safety professional, an industrial hygienist, and team leader.
                                           Merit level participation is recommended when one or more VPP program requirements are not
                                         fully implemented and the facility commits to completing work on required “Merit Goals” in an
                                         agreed upon time frame.

16    Job Safety & Health Quarterly            Summer 1997
promising and that Leauri had left   other VPP evaluations, but Joe had       Tuesday, May 22, 1996:
some time during the weekend to      not participated in the pre-approval
get to the vessel so she could be    evaluation for the Bering Star.             Joe and I checked out of the ho-
there for the VPP evaluation. In        That evening as Joe and I ate din-    tel and headed for the Anchorage
retrospect, things came together     ner in Anchorage, we talked about        airport. As we waited for the 18-
pretty well to get us where we       what to expect on this review. Be-       seat Penn Air flight, I studied the
needed to be.                        cause of the limited time we would       other passengers—all in jeans with
                                     have on the Bering and because           heavy coats and many beards, no
Monday, May 21, 1996:                other program documents were             ties anywhere. After about 2 hours
                                     available only at Icicle corporate       of flying we arrived at Dillingham,
  In the afternoon, I met Joe at the offices in Seattle, we would be con-     a fishing town located on the
Seattle-Tacoma International Air- ducting a partial evaluation instead        Nushagak River, which flows into
port for our departure on the Alaska of the usual draft report and rec-       Bristol Bay. Dillingham is consid-
Airlines flight to Anchorage. I’d ommendations. Of course, we still           ered one of the most upscale towns
known Josu “Joe” Eisaguarre, an didn’t know whether there would               west of the Aleutian chain. It has
industrial hygienist from the Boise be fish for processing while              paved roads, a handful of shops,
Area Office, for several years and onboard the Bering Star.
we’d worked together on several

                                               vessel, Nusha       gak River, AK.
                        Star   fish processing
      The P.V. Bering

                                                         Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997    17
     Joe Eisaguarre (left) and
                                me (right) in Dillingham
     terminal on the way to Cl                           air
                               arks Point, AK.

and two grocery/hardware/general        was the first one with wads of pa-    the Nushagak River from the gravel
stores. Because it is in a muskeg       per towels stuffed between the        runway at Clarks Point.
and tundra landscape, there are         windshield and superstructure of         The air terminal at Clarks Point
very few trees.                         the plane to control noise. Not to    is a weathered grey shack with one
   Once in the Dillingham air ter-      worry! After 15 minutes in the air,   side missing and an orange wind
minal, I called the Icicle Seafoods     the Bering Star was visible about     sock. Once safely on the ground,
dispatch office about our helicop-      half a mile out into the mouth of     Joe and I got out of the plane, but
ter connection. It turns out the com-
pany helicopter, which was to
transport us from Dillingham to the
Bering Star, was being used in
Norton Sound. So in plan B fash-
                                            Employee interviews help determine
ion, we jumped into the back of a           worker awareness of potential hazards,
cargo van that took us down a
bumpy dirt road to theYute Airline          safety training they have received, and
terminal, and from there, a four-
seater plane would take us to Clarks        the general level of satisfaction with
Point near where the Bering Star
was anchored.
                                            the site safety program and working
    Joe and I loaded our gear onto          conditions.
the plane. I’d flown previously in
a number of small planes, but this

18    Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997
no one was around except a couple      view, employee interviews, and a           We began reviewing documents
of stray dogs; we gathered our gear    walkaround of the vessel. We also       on activities such as self-inspec-
and headed for the beach. Soon a       made a tentative activity schedule.     tions, industrial hygiene surveys,
skiff was cruising in our direction.   This had to be flexible since the       safety committee meetings, safety
With rubber boots on, we waded         latest radio communication with a       training, evacuation drills, and job
into the water, threw our gear onto    tender vessel carrying the fish in-     safety analyses. Joe, who has had
the skiff, and jumped into the boat.   dicated it would likely arrive at       advanced process safety manage-
After the 15-minute ride, we           approximately 3:00 a.m.                 ment training, also began review-
climbed aboard the P/V Bering Star        The vessel safety manager, Scott     ing work completed by the chief
where Leauri and vessel manager,       Farris, briefed us on the alarm sys-    engineer and others in analyzing
Bart Cox, greeted us. After stow-      tem, evacuation routes, and actual      hazards associated with the large
ing our gear in a crew bunkroom        donning of immersion suits—those        ammonia refrigeration system.
on the quarter-deck, we headed for     hi-tech suits that keep you alive and   With our short time frame and the
the manager’s office/radio room on     afloat in freezing water for several    likelihood that fish processing
the upper deck.                        hours—a.k.a. “Gumby suits” since        work could begin during the night,
   There we held an opening con-       everyone who puts one on looks          we decided to do a group interview
ference—explaining the purpose of      like Gumby! You know, that green        that evening with eight employees
the evaluation and the process, such   rubberlike cartoon character from
as safety program document re-         the ‘70s.

                                int ai      r terminal (Joe on right).
       Here we are at Clarks Po

                                                          Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997     19
whom Joe and I selected from a list     ized that much of this is made up         Following the interview session,
of the processing crew. Employee        by the great food—and no fish!         we headed back to the manager’s
interviews help determine worker           After dinner, Joe and I conducted   office and learned that rough seas
awareness of potential hazards,         the group interview. Processing        in the Bering Sea were delaying the
safety training they have received,     crew members (seasonal workers         tender vessel. The new estimated
and the general level of satisfaction   who process the fish) expressed        time of arrival was now about
with the site safety program and        nothing but satisfaction with the      6:00 a.m. Joe and I felt a little re-
working conditions.                     safety and health conditions on the    lieved on hearing of this, and since
   After an afternoon of reviewing      Bering and demonstrated aware-         it was now about 9:00 p.m., we
documents on self-inspections,          ness of potential job hazards. The     headed for our bunks.
safety committee meeting records,       crew said they had more safety            Because Alaska is so far north,
job hazard analyses, and training       training than they had ever had        the year is split between full day-
records and discussing various fac-     working other vessels (e.g., emer-     light and no daylight. Fortunately,
ets of the safety program with key      gency egress, fire safety, hazard      May is the time of year when day-
staff members such as the chief         communication, and general vessel      light prevails for approximately 20
engineer, deck foreman, processing      safety procedures). Most of the        hours a day. Even during stormy
foreman, vessel manager, and            processing crew had never worked       weather, the sun doesn’t set until
safety manager, it was dinner time      on the Bering Star prior to this       11:00 p.m. and rises by 3:00 a.m.
and we headed for the galley. The       season, but many had worked on         Unless you have something cover-
conditions may be crowded, noisy,       other processing vessels for other     ing the porthole next to your bunk,
and lack privacy, but we soon real-     employers.                             it can be difficult to fall asleep.

     Steve Burch, proces
                              sor, removes crabs
                                                    from cooking tank.

