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					                          Health & Safety Questions
1. Who is responsible for Occupational Health & safety (OH&S) in the workplace?
Everyone is responsible for OH&S in the workplace, but there is a designated OH&S director, and
also the manager/supervisor has additional responsibilities.

2. Tell me about some of the OH&S responsibilities you have personally?
The OH&S responsibilities I have as an employee get more advanced as you climb up in the
workplace. At the moment I have basic responsibilities that every employee would have whilst at
work such as; caring for any customer, not putting yourself or customers in danger, not having
harmful hazards in the workplace, if something is broken or damaged remove immediately and get it
replaced. Wear the appropriate clothes, present yourself well, and make sure that no one is hurt or
ill, reporting all incidents to manager/supervisor if you’re not capable of handling it.

3. Define a hazard and a risk and identify the difference between the two. Give an example of each.
A hazard is something that can cause harm, e.g. electricity, chemicals, ladders, noise, a bully at work
& stress. A risk is the chance, high or low that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm. The
difference between a risk and a hazard is that a hazard is an item that can cause harm and a risk is
the chance someone will get hurt by that hazard. An example of a hazard is a step ladder left out
after a career was getting something from the top shelf and the risk is that a child could climb on the
ladder, fall and hurt themselves.

4. What safety signs are displayed in your service and what are their meanings?
The safety signs that can be displayed at a child care service can be; Notice, Children must bring a
hat for outdoor play, to prevent children getting sunburnt and also cold in the winter. Notice, Keep
gate closed at all time, to ensure that the children can’t get out through the open gate and also so
things can’t get into the play ground. Notice, No food with peanuts or traces of nuts to be consumed
on these premises, Nut free zone, to prevent children with peanut allergies of having a reaction to a
food that has nuts in them or even traces of them. Notice, Parent/Guardian must sign children in
and out of this centre, so that staff can track who is there on that day also in case of an emergency
like an evacuation and you have to take the roll. Wash hands sign, to remind the children and staff
that every time you come into the centre to wash your hands, after & before dealing with food and
after touching and bodily fluids.

5. Hazard identification is the process of identifying sources of harm. When do you consider it
necessary to inspect the equipment, materials, resources and/or environment?
All equipment, materials, resources and/environment need to be checked on a daily or weekly basis
depending on the item. The environment is checked daily which consists of walking around outside
to make sure that the grounds are safe for children to play on, making sure that there is no broken
glass, needles, animal droppings and also that there is no item’s against fence’s where the children
can climb onto the fence.
6. In order to reduce hazards, child care services carry out workplace inspections. Some happen daily
and others more infrequently. List all the safety checklists you complete as part of your role and
explain why they are important.

Daily

        Clean Bathroom
        Clean floors
        Clean tables
        Food stored away
        All area’s clean
        Ensure knives forks scissors are stored away
        Cups
         Tea towel changed
        Beds
        Linen

Weekly

        Fridge cleaned
        General hygiene checked
        Staffroom
        Toys

Monthly

        Check Lockers

Corridor/foyer

Daily check to ensure that the area is not being obstructed with objects, ensure children cannot
leave centre via front door.

First Aid

        Check for out of date options
        Replace gloves and notify when getting low

Outdoor checklist

        Sandpit, look for foreign objects, glass, needles, animal droppings.
        Shed, ensure safe for children and staff in relation to storage of plants and other heavy
         objects.
        Grassed areas for foreign objects’.
        Slides, be careful for joints cause of splinters.
        Swings, hooks, the rope hasn’t frayed.
        Fences/gates checked to ensure childproof.
        Move any sticks or rocks.
7. What is the hierarchy of controlling risks?
It is removing the hazard or replacing it with something else, or removing the person so the hazard
doesn’t affect them. Not all of these practices are right for every workplace.

8. How do new staff members learn about OH&S in the workplace and how are they updated on
information?
Once new staff are hired at a child care centre they are to read through the policies and procedure
of the centre, they also need to read through the OH&S policies and the manager of the centre will
run through on other OH&S items such as where all the incident reports are kept etc. They will be
updated by going to OH&S workshops and also all staff will be updated at the staff meetings as well
as in the workplace.

9. What are the emergency evacuation procedures and the emergency lockdown procedure for the
service/centre and how often are they practiced?
A plan that can be easily remembered and followed is a good one, the emergency procedure needs
to placed in view for everyone in each room and also in the entrance. In an emergency you need to
keep children safe & calm, making sure you have all children and staff and take them to the
emergency meeting point until it is safe to go back inside. Lockdown procedures are when there is a
threat or potential harm to a staff member or child in your care, bring all children indoors draw all
curtains, lock doors and windows immediately. Team leader need to collect all important documents
and do a head count. Wait until everything is checked and it’s safe to unlock everything. At least one
practice evacuation is required once a year, but it is better to have at two. Letting the Tasmanian fire
brigade is a good idea so they know that it’s just a practice & not a real fire.

