First Age of Empires Study Guide

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                              First Age of Empires
                                   Unit Study Guide

The Egyptian and Nubian Empires

Be able to identify the following terms and names:
Hyksos                          Nubia                        Kush
New Kingdom                     Thutmose III                 Piankhi
Hatshepsut                      Ramses II                    Meroë

   1.   What are two reasons the Egyptian empire was weak and ripe for invasion?
               Weak Pharaohs and power Struggles among the nobles
   2. What group of people used chariots to invade Egypt and ruled for over 100 years?
               An Asiatic group of invaders called the Hyksos
   3. Who migrated to Egypt with the encouragement of the Hyksos?
               The Hebrews
   4. How did the invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos demonstrate the importance of
       military technology?
               The Hyksos used technology such as Chariots which the Egyptians had
               never seen before
   5. How did the conditions of Hebrews in change between 1800 B.C. and 1200 B.C.
               The Hebrews entered Egypt, some believed encouraged by the Hyksos,
               around 1800 B.C. and were enslaved by the Egyptians around 1600 B.C.
               They were then led out of bondage around 1200 B.C.
   6. Why did the Egyptians begin to build an empire?
               The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom wanted to strengthen Egypt and
               prevent future invasions
   7. What tools were used to restore Egyptian power and enabled the Egyptians to
       build a lasting empire?
               The Egyptians built their empire on a strong military with technological
               innovations such as the two-wheeled chariot, bronze weapons, archers,
               and superior infantry
   8. How did Hatshepsut differ from other Pharaohs of the New Kingdom?
               She encouraged trade rather than conquest
   9. Why would a ruler encourage trade rather than making war?
               Trade would be less expensive, troops were needed elsewhere in order to
               protect borders from outside invasion, and lost battles could be costly and
               weaken the empire
   10. What group of people signed a treaty with Pharaoh Ramses II and brought peace
       to the region for close to 100 years?
               The Hitittes
   11. Explain the reasons for the decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom.
               Attacks by the “Sea People,” Palestinian revolts against Egyptian warlords,
               and the Sahara desert no longer offered any type of protection left Egypt
               open for numerous invasions that could not be pushed back
   12. What cultural aspects of Egyptian culture did the Kushites adopt?
               Language, religious practices, clothing, and hieroglyphics

   13. Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians?
            The Assyrians pushed the Kushites southward to Meroë which had an
            abundance of Iron Ore that the Kushites were able to mine and establish
            an extensive trade network with the interior of Africa

The Assyrian Empire

Be able to identify the following terms and names:
Assyria                 Nineveh               Medes                  Nebuchadnezzar
Sennacherib             Ashurbanipal          Chaldeans

   1.    What natural resource did Assyria need to keep its empire strong?
              Iron Ore and Copper for superior weapons and army
   2.   What advantages did the Assyrian military demonstrate?
              Advanced technology, planning, engineering skill, and discipline
   3.   Explain some of the military tactics used by the Assyrians when they attacked a
              Siege towers were used to scale city walls, pontoons were sued to cross
              moats and rivers, engineers would dig under the city walls to weaken the
              walls, and battering rams were used to smach down walls and city gates
   4.   Name some causes for the rise and decline of the Assyrian Empire.
              The Assyrians were well trained in warfare because they were constantly
              defending their homeland and developed a strong military, but their
              treatment of conquered foes cause widespread hatred among their subjects
   5.   What policies indicate that Assyria ruled through force?
              The destruction of cities and exile of people who refused to follow Assyrian
   6.   What are some of the contributions of Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal?
              Sennacherib built the capital of Nineveh into the largest and greatest city
              in the region and Ashurbanipal created the great library
   7.   Why were the people of the regions happy to see the fall of Assyrian rule?
              The Assyrians were such cruel leaders
   8.   What are some of the positive achievements of the Assyrians?
              The culture of the Assyrians such as sculptures and paintings, the great
              library of Nineveh set the stage for many modern libraries
   9.   What groups of people defeated the Assyrians?
              The Medes and Chaldeans

The Persian Empire

Be able to identify the following terms and names:
Cyrus                           Darius                       Satrap
Cambyses                        Royal Road                   Zoroaster

   1. What Persian King began conquering neighboring kingdoms and began creating
       the Persian Empire?
              King Cyrus
   2. How did the style of governing by the Persians differ from that of Assyrians?
              The Persian kings were more tolerant of local customs and religions
   3. What made Cyrus different from other rulers?
              Cyrus treated the conquered people with respect and tolerance
   4. Why did Cambyses try to do away with the Egyptian religion?
              He hated the Egyptian religion
   5. Why did the people of the Persian Empire revolt following the death of
              Cambyses did not follow the same tactics as Cyrus and scorned local
              religions and customs
   6. Who brought order back to the region?
              King Darius
   7. What methods were important to the rule of Darius?
              Divided the empire into provinces with satrps ruling locally, an extensive
              road system and standardized coins
   8. What do the words on Cyrus’s tomb “I established the Persian Empire and was
       king of Asia. Do not begrudge me my memorial.” Say about his character?
              That he was an honest and fair ruler
   9. How did the Royal Road help Darius maintain control of the Persian Empire?
              By allowing easier access to the provinces and creating a direct line of
   10. What events led to the development of Zoroastrianism?
       The constant warfare and suffereing felt by the people of the regions for hundreds
       of years led believe to ask the question as to why they have had to suffer
       hardships for so long

The Unification of China

Be able to identify the following terms and names:
Confucius                       Legalism                    Shi Huangdi
Filial Piety                    I Ching                     Autocracy
Bureaucracy                     Yin and Yang
Daoism                          Qin Dynasty

   1. Explain the line quoted from Laozi, “When there is no desire, all things are at
             People need to reduce their desires so they can live in peace
   2. What other religion includes this same idea?
   3. Explain how I Ching was similar to the teachings of Confucius.
             Both provided guidance in ethics
   4. What were the three ethical systems of China?
             Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism

5. How were Shi Huangdi’s policies similar to those of the Persian Ruler Darius?
           Both built roads, standardized coin money, and centralized power
6. Was Shi Huangdi justified in requiring peasants to work on the Great Wall?
7. Why was the Great Wall of China built?
           To keep out outside invaders
8. How did Confucius believe that social order, harmony, and good government
    could be restored in China?
           To organize society around five basic relationships; 1 – ruler and subject,
           2 – father and son, 3 – husband and wife, 4 – older brother and younger
           brother, and 5 – friend and friend
9. What did legalists see as the key to restoring order?
           An efficient and powerful government
10. Why did Shi Huangdi have his critics murdered?
           To maintain power and keep doubt out of the minds of his subjects

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