20     Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
                      d     weigh herring.
       Workers box an

Wednesday,                                Joe and I awoke later to the        Loading the herring had begun. The
                                       sounds of voices and machinery in      crew was gearing up to begin pro-
May 23, 1996:                          addition to the sounds associated      cessing fish. After grabbing cups
   Sometime during the night I         with the rolling seas. We dressed      of coffee in the galley, Joe and I
awoke to a distinct rolling sensa-     with boots and rain gear, looked out   headed to the processing area.
tion coupled with creaking and         a porthole, and saw the tender ves-       Herring is processed solely for
groaning noises from the Bering.       sel, M/V Deer Harbor, bobbing up       the roe (eggs) of the female. The
Apparently, the stormy weather in      and down alongside the Bering.         roe is a specialty item in Japan,
the Bering Sea had arrived at the
mouth of the Nushagak. The
Nushagak River has one of the
highest tides in Alaska. The tide          Processing crew members (seasonal
changes so quickly that the Bering
Star spins around its anchor when-
                                           workers who process the fish)
ever the direction of the water            expressed nothing but satisfaction
changes, which occurs four times
a day. Add to this the normal rock-        with the safety and health conditions
ing and rolling of life onboard, and
it makes for a sense of queasiness
                                           on the Bering and demonstrated
unsurpassed except on the high             awareness of potential job hazards.

                                                         Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997    21
                                                                                           Ailee Aviles
                                                                                           lends a hand

where it is given to family and       aged; if the water is too warm, the    wolf eel—from the herring. The
friends during holidays. The her-     fish spoil more quickly, which also    herring then are packed into box
ring are pumped on board the          damages the roe.                       bottoms, put onto metal carts, and
Bering using a large fish pump. The      Watching the processing of tons     then pushed onto elevators and
pump sucks the herring out of the     of fish is an amazing sight. Herring   lowered to the freezer flat. Next,
tender holds and deposits them in     are pumped from the holding tanks      carts go into blast freezers, and the
the Bering’s holding tanks. Tem-      onto a dewatering belt where work-     product slides off onto freezer coils.
perature is very important—if the     ers sort out and remove other spe-        Once a freezer is full, an atten-
water is too cold, the roe is dam-    cies—jelly fish, kelp, flounder,       dant closes the doors and turns on

22   Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
                                           During VPP onsite visits, we look to
                                           see that work conditions and
                                           procedures are consistent with a
                                           fully implemented, comprehensive
                                           safety and health program. We
                                           found the safety and health
                                           conditions on the Bering Star to be
                                           well above the industry average.

the fans. Freezing takes from 6 to     improved safety and took action.        onboard. Soon we would be on
8 hours, and then the herring are      For example, an employee ex-            solid ground, but first we had to get
put back into carts and sent to the    pressed concern that his limited        there.
case-up area. The fish are glazed      view when operating a product el-          When it was time to disembark,
with fresh water to reduce freezer     evator from the freezer deck made       I admittedly had been quietly
burn, the lid is placed on the box,    it hard to know when the elevator       dreading the prospect of trying to
boxes are then stamped with iden-      was clear of other workers and full     get from the Bering to the skiff in
tifying information, strapped, and     of product. Management soon in-         substantial waves with the process-
pushed out a chute on the side of      stalled a large convex mirror so the    ing barge going up while the skiff
the vessel. The boxes slide down a     operator would have a proper view       was bobbing down. I was assured
ramp to a landing called a sponson,    of the elevator platform above.         that the trick in jumping over to the
where they are put on pallets and         During the rest of the morning       skiff was all in the timing. Of
are lifted by crane to a waiting       and early afternoon, we continued       course, in the back of my mind I
tramper, or cargo ship. If no          our walkaround and asked more           was aware of my general lack of
tramper is alongside, the product is   questions of crew members we en-        athletic aptitude or coordination!
stacked in the lower freezer hold.     countered about their work and          With life preserver on, we went to
   After watching this process care-   safety on the vessel. The winds         the aft of the Bering and found the
fully, Joe and I walked through the    continued at about 40 knots             waves weren’t nearly as bad as I
rest of the vessel to observe other    throughout the day with what we         had feared.
activities and equipment, including    were told were “moderate” seas.            Leauri, Joe, and I successfully
cardboard product boxes, the              That afternoon, Joe and I com-       boarded the skiff and headed for
freezer deck, the ammonia refrig-      pared our findings and conclusions      shore. The ride was a wind-whip-
eration system, the generator room,    regarding progress on Merit goals       ping and drenching 15 to 20 min-
deck hand tasks, and of course, the    as well as other VPP requirements.      utes. In the 40 knot winds, it was a
galley.                                During the closing conference with      physical workout just trying to hold
   During VPP onsite visits, we        vessel managers, we discussed sig-      on and stay upright. Upon nearing
look to see that work conditions       nificant advances and identified        shore, we jumped off the skiff into
and procedures are consistent with     several areas where more informa-       the shallow water near the beach,
a fully implemented, comprehen-        tion and work were needed. We all       only to realize that strong winds
sive safety and health program. We     agreed to meet at Icicle’s offices in   were forcing the skiff into shore.
found the safety and health condi-     Seattle during August to review         We threw our bags onto the rocky
tions on the Bering Star to be well    additional documentation and im-        beach and trudged back into the icy,
above the industry average. Gen-       provement on several Merit goals.       cold water, pushing at the side of
eral housekeeping was exemplary,          Given the rolling seas and gen-      the skiff to ease it back into water
workers frequently rotated to other    eral feelings of unease both Joe and    deep enough for the engine and
tasks to limit musculoskeletal         I were experiencing, we were very       rudder to take over. It took three of
stresses, and management listened      pleased that we had not promised        us, plus one of the deck hands, to
seriously to employee issues for       to complete a written report while      get it floating long enough for the
                                                          Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997     23
driver to gun the engine. The deck       the corporate safety director, the
hand swung himself back on board         Bering Star had become a model              In OSHA’s VPP, labor, man-
and they were headed back out to         of safety excellence in the floating     agement, and OSHA establish a
the Bering.                              fish processing industry. The ves-       cooperative relationship to help
    Once on shore, we dragged our        sel achieved its 11 Merit goals, in-     employers build strong safety
gear a couple hundred yards from         cluding improvements in areas            and health programs. Once
the beach to the Clarks Point “air       such as employee involvement,            OSHA verifies that the program
terminal.” There, we watched as the      chemical inventory, hazard correct-      meets its rigorous criteria, the
little plane struggled to land against   ing tracking, and program evalua-        agency publicly recognizes the
the hefty wind. As the plane hov-        tion. The Bering Star had success-       worksite for its exemplary pro-
ered overhead, it was not at all clear   fully focused on many proactive          gram and removes it from rou-
it would be able to land, or once it     and preventive safety and health         tine scheduled OSHA inspec-
did, that it could hold steady with      efforts rather than waiting until af-    tions. Participation in VPP is
those gusts of wind buffeting the        ter serious problems had occurred.       voluntary.
wings. Once on the ground and            Unfortunately, in all too many in-          OSHA has printed informa-
with the plane’s engine still run-       stances, companies initiate safety       tion on VPP, including booklets
ning, Joe, Leauri, and I quickly         measures after the fact.                 entitled, So You Want to Apply
boarded and were off to                      In the fall, we obtained all pro-    to VPP? Here’s How to Do It!
Dillingham.                              gram documentation necessary to          and What to Expect During
                                         enable Joe and me to make a rec-         OSHA’s Visit. For these and other
                                                                                  publications on OSHA pro-
months later….                           ommendation that the Bering Star
                                                                                  grams, visit http://www.osha.gov/
                                         be approved for Star status in the
Tuesday,                                 OSHA Voluntary Protection Pro-           or contact the OSHA Publica-
August 6, 1996:                          gram. We also recognized that we         tions Office, P.O. Box 37535,
                                         were fortunate to have this unique       Washington, DC 20013-7535; or
   As Joe Eisaguarre and I met in                                                 call (202) 219-4667, or fax (202)
                                         experience in trekking north to find
Seattle with Bering Star and Icicle                                               219-9266.
                                         that hard work and commitment
staff, we were able to reminisce                                                      For more information on
                                         were paying off in providing the
about our trip as well as further                                                 OSHA’s VPP, write to the U.S.
                                         safest working conditions possible
document the progress the Bering                                                  Department of Labor, OSHA,
                                         in a traditionally high-risk and dif-
Star had made in its safety pro-                                                  Office of Federal-State Opera-
                                         ficult work environment.5
gram. We agreed that, primarily                                                   tions, 200 Constitution Avenue,
through the direct involvement of Hoeschen is VPP manager in                      N.W., Room N-3700, Washing-
the vessel manager and other key OSHA’s Region X Office, Seattle,                 ton, DC 20210.
staff in every aspect of the safety WA.
program, along with the support of
                                                                                 The author expresses his thanks
…primarily through the direct                                                    to Leauri Lopes, Icicle’s Safety
                                                                                 Director, for her help in editing
involvement of the vessel manager and                                            this article, for describing the
                                                                                 herring processing, and for
other key staff in every aspect of the                                           providing the adventurous ride in
safety program, along with the                                                   the skiff back to shore.