10. Who is the designated person for reporting OH&S information to in the service/centre and how
may these reports be made?
The Designated personal may be a lot of people in the work place such as, Team leaders,
Supervisors, OH&S Committee members, OH&S reps, Managers and other designated personnel.

11. How do regulations relate to the health and safety of the children in your care? Can you describe
some examples of areas of your work that are influenced by regulations, policies and procedures?
Duty of care, all carers have a duty of care to protect children from harm or injury while in care.
Carers' must not act in a way that deliberately places children at risk. Carer’s must not reveal any
information to people outside the workplace, about staff or children.

12. What cleaning duties do you perform daily to ensure the health and safety of children?
Washing hands, wearing gloves where necessary, wiping down tables and chairs with disinfectant,
wash toys that have been out for at least a week, that have been in children mouths or near a sick
child, using different coloured clothes for different cleaning tasks. Keeping the toilets clean,
ensuring that there is no spillage that needs to been clean, wipe down with disinfectant spray during
the day, clean at least three times a day. Sweep the floor before eating and after children have
finished eating.

13. What infection control measures do you perform to reduce risks?
Some of the infection control measures would to be clean the kitchen and equipment thoroughly,
empty rubbish area every day, washing hands before and after handling food, wash hands after
going to the toilet, wash hands after sneezing and/or coughing, cover cuts or wounds, keep hair
covered, wear clean clothes, maintain personal hygiene, no smoking, install fly screens, storing dry
food away and out of reach of pets.

14. Tell me about the fire safety messages you give the children at your service/centre?
Put the Flames Out; get red and yellow sidewalk chalk. Draw flames on a sidewalk and let you
children put them out with water bottles. 911 Call Get several old phones (or draw one on paper)
and have your children practice dialling 911 in an emergency. Stop, Drop & Roll get Your children to
pretend they are on fire and practice stopping, dropping, and rolling.

15. What do you do to reduce hazards in the outdoor area?
To reduce hazards in the outdoor area make sure that there is supervision at all times, age
appropriate equipment, fall surfacing and regularly have equipment maintenance. Do the hazard
checklist before the children go outside to make sure there are no dangerous objects out there.


16. What is appropriate supervision and how does it vary according to the age/stage of
development?
The appropriate supervision for children between the ages of 0-2 years is 1 career per 3 children, 3-5
year olds- 1 career to 10 children and 5 years and over -1 career to 15 children. Use the techniques
hear them, see them, reach them, also the younger the child the more supervision they need,
depends on their development and independence and if they take risks or not.

17. What are the high risk areas/activities when caring for children?
Outdoor play is a high risk area with children falling over, falling off their bikes, swings etc. Causing
injury to their bodies, also other children could be playing rough and hurt another child by accident.


18. What risk reduction practices are in place in your workplace?
The risk reduction practices that are in place at most workplace’s is the 'hierarchy of control'.

19. When travelling with children what are the important safety issues which must be adhered to?
Make sure all children attending the excursion have written permission from their parent or
guardian. Written authorization must be provided by the parent when the child enters care, ensure
there is the right child staff ratio at all times. Make sure that at least one carer has a first aid
certificate. A first aid kit including any emergency medication suitable for the excision is taken and
on a career at all times. You need to have a list of all children and adults attending the excursion.
Make sure you have all emergency information e.g. contact numbers etc in case of an emergency;
you also need a mobile phone in case of an emergency.


20. How do you maintain children’s safety during travel/excursions?
Staff are to maintain the right approach on outings and excursions, taking into consideration the
developmental needs and well being of the children. When on excursions staff must; Notify parents
of a non routine excursion at least one week before the event; Ensure that they have permission
from families to take the child; Take a first aid kit and list of emergency contacts; Identify facilities
e.g. toilets etc and any hazards in the area to be visited with the children and prior to taking them,
implement strategies to ensure the children’s health and safety prior to the excursion; Carry water,
sun protection (as per Sun Smart Policy), food and a mobile phone; Observe child/Adult ratios at all
times; Discuss safety on the excursion and behaviour expectations with the children. Make sure all
children hold hands, they don’t distract the driver, wear sunhats, sit in the seats while the bus is
moving and make sure they all have seatbelts on.

21. How do you choose toys appropriate for children to interact with?
If a toy is beyond your child's level of development the child will quickly become frustrated and
overwhelmed. If the toy is too far below your child's development level, they will become bored and
lose interest. The right toy can also help your child's imagination and creativity grows and blossoms.
When choosing toys for your child, you want to make sure that they are age appropriate. There are
so many risks involved with playing with toys, such as self-injury and choking on small parts, the
responsible parent should make sure that the child is exposed to the least harm possible. Moreover,
each age group is at its own stage of child development, with particular needs – you should choose
toys that can nurture your child’s growth and learning. Some suitable toys for 0-2 years, are brightly
coloured rattles, teething rings, stuffed toys, toys with knobs and that open and close, riding toys,
and blocks. For children 2-5 years they start to use their imagination such as playing with kitchens,
plastic tools, pretend toys, stuffed toys, dolls, and cars. Also making sure they are not dangerous,
broken, educational, clean, and safe.

