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					Maya
     Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Mayan cities were city-states. Each ruler
  a god. Cities unified by a common
  language, culture, and roads.
      Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Cities were centers for religion and trade.
  They had temples, pyramids, and ball
  courts.
• Tikal was almost 50 square miles and had
  a population of 55,000 people
      Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• The pyramid at Tikal is 212 feet high. It
  was the tallest building in the Americas
  until 1903. It was built so that Jupiter and
  Venus align over the pyramid.
     Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• The pyramid at Chichen Itza was built so
  that a shadow crept down the stairs like a
  snake only during the fall/spring equinox.
• This pyramid had 91 steps on 4 staircases
  plus the top =365
      Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Artisans made cotton cloth, jade/gold
  ornaments. Priests studied astronomy.
  Merchants traded by land/sea. Laborers
  built pyramids. Architects designed
  buildings.
• Farmers built raised fields that could drain
  water. Also terraced hillsides.
     Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Maya offered blood sacrifices to Gods.
  Gods could be good, evil, or both. Also
  human sacrifice.
• Itzam Na- creator God- also fire, rain,
  crops, earth- becomes Quetzalcoatl- most
  powerful ruler adopts the name
  Quetzalcoatl- like Caesar/Romans
     Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Had the most accurate calendar in the
  world. Only .0002 of a day off our modern
  calendar!
• Two calendars- one 260 day religious
  calendar- 13 months 20 days each, one
  365 day solar calendar- 18 months 20
  days each
     Maya- 1200 BC-900 AD
• Mayan writing- glyphs- over 800
• Books called codex written on paper made
  from bark
• Also invented concept of zero
           Maya Timeline
• Lowland Maya descendents of Olmec-
  arrive 1000BC
• 550 AD- fall of Teotihuacan- breakdown of
  centralized power at Tikal
• Increased power of local elites- more
  building projects and growing population-
  scarce food- competition for land-warfare
• 900 AD Toltec invade N. Yucatan- power
  shifts from Tikal to Chichen Itza.
           Mayan Timeline
• About 1200 Chichen Itza abandoned-
  power shifts to Mayapan- a walled city
• Revolt destroyed Mayapan in 1441
• By the arrival of Spaniards, empire dead.
• Toltec migrate to Valley of Mexico where
  they are destroyed.
• Legend of Quetzalcoatl lives on…
• Civilizations worshipping the Feathered
  Serpent included the Olmec, Mixtec,
  Toltec, Aztec, who adopted it from the
  people of Teotihuacan, and the Maya.

				
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posted:1/4/2012
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