support of the corporate safety                                                  5
                                                                                   For the last 3 years, the Bering Star average
                                                                                 injury incidence rate has been 6.26 per 100
director, the Bering Star had become a                                           workers, and the lost-workday rate has been
                                                                                 1.86 per 100 workers. The injury incident rate
model of safety excellence in the                                                is 60 percent lower and the lost-workday rate
                                                                                 is 77 percent lower than the industry average
                                                                                 of 15.5 and 8.1 per 100 workers, respectively.
floating fish processing industry.                                               OSHA approved the P/V Bering Star for Star
                                                                                 level participation in the VPP on December 23,

24    Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997
Celebrating the First North
American Occupational
Safety and Health Week
by Vivian Allen

        o heighten awareness             been instrumental in developing an      Week, OSHA participated in a ma-
        among employers and em-          ongoing and constructive exchange       jor outreach effort that included
        ployees in the United States,    of best practices and information so    disseminating information to em-
Mexico, and Canada about the im-         that safety and health conditions for   ployers and workers about the cel-
portance of developing and main-         workers in all three countries are      ebration and the importance of
taining an effective safety and          enhanced,” she adds.                    workplace safety and health. An
health program, the three countries         To highlight North American          OSHA exhibit entitled, “A Healthy
sponsored the first annual celebra-      Occupational Safety and Health          Workplace...A Healthy Business,”
tion of “North American Occupa-
tional Safety and Health Week” on
June 2-6 in Washington, DC.
   The Presidents of the United
States and Mexico and the Prime
Minister of Canada signed the
“North American Agreement on
Labor Cooperation” (NAALC) in
September 1993. One of the main
objectives of the NAALC is to
improve working conditions in
each of the three countries. The
agreement obligates each country,
among other things, to maintain
high labor standards through its
labor laws and regulations and to
strive continuously to improve
those standards.                         Representatives from the U.S., Mexico, and Canada at technical seminar on
   “The NAALC provides the U.S.,         safety and health in the petrochemical industry, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Canada, and Mexico with the              From left to right: Dr. Alejandro Galindo Barajas, Mexican Secretariat of
framework for increased commu-           Labour and Social Welfare; James Lowry, AMOCO Foam Products Com-
nication and cooperation when ad-        pany, Symrna, GA; Robert Riley, Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers
dressing worker safety and health        International Union, Local 423, Port Arthur,TX; Gilberto Muñoz
issues,” according to Jacquelyn          Mosqueda, Mexican Union of Workers in the Chemical, Petrochemical, Coal
DeMesme-Gray, OSHA Coordina-             Industries and Similar or Connected Industries; R.C. Basken, Communica-
tor for International Affairs. “It has   tions, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada, Ottawa.

26    Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997
also promoted the trinational, tri-
partite partnership forged to im-
prove conditions for working men
and women.
   The outreach effort also helped
inform workers of the major ele-
ments of an effective safety and
health program: Top management
commitment; meaningful em-
ployee involvement (e.g., appropri-
ately structured labor/management
committees); training (education
                                        Select staff from the U.S., Mexico, and Canada plan for the
and outreach); and prevention,
                                        “North American Occupational Safety and Health Week.”
compliance, and enforcement. The
participating countries all recog-
nize that an informed safety and
                            To build upon the relationships                     Training Institute conducted nu-
health community is better able to
                         developed and the lessons learned                      merous training courses to help
reduce or eliminate workplace
                         during the technical seminars, the                     upgrade the technical skills of
safety and health hazards.
                         countries coordinated small                            Mexican inspectors. On the hori-
   This special event also enabled
                         trinational, tripartite study tours                    zon, OSHA’s Office of Intra-Gov-
all the countries to showcase ma-
                         that focused greater attention on                      ernmental Affairs hopes to work
jor trinational, tripartite accom-
                         items such as eliminating falls in                     with its NAFTA partners to build
plishments under the NAALC. For
                         the construction industry and pre-                     upon this success and past joint
example, in 1994, each country
                         venting catastrophic explosions in                     endeavors, both through follow-up
brought together representatives
                         the petrochemical industry. These                      activities and continued training for
from government, industry, and la-
                         study tours were held in concert                       Mexican labor inspectors. The
bor to participate in technical semi-
                         with the National Safety Council’s                     U.S., Canada, and Mexico are ex-
nars on worker safety and health in
                         (NSC) Congresses and Exhibitions                       ploring ways to broaden partner-
three vital areas: electronics, con-
                         of 1995 and 1996 dealing with                          ships with their counterparts in in-
struction, and petrochemicals.
                         safety and health in the construc-                     dustry, labor, and government to
These key industries either involve
                         tion and petrochemical industries.1                    improve occupational safety and
significant cross-border trade or
                         These congresses provide a valu-                       health for workers in their coun-
result in a high incidence of ill-
                         able forum for promoting a dia-                        tries.
nesses and injuries, and/or cata-
                         logue among NAFTA participants                            For further information about
strophic accidents in all three coun-
                         and other safety and health experts                    OSHA’s International Program,
tries.                   in areas like state-of-the art tech-                   please contact Jacquelyn DeMesme-
   These seminars helped increase
                         nology in occupational safety and                      Gray at (202) 219-8091, ext. 121.
awareness of occupational safety
and health hazards and the need for
                            Other major NAALC activities
effective worksite programs.
                         include tripartite exchanges of sci-                   Allen is a program analyst in the
                                       entific studies and                      Office of Intra-Governmental
                                       information on per-                      Affairs in OSHA’s Directorate of
                                       missible exposure                        Policy, Washington, DC.
This special event also                limits for airborne
enabled all the countries to           contaminants and                         1
                                                                                 The 1995 Congress dealt with “Focus on the
                                       model safety and                         Future: Promoting a Safe and Healthful Work-
showcase major trinational,            health programs.                         place Culture in Construction”; and 1996-
                                                                                “Sharing Ideas: Preventing Catastrophic Ex-
tripartite accomplishments             Also, using the                          plosions in the Petrochemical Industry.” For
                                       “train-the-trainer”                      information on these and other NSC activities,
under the NAALC.                       approach, the OSHA                       write the National Safety Council, 444 N.
                                                                                Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611; or call
                                                                                (800) 621-7615.