22. How are medications stored and administered in your service/centre? Relate your answer to the
policies and procedures of the service/centre.
In order to give medication to children in child care centres you will need to make sure that it has
the first and last name of the child on the container, which has been prescribed by a licensed health
professional. Check to see that the name and phone number of the health professional who ordered
the medication is on the container, is in the original package or container, has the date the
prescription was filled, has an expiration date, has specific instructions for giving, storing, and
disposing of the medication, and in a child-proof container. You should keep a medication record in
your child care facility. The record should list:

       The child's name.
       The name of the medication and how and when it is to be given.
       The parent's signature of consent.

You should also keep a log of when you give medications. Each time you give a child a medication,
you should list the date, the time, the child's name, the name of the medication, and the dosage
given. If more than one provider in your facility gives medicines, each provider should initial the
entry, showing that she or he gave the child the medicine.
It is crucial that staff/carers have some form of professional development training or knowledge of
administering medications, in addition to first aid qualifications to ensure that an adverse reaction to
medication can be dealt with quickly and responsibly. Medication can only be administered when
the services Medication Authorisation form has been completed and signed by the child’s parents or
legal guardian. Make sure that there are two careers there when the child takes medicine to make
sure the right dosage and the right child take it.
23. What is anaphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis is the most serve form of allergic reaction and can be life threatening. It must be treated
as a medical emergency, which requires immediate treatment and medical attention. Some of the
symptoms of an anaphylaxis reaction are; difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, eyes and
tongue, Hives or welts on the skin, Stomach pain, vomiting, difficulty speaking, wheeze or persistent
cough, loss of consciousness, Pale and floppy (in young children). The most common causes of
Anaphylaxis in young children are eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, cow’s milk, bees or other insects and
some medications.


24. What allergies are prevalent in your service and how are they managed?
The most common allergies in child care centres are eggs, peanuts, dust mites, milk, wheat, Pollen,
insect stings. These allergies can be managed by banning peanuts form the centre including peanut
butter and nutella, constantly being careful what the children are eating and mindful of the children
with the allergy, vacuum and dust daily to keep dust mites away, and make sure there is no area
outside where insect can live and children can reach and put their fingers inside.

25. When are children excluded from the service in response to a health issue?
When the child has been ill with a infectious Illness, or disease, which in most cases with children are
the flu, measles, mumps etc. Each centre has guidelines which must be followed when a child is sick
or come to the centre sick and also to keep the other children safe from this illness. By cleaning and
disinfecting all the toys the child has played with (if possible) the chance of any other children/staff
getting the illness is less.

26. What is healthy eating?
Healthy eating is achieving the balance in your child’s diet by including fruit, vegetables, bread and
cereals, meat and meat alternatives, and dairy foods. It pays to learn about each of these food
groups so you can decide what’s best for the child. Snacks, drinks and extra foods also need to be
selected carefully. Nutrition is important for everyone. When combined with being physically active
and maintaining healthy weight, eating well is an excellent way to help your body stay strong and
healthy. Making sure you give them the proper amount of food for their age, not too much or not
too little.

 27. How do you encourage children to eat/drink appropriate amount of food and drink?
The way I would encourage children to drink and eat more would be by me sitting down with them
with my lunch and eat with them and by me doing that the children will see that I am eating healthy
food and that I’m drinking water as well. You could also tell them that if they eat and drink they will
grow up big and strong like you.

28. What would you do if you felt a child was given insufficient nutritious food?
If I felt a child wasn’t getting enough nutritious food I would discuss it with other staff in that room
first see if they agree or if it’s just me thinking they weren’t. I would then let the manager know that
I think they aren’t getting enough food in their lunch box. The manager then would let the
parent/guardian know when they pick their child up that the child isn’t getting enough nutritious
food in their lunch.
29. How are children’s individual dietary needs and preferences met in the service/centre?
The child’s individual dietary needs are met in the services I’ve been to by the parents/guardians
packing the child’s lunch each day, making sure to not pack what is banned from that centre. They
also give the child choices of what to eat so they back different things each day and also making sure
they have plenty of food in their lunch box.


30. How are foods prepared and maintained safely?
Food is safely prepared and maintained by: using different knives and chopping boards when cutting
up meat and other foods to avoid cross contamination, making sure that all utensils and equipment
that is used for food preparation and storage is in working order, always making sure that utensils
aren’t broken or chipped. Bench tops should also be in good condition. Safe storage of food includes
storing and cooking food at the right temperature which is under 5⁰C for cold food and between
60⁰C and 100⁰C for hot food. Food stored between 5⁰C and 60⁰C is the danger zone, which is when
germs grow and spread. Washing hands before and after going to the toilet, sneezing, coughing, tie
hair back, and don’t handle food if sick.


References:

http://www.everythingpreschool.com/themes/firesafety/games.htm

Children Services, Health & Safety Assignment Certificate 2.

				
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