                                                           Job Safety & Health Quarterly              Summer 1997          27
                      North Carolina’s Final
                  Approval: Recognition of a
                             Better Program
                                                                                                  by Steve Sykes

         SHA’s final approval of       ing a positive impact on occupa-       Carolina as a fully independent
         North Carolina’s safety       tional safety and health for North     partner, and in typical fashion,
         and health program last       Carolina citizens. In presenting the   Payne gave the credit to department
December was the culmination of        certificate of final approval to       employees and thanked them for
the state’s success in meeting its     Commissioner of Labor Harry E.         working hard to improve North
goal of self-sufficiency and in mak-   Payne, Jr., OSHA recognized North      Carolina’s program.

Spring flowers surround the Raleigh Legislative Building.

28    Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
The Raleigh skyline.

Long-T imeCommitment                               division covering
to Employee Safety                                 general industry
andHealth                                          and construction.              Final approval…is the highest
    Final approval—relinquishing                     Section 18 of
federal occupational safety and the OSH Act2 fur-                                 level of state plan achievement
health authority in a state—is the ther reinforced ef-                            and the fruit of North
highest level of state plan achieve- forts of states that
ment and the fruit of North had already made                                      Carolina’s hard work over
Carolina’s hard work over many a real commit-                                     many years.
years. Even more important, such ment to employee
recognition highlights an ongoing safety and health.
commitment to the working men There was never
and women of the state. This com- any doubt that North Carolina the next logical step in the state plan
mitment has a history dating back would develop its own state plan, process, final approval. But the
to 1887 when the North Carolina because the safety and health of U.S. Court of Appeals’ decision in
General Assembly created the State working citizens had always been the case of AFL-CIO v. Marshall
Department of Labor and made it seen in North Carolina as a state was an action that no one had an-
responsible for promulgating and responsibility.                                               ticipated. The court ruled that states
enforcing rules and regulations to                   North Carolina received initial operating approved state plans
protect employees from occupa- approval of its state plan on Janu- must establish “fully effective”
tional accidents and diseases.                     ary 26, 1973, and then certification compliance staffing levels. Al-
    Even before the passage of the of completion of its developmen- though it might affect the immedi-
Occupational Safety and Health tal commitments on October 5, ate pursuit of final approval status,
Act of 19701 (OSH Act), the state 1976. It appeared that nothing North Carolina was determined to
had a safety and health inspections would stand in the state’s way of have staffing that honestly reflected
                                                                                               the needs of the state, even though
                                                                                               these numbers would require a sig-
  Public Law 91-597, December 29, 1970; as amended by P.L. 101-552, §3101, November 5, nificant amount of additional fund-
  This section encourages states to develop and operate, under OSHA guidance, their own job ing at a time when legislative bod-
safety and health plans. An OSHA-approved state plan must have safety and health require- ies were not increasing appropria-
ments at least as effective as those of Federal OSHA and must adopt comparable state standards tions for government programs.
within 6 months of promulgation of the federal standards.

                                                                   Job Safety & Health Quarterly              Summer 1997        29
From left to right: Commissioner of Labor Harry E. Payne, Jr., and former Assistant Secretary for OSHA Joe Dear
sign certificate of final approval of North Carolina’s occupational safety and health program.

The state was still developing a       reach the “fully effective” enforce-   the total state program budget. Sub-
strategy to meet the compliance        ment benchmark levels of 64 safety     sequent action by the General As-
staffing “benchmark” when, on          and 50 health compliance officers.     sembly resulted in funding for 19
September 3, 1991, a devastating       The state share of the budget for      new positions dedicated to
fire at the Imperial Food Products     the program increased from less        strengthening the state’s consulta-
plant in Hamlet, NC, killed 25         than $3 million to more than $7.5      tive and education and training
workers and injured 56. This event     million.                               efforts.
challenged the state to reexamine         Federal OSHA provides up to            OSHA reform also quickly be-
its commitment to the safety and       50-percent funding for a state plan,   came a reality in North Carolina.
health of North Carolina’s working     and for Fiscal Year 1997, North        Employers with high workers’
people.                                Carolina received about $3 million     compensation ratings were re-
                                       in federal funds, or 24 percent of     quired to establish safety and health
   In the wake of the Imperial Food
Products fire, the citizens of the
state spoke—and spoke loudly.
Their voices were heard in the halls        State legislators provided funding that
of the North Carolina General As-
sembly and rang throughout all of           more than doubled the safety and health
state government. As the Congress           compliance staff and allowed the state
met to consider what happened,
lawmakers in North Carolina were            program to reach the “fully effective”
taking action to help assure that a
similar accident did not happen
                                            enforcement benchmark levels of 64
again. State legislators provided           safety and 50 health compliance officers.
funding that more than doubled the
safety and health compliance staff
and allowed the state program to
30    Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
programs and committees made up
of both management and employee
   State legislators passed a bill to          With decentralization came a
create a special emphasis inspec-
tion program for those employers               flexibility that allowed the
with a significant history of work-            organization to respond quickly to
related accidents. General Assem-
bly legislation also gave the State            customer needs. And…the department
Department of Labor access to
workers’ compensation data so in-
                                               became more conscious of the public
spection assignments could be                  being served.
made on a site-specific basis. Also,
there was a requirement that all
state agencies establish safety and
health programs and committees
and that monetary penalties for         more conscious of the public be-        the state’s response was, “Show us
OSHA violations be extended to          ing served.                             how to make it better.” In fact,
the public sector. The reform effort       The use of employee and em-          Health Compliance Bureau Chief
set additional rights for employees     ployer surveys helped identify          Mary Carol Lewis and Safety Com-
who experienced retaliatory dis-        those areas of program operations       pliance Bureau Chief Mike Peeler
crimination, extended the deadline      where improvements should be            went to a federal area office in a
for filing such a complaint from        made. In general, most of those         nonstate plan state to study Federal
30 days to 180 days, and gave the       surveyed thought that the depart-       OSHA management of compliance
complainant the right to sue and        ment was on the right track and         activity, and the local area office
the opportunity to collect treble       doing a good job. This positive re-     helped the state revise its complaint
damages.                                sponse represented a drastic im-        processing procedures.
                                        provement in the public perception         The State Department of Labor
A Change of Leadership                  of the department, especially in        used the best ideas, whether fed-
andStyle                                light of the negative publicity after   eral or state, and often the result
   In 1992, the citizens of North       the Imperial Food Products fire.        was a mix that reflected the best of
Carolina elected a new Commis-             Decentralization also freed man-     both worlds. The number of inspec-
sioner of Labor, Harry E. Payne, Jr.    agers to improve the department in      tions tripled in 4 years, citation
Commissioner Payne took the De-         fresh and innovative ways. In many      lapse time was cut in half, and a
partment from a mind set of de-         cases, the challenge to achieve spe-    backlog of complaints was elimi-
fending past actions to establishing    cific goals was put in the hands of     nated. Through the commitment of
goals to reach new heights. This        those employees who were closest        Federal OSHA’s Raleigh Area Of-
further reaffirmed the State Depart-    to the activity being affected. For     fice Director Suzanne Street and
ment of Labor’s safety and health       example, using real world experi-       her staff and Regional Administra-
mission in such a way that each         ence, a team of compliance offic-       tor Davis Layne, a federal-state
employee was sure of his or her         ers revised the way penalties are       partnership was alive and well in
role. A decentralization of much of     calculated and helped the Bureau        North Carolina and reaping much
the department’s activity began.        Chief of Management Information         success.
This need for restructuring was         and Evaluation, Sharon Bryant,
critical in the compliance area with    revise the inspection scheduling        NewInitiatives
the doubling of the compliance          system.                                    The leadership and vision of
field staff. With decentralization         The relationship with the Federal    North Carolina OSHA Director
came a flexibility that allowed the     OSHA Raleigh Area Office also           Charles Jeffress also resulted in
organization to respond quickly to      changed for the better. Now when        new programs and policies. Gone
customer needs. And speaking of         a federal monitor announced that a      was the organization that hopped
customers, the department became        procedure needed improvement,           from one fire to the next. Instead,

                                                           Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997     31
                          there were new ideas to address
                          existing and potential problems and
                          an organization that used all re-
                          sources available to accomplish its
                          mission—worker safety and health.
                             A scheduling system that some-
                          times identified good employers in
                          a bad industry was supplemented
                          with one driven by site-specific
                          data. With no standard and pro-
                          longed, labor-intensive compliance
                          procedures as the only answer to
                          ergonomics—the health challenge
                          of the 1990s—Assistant Director
                          Angela Waldorf and Bureau Chief
                          Mary Carol Lewis worked together
                          to devise the North Carolina Ergo-
                          nomics Resource Center and part-
                                                                 Moreover, to recognize those
                          nerships with employers through
                                                              employers striving for excellence
                          the Cooperative Assessment Pro-
                          gram (CAP). Both efforts have in the safety and health field, North
                          been a success. The Ford Founda- Carolina’s 50-year-old Safety
                                                              Awards program was supplemented
                                                              with the Carolina Star Program,
                                                              which is patterned on Federal
                                                              OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Pro-
The number of inspections tripled in                          grams. Bureau Chief of Consulta-
                                                              tive Services Worth Joyner notes,
4 years, citation lapse time was cut                          “We are especially proud of this
                                                              program because it recognizes
in half, and a backlog of complaints                          good safety and health manage-
was eliminated.                                               ment programs that go beyond
                                                              minimum requirements.” There are
                                                              currently 12 sites in North Carolina
                                                              that have attained Carolina Star
                          tion and Harvard University hon-       In addition to linking up with
                          ored the center as one of the 25 North Carolina State University
                          most innovative governmental pro- through the Ergonomics Resource
                          grams in America. Other efforts to Center, the department tapped into
                          give employers a choice in the in- another educational resource, the
                          tervention that they receive from state’s community college system.
                          the department include industry Through the local community col-
                          partnerships, such as the agreement leges, small business owners can
                          with the logging industry, brought choose 2-day training sessions that
                          educational and consultative ser- address their safety and health
                          vices to a thousand loggers in the needs. From six sites scattered
                          State. This paid off! The number throughout the state, the program
                          of deaths in the industry dropped has expanded to 15 community
                          from 13 fatalities to 3 in a 1-year colleges with training for more than
                          period.                             1,000 participants. As Bureau Chief

32   Job Safety & Health Quarterly   Summer 1997
                                       Hoechst Celanese Plant in Shelby,
                                       NC, receives Carolina Star award.
                                       Clarence Kegler, Plant Facilities
                                       Manager (left center), and Harry
                                       Payne, Commissioner of Labor (right
                                       center), along with other members of
                                       the plant’s safety and health commit-
                                       tee, display Star banner during

                                             “We are especially proud of this program
                                             [Carolina Star] because it recognizes good
of Education and Training Brad
Thompson observes, “With 58                  safety and health management programs
community colleges scattered                 that go beyond minimum requirements.”
throughout the state, this program
can ultimately make safety and               Worth Joyner, Bureau Chief of Consultative Services
health training available within a
one hour drive for every employer
and employee in North Carolina.”
   Payne best sums up North
Carolina’s response to final ap-
proval: “The higher degree of au-      It is hoped that both of these chal-
tonomy doesn’t really matter. If       lenges will serve as a departmental
we’re not doing a great job, I want    rallying point—to improve worker
them to take over. We haven’t been     safety and health—over the next
working to get the Federal Govern-     few years just as final approval has
ment off our backs. We’ve been         been during the last 4 years.
working to make the agency [the
state program] better.”                Sykes is State Plan Coordinator
   The goal posed by Payne for the     for the Division of Occupational
state program to get better will not   Safety and Health, North Caro-
end with final approval, or Section    lina Department of Labor, Ra-
18 (e)3 determination. Already the     leigh, NC.
Commissioner has established new
challenges for the state labor de-
partment to attain. As well as main-
taining the level of performance
required by final approval, depart-
mental employees have accepted
the Payne’s challenge to attain
Carolina Star status and receive       3
                                        See P.L. 9-597 and footnote 2 above.
ISO 9000 Certification. 4 This         4
                                         International Organization for Standardiza-
means setting new criteria and stan-   tion. The 9000 certification is a process by
dards for how the state program        which a third party gives written assurance that
                                       a product, process, or service conforms to spe-
will conduct business in the future.   cific requirements.

                                                                Job Safety & Health Quarterly   Summer 1997   33
by James Kallenborn

O         nline communications and
          the Internet, in particular,
          have become common
parts of everyday life for millions
of Americans at home, in business,
and in schools.
   So, it’s not surprising that online
communications in OSHA are ad-
vancing as well. The agency has
been working hard to take advan-
tage of the Internet’s vast potential
to improve the public’s and the          and contractors secured access to      tional Safety and Health Review
agency staff’s access to important       the World Wide Web for the             Commission; links to interpreta-
information, data, and tools to help     agency, in particular OSHA’s           tions issued by the agency in re-
improve workplace safety and             home page Internet address of          sponse to questions received from
health.                                  www.osha.gov. During this time,        the public; and an area devoted to
   In the early 1980s, OSHA began        OSHA began to seriously develop        the latest information on OSHA ef-
building the infrastructure to cap-      a presence on the Internet. By fall    forts to reduce or minimize ergo-
ture electronically thousands of         1994, OSHA was making its regu-        nomic hazards (under Ergonomics)
pages of key agency documents to         lations accessible to the public on    in the workplace, including detailed
make them readily available to           the Internet.                          statistical data for injuries and ill-
agency staff: OSHA regulations,             Today, OSHA has an extensive        nesses related to ergonomics.
letters of interpretation, agency di-    presence on the Internet and it is        The OSHA poster (under Publi-
rectives, and agency manuals. In         expanding daily. Thousands of          cations), which must be displayed
1991, OSHA produced its first CD-        pages of regulations, publications,    by all covered employers, is now
ROM and made some databases              and other documents are currently      available from OSHA’s home page
available to the public. Two years       available online, such as those dis-   in either color or black and white
later, the public gained dial-up,        cussed in the following paragraphs.    and can be downloaded in two sec-
online access to those databases            OSHA Regulatory Information         tions.
available on the CD-ROM.                 (under Standards) includes all            OSHA’s office directory (under
   In the early 1990s—before the         safety and health standards, up-       Office Directory) is now available
word “Internet” was part of the ev-      dated with current changes issued      via a map of the United States. By
eryday American vocabulary—a             in the Federal Register as they oc-    simply clicking on any state, the
few visionary OSHA staff members         cur; decisions from the Occupa-        user receives information on all

34    Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997
                                                                               to the standard, directives, standard
                                                                               interpretations, and compliance let-
                                                                                  In the Construction area (under
                                                                               Industries), OSHA has an elec-
                                                                               tronic construction manual that in-
                                                                               cludes all relevant mandatory stan-
                                                                               dards for construction work that
                                                                               have been codified in the Code of
                                                                               Federal Regulations, Part 1926, as
                                                                               well as important compliance di-
of OSHA’s offices within that          downloading the software on a user      rectives, standard interpretations,
state, including both federal and      PC, the Confined Spaces Advisor         memos, and letters specific to con-
state offices. There are also direc-   can now be run on OSHA’s server         struction industry topics. Introduc-
tories of OSHA state plan states       on the web. As time and resources       tory materials in each subpart of-
and OSHA consultation offices          permit, OSHA’s other advisors will      fer insights on OSHA’s enforce-
throughout the United States.          be set to run interactively on the      ment of the most frequently vio-
   New and improved search ca-         Internet.                               lated requirements also listed in
pabilities have been added to             Technical Links is a new offer-      Appendix B of the manual. These
OSHA’s web offerings and can be        ing located under the Technical In-     introductory materials also offer
accessed through the OSHA-OCIS         formation link on OSHA’s home           suggestions to help employers and
link at the bottom of OSHA’s home      page. The Technical links site now      employees with providing a safe
page. More importantly, the new        contains over 40 technical occupa-      and healthful work environment.
search engine provides greater in-     tional safety and health interest ar-      Statistics and Data allow users
telligence and thus can more pre-      eas—each containing a growing           to search the inspection database
cisely respond to search requests.     collection of technically reviewed      just by typing in the name of the
Also, user request words are now       information and data sources for        company or the standard industrial
highlighted in the documents re-       that particular area. Sources for the   classification code (SIC) they are
turned from the search.                information include OSHA, other         interested in (see Establishment
   OSHA software advisors (under       government agencies, universities,      Search under Statistics and Data
OSHA Software/Advisors) for            and nonprofit organizations. For        on the Web page).
some of OSHA’s more intricate          example, the bloodborne pathogens          The Ergonomics page provides
regulations can be downloaded          section contains general references,    the latest on agency outreach, en-
from the website. In addition to       the OSHA standard, the preamble         forcement, and other related

                                                          Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997     35
activies in this area and will soon              looks just like the published “Blue        Additional initiatives include the
include proceedings from the Janu-               Book.”1 The guidelines are also         expansion and enhancement of the
ary ergonomics conference as well                available in the standard Internet      statistical data section, including
as some international ergonomics                 (html) format on a chapter-by-          the use of charts; the selective use
standards (see Ergonomics on the                 chapter basis.                          of web conferencing for technical
Web page).                                         Training (under Programs and          conferences; and how users can
   New initiatives and special em-               Services) offers a description of       submit selected data and informa-
phasis programs (under OSHA-                     courses available through the           tion submissions to OSHA via the
OCIS) also are being added to the                OSHA Training Institute in Des          Internet. Also, the use of multime-
website. Included in the current list            Plaines, IL, and from Outreach          dia presentations will be expanded
are the 1,3-butadiene initiative, the            Education Centers throughout the        from the current small base of pic-
nursing home initiative, scaffolds               country.                                tures and slide presentations in
outreach, the small business initia-                                                     some of OSHA’s outreach materi-
tive, the tuberculosis outreach                  On the Drawing Board                    als, and more interactive expert
memo, the workplace violence ini-                   OSHA is only beginning to ex-        Advisors.
tiative, and industries and special              ploit the power of the Internet to         Another major effort continuing
focus subjects. Some of the presen-              facilitate its many programs. The       within the agency is the implemen-
tations on the special emphasis pro-             real challenge facing the agency        tation of a nationwide network. At
grams provide outreach and train-                now is organizing a vast amount of      this time, agency staff are install-
ing materials, including slide shows             data and information into a useable     ing the network in OSHA’s national
that are accessible online.                      and user-friendly system for            and field offices. The network has
   The Small Business Initiative                 OSHA’s stakeholders and the gen-        opened the door for the beginning
includes a description of agency                 eral public. There are plans for a      of OSHA’s Intranet, currently in the
programs and assistance available                major overhaul of the public Web        early phase of design and develop-
to small businesses as well as the               site to ensure a more integrated        ment.
Small Business Handbook (See                     userfriendly approach. A new page          OSHA—not unlike the rest of
Publications on the Web page).                   providing workers with detailed         government and industry world-
   In addition, the agency evaluated             information on how to file a com-       wide—is taking advantage of elec-
lead test kits (under OSHA-OCIS)                 plaint with OSHA about hazardous        tronic communications to provide
and is making these evaluations                  working conditions—with an op-          a vast array of information to the
available to the public to further the           tion to file a complaint online—is      world. What this means for the pub-
advancement of occupational                      under development and testing.          lic at large is that more and more
safety and health.                                  Links now are included in            data, information, and tools will be
   OSHA’s recordkeeping guide-                   OSHA standards and more are be-         available on the Internet to help
lines (under OSHA-OCIS, Addi-                    ing planned. Recently links to let-     employers provide safer and more
tional Documents, and Publica-                   ters of interpretation have been        healthful workplaces across the
tions) can be downloaded and                     added to the regulations. In the fu-    nation.
printed as a single document that                ture, a greater variety of links will
                                                 be added throughout the standards       Kallenborn is a program analyst
 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor       where appropriate. For example,         in the Division of Data Analysis
Statistics, Recordkeeping Guidelines for Oc-     planned links include preambles,        in OSHA’s Office of Statistics,
cupational Injuries and Illnesses, Washington,
DC. Order from the U.S. Government Print-        other related standards, definitions    Washington, DC.
ing Office, Superintendent of Documents, at      of key words, an encyclopedia, and
(202) 512-1800, or (202) 512-2250 (fax). Or-     a thesaurus.
der No. 029-016-00165-4; cost $6.

36     Job Safety & Health Quarterly                 Summer 1997
              Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs)
              Rank in Frequency Cited: #13*

              Rule                                    This rule exempts portable or                   which might energize the case of
                 All 120-volt, single-phase, 15-   vehicle-mounted generators that                    the tool or equipment.
              and 20-ampere receptacle outlets     meet the following: (1) rated                    • GFCIs for 220-volt circuits are
              on construction sites, which are not <5kW; (2) system wiring is two-                    available. Note: They are not re-
              a part of the permanent wiring of    wire, single phase; and (3) circuit                quired by this standard.
              the building or structure and which  conductors are insulated from the
              are in use by employees, shall have  generator frame and all other                    SelectedCaseHistories
              approved GFCIs for personnel pro-    grounded surfaces. Note: GFCIs                     An employee attempted to plug
              tection. Receptacles on a two-wire,  are not to be used in lieu of equip-             an extension cord into a temporary
              single-phase portable or vehicle-    ment grounding. GFCIs are supple-                power spider box. The employee
              mounted generator rated not more     mental protection and must only be               was kneeling on the ground and
              than 5kW (kilowatts), where the      considered as a backup to equip-                 held the box in his hand. Fault cur-
              circuit conductors of the generator  ment grounding. GFCIs can be                     rent energized the case of the box
              are insulated from the generator     placed anywhere in the circuit and               and electrocuted the employee. No
              frame and all other grounded sur-    still be effective. They may be put              GFCIs were used.
              faces, need not be protected with    in a panel box as a breaker, at the
Detach Here

              GFCIs.                               receptacle, or in line anywhere                  Comments
                                                   along an extension cord up to the                • Although double-insulated tools
              Intent                               tool. GFCIs are very important on                  are recommended, using them
                 This standard requires the use of construction sites because of the                  does not relieve the employer
              electrical hardware that is designed likely probability of encountering                 from providing ground fault pro-
              for monitoring ground fault current wet/damp locations that greatly in-                 tection. Extension cords con-
              and is capable of stopping the fault crease the risk of electrical shock.               necting a fixed electrical system
              current in the circuit—i.e., through                                                    (permanent outlet) and a tool can
              an employee’s body. This rule Hazards                                                   become worn with exposed en-
              states that all 120 volt 15- and 20-    Fatal electrocution, electrical                 ergized conductors; therefore,
              amp receptacle outlets on construc- burns ranging from critical to                      ground fault protection or an
              tion sites will be protected by minor, and fires and explosions.                        Assured Equipment Grounding
              ground fault circuit interrupters Electric shock has been an initia-                    Conductor Program (AEGCP)
              (GFCIs), when not part of the per- tor of other type hazards— i.e.,                     should be required.
              manent wiring of a structure. Be- electrical shocks can cause employ-                 • According to OSHA, there were
              cause a receptacle is in effect part ees to fall from elevated work sur-                48 fatalities in the years 1985 to
              of the branch circuit wiring, this faces and lose control of handheld                   1989 related to 120-volt electri-
              rule is effectively identical to equipment which, in turn, can strike                   cal systems.
              1926.404 (b)(1)(i)—Ground Fault other employees in the immediate                      • Employers have attempted to
              Protection.                          work area.                                         skirt the requirements of provid-
                                                                                                      ing ground fault protection by
                                                             Among Other Suggested                    using 30-amp breakers in their
              * Derived from OSHA’s publication, The 100     Abatements                               120-volt, single phase systems.
              Most Frequently Cited OSHA Construction
              Standards in 1991: A Guide for the Abatement   • Frequently trip GFCIs while test       This not only defeats the intent
              of the Top 25 Associated Physical Hazards,       tool is operating to ensure GFCI       of the ground fault provision, but
              Washington, DC, February 1993. This publi-       is operating correctly.                also introduces new hazards be-
              cation is available from the U.S. Government
              Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.         • Use double-insulated tools.            cause the system is no longer
              Order Number 029-016-00145-0; Cost $5.50;        Double-insulated tools can pro-        rated for the actual over current
              (202) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2250.            tect the user from fault currents,     protection (30 amp breaker) that
                                                                               Job Safety & Health Quarterly         Summer 1997     37
  is in place. (Personal experience       The Ground-Fault-Circuit Interrupter (“GFCI”) provides
                                          an additional precaution.
  and conversations with Compli-
  ance Safety and Health Officers         The GFCI is a solid-state sensitive device which can be applied to open the circuit in
                                          case of ground-fault leakage too small to trip the circuit breaker, but large enough
  (CSHOs)).                               to be dangerous to people.
• Had all three requirements for
  ground fault protection been
  combined— (1926.404(b)(1)(i),
  (ii), and (iii))—they would have
  ranked #1 on the 100 Most Cited
  Physical List and #4 on the 100
  Most Cited List.

Additional Documentsto
Aid in Compliance
     Section 404(b).

                                          How the GFCI Protects People
                                          (By opening the circuit when current flows through a ground-fault path.)

                                                                                                                                    Detach Here
                                          Note that the GFCI will open the circuit if 5 mA or more of current returns to the
                                          service entrance by any path other than the intended white wire. If the equipment
                                          grounding conductor is properly installed and maintained this will happen as soon as
                                          the faulty tool is plugged in. If by chance this grounding conductor is not intact, the
                                          GFCI may not trip out until a person provides the path. In this case the person will
                                          receive a shock, but the GFCI should trip out so quickly that the shock will not be

                                          Where are GFCIs required?
                                          OSHA requires GFCIs on construction sites because of the combined special
                                          hazards of two conditions:
                                          a. Questionable integrity of the ground-fault path through temporary wiring.
                                          b. Presence of wetness due to working on earth, wet concrete, etc.

s IN
The use of portable GFCIs (arrow) meets
this requirement.

38      Job Safety & Health Quarterly          Summer 1997
              Onsite Consultation
              Wire Nibbler Guard
              From U.S. Department of Labor
              Occupational Safety and Health Administration SafeWorks No. 18

              Wire Baskets and Display
                 The employer uses 1/8- to 5/16-
              inch diameter cold roll steel wire,
              supplied on spools, to manufacture
              a variety of custom products, in-
              cluding wire baskets and wire dis-
              play racks.
                 The product or a section of the
              product is formed from rough
              lengths of wire appropriately
              shaped and spot welded together.
              Wire ends, unwanted on the fin-
              ished products, are trimmed with
              machine nibblers. An upper mov-
Detach Here

              ing blade, with a vertical stroke of
              approximately 1/2 inch, and a        motion of the cutter immediately        sized products. Wire ends are fed
              lower stationary blade shorten the   following the cut.)                     under the guard into the nibbler.
              wire by shearing a series of bits off   A point-of-operation guard prop-     The guard prevents the work from
              the end in quick succession (about   erly designed and placed would          kicking up and also keeps the
              240 cuts per minute) as the opera-   protect the operator from fingertip     operator’s fingers away from the
              tor feeds the wire into the nibbler. injury and prevent the kick-up of       point-of-operation.
                                                   the product but would still allow          Not only are the employees pro-
              Consultant’ s Analysis               correct placement of the work and       tected from injury but also the as-
              andRecommendations                   give the necessary visual access.       surance of their safety gives the op-
                 An unguarded nibbler machine, The consultant recommended that             erators confidence and relieves
              recognized by the employer as a such a guard be fabricated and in-           much of the tension associated with
              hazard but thought to be impossible stalled.                                 operating the nibbler machine. The
              to guard, presented a special chal-                                          results are safer, happier employ-
              lenge to the consultant.             Results and Benefits                    ees, increased production, and a
                 The operator holds the product       The employer made a guard            pleased employer.
              and feeds unwanted wire ends, one from a 5/16-inch steel rod. A
              at a time, into the nibbler, watch- straight section of the rod, the part
              ing closely in order to stop when which functions as the guard, is just      SafeWorks provides a brief summary of the re-
                                                                                           sults of an employer’s request for workplace
              the trimming is complete. With above, in front of, and parallel to           safety and health assistance. Such assistance
              small work, there was a clear po- the cutting edges of the nibbler,          can identify and help the employer correct
              tential for fingertip injury. Larger between the operator and the point-     workplace hazards, develop or improve an ef-
                                                                                           fective safety and health management system,
              work, the employer demonstrated, of-operation. The rod is bent in a          or both. Small business employers can receive
              could kick up and back toward the zigzag pattern so that the mount is        this assistance, without cost, under a consulta-
              operator’s face. (This kicking up out of the way, to the side, and be-       tion program funded largely by OSHA and ad-
              and back apparently was caused by hind the point-of-operation. Up-           ministered by state agencies and universities.
                                                                                           Contact the OSHA office in your area for ad-
              a combination of the spring action and-down and forward-and-back             ditional information on the consultation pro-
              of the product and the rapid upward adjustments accommodate various          gram.

                                                                      Job Safety & Health Quarterly               Summer 1997           39
Accident Report
From the U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health            Administration
FatalFacts No. 61
                                      three serious violations. OSHA’s
 AccidentSummary                      construction standards include sev-
 Accident Type          Trench        eral requirements which, if they
                        Collapse      had been followed here, might have
 Weather                Fair          prevented this fatality.
 Type of Operation      Excavation                                           Home Page on the GPO Web—
 Work                                 AccidentPrevention                     URL:http//www.gpo.gov/su_docs/
 Crew Size              2             Recommendations                           Also available from GPO: Train-
                                         (1) The employer did not instruct   ing Requirements in OSHA Stan-
 Competent Safety
 Monitor Onsite?         No           each employee in the recognition       dards and Training Guidelines
                                      and avoidance of unsafe conditions     (OSHA 2254)—Order No. 029-
  Safety and Health
  Program in Effect?     No           and the regulations applicable to      016-00160-3, Cost $6.00; Con-
                                      the work environment to control or     struction Industry Digest (OSHA
  Was the Worksite
  Inspected Regularly                 eliminate any hazard or other ex-      2202)—Order No. 029-016-00151-
  by the Employer?       No           posure to illness or injury [29 CFR    4, Cost $2.25; and Excavations
  Training and                        1926.219 (b)(2)].                      (OSHA 2226)—Order No. 029-
  Education Provided? Inadequate         (2) The employer should not         016-00167-1, Cost $1.25.
                                                                                For information on OSHA-

                                                                                                                                Detach Here
  Employer Job Title     Laborer      allow work in trenches where
                                      the sides are not shored or other-     funded free consultation services,
  Age/Sex                51/Male
                                      wise supported when the trench         call the nearest OSHA area office
  Experience at This                  is ≥ 5 feet deep and ≥ 8 feet long     listed in telephone directories un-
  Type of Work           6 Months
                                      [new standard 29 CFR 1926.             der U.S. Labor Department or un-
  Time on Project        2 Days       652(a)].                               der the state government section for
                                         (3) The employer allowed work-      states administering their own
Brief Description of                  ers in trenches more than 4 feet       OSHA programs. See also OSHA’s
Accident                              deep without adequate means of         Website at http:\\www.osha.gov\
    An employee was working in a exit, such as a ladder or steps [new           Courses in construction safety
trench 4 feet wide and 7 feet deep. standard 29 CFR 1926.651 (c)(2)].        are offered by the OSHA Training
About 30 feet away, a backhoe was                                            Institute, 1555 Times Drive, Des
straddling the trench.                Sources of Help                        Plaines, IL 60018; (847)297-4810.
    When the backhoe operator no-        Title 29 Code of Federal Regu-
ticed a large chunk of dirt falling   lations (CFR) Part 1926—OSHA
from the side wall behind the construction standards. Revised                Note: The case described here is representa-
worker in the trench, he called out 7/1/96. Stock number 869-028-            tive of fatalities caused by improper work prac-
                                                                             tices. No special emphasis or priority is im-
a warning. Before the worker could 00115-7 ($30). Available from the         plied nor is the case necessarily a recent oc-
climb out, 6 to 8 feet of the trench Superintendent of Documents,            currence. The legal aspects of the incident have
wall collapsed on him and covered Government Printing Office, P.O.           been resolved, and the case is now closed. Your
                                                                             company or workplace is eligible to receive
his body up to his neck. He suffo- Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-         one free copy of this leaflet, which you may
cated before the backhoe operator 7954, phone (202) 512-1800. For            duplicate and share with your coworkers. To
could dig him out. There were no phone orders, you may use Visa,             be placed on the distribution list, send a self-
                                                                             addressed label (using four or fewer lines) with
exit ladders. No sloping or shoring MasterCard, or check made pay-           your title and address to FatalFacts, OSHA,
had been used in the trench.          able to Superintendent of Docu-        Room N-3647, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W.,
                                      ments. Fax orders to (202) 512-        Washington, DC 20210. This information will
InspectionResults                     2250. Obtain information and or-       be made available to sensory impaired indi-
                                                                             viduals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 219-
    As a result of its investigation, der electronically via GPO Access,     8151. TDD message referral phone: (800) 326-
OSHA issued citations alleging Superintendent of Documents’                  2577.

40   Job Safety & Health Quarterly        Summer 1997
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