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Extinction and Depletion

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November 12th, 8:30 – 11:00am, 2nd Saturday Trail Work Day at Irvine Regional Park. Contact Maureen Beckman at
Maureen.beckman@ocparks.com or Cathi Schrader at Cathi.schrader@ocparks.com to register. Irvine Regional Park is looking for 10 volunteers
to assist with trail maintenance in various areas in the park for a monthly trail work day. Come join volunteers and staff to help maintain our trails
for all to enjoy Please come prepared with boots, water, sunscreen, hat, and gloves. Tools and gloves will be provided but volunteers are welcome
to bring their own. Volunteers must be 15 years old and older.

November 13th, 9:00 – Noon, 2nd Sundays at Upper Newport Bay. Please call 949.923.2275 or e-mail: unbic@ocparks.com. Volunteers would
assist with planting native plants and seeds in the ground for habitat enhancement. Trash pick-up and trail work events would also occur
periodically. Tools will be provided. Volunteers are more than welcome to bring their own labeled tools.

November 16th, 9:00 – 11:00am, Stewardship Day at Upper Newport Bay. Contact Matt Yurko at myurko@coastal.ca.gov to register. Join a
dedicated group of volunteers who tend to the cultivation of native plants for our restoration activities. Tasks on these days vary from collecting
seeds to monitoring and maintaining previously planted sites. These events take place at various sites throughout the Upper Newport Bay. All ages
are welcome (under 15 must be accompanied by adult).

November 16th, 10am – 3pm, Habitat Restoration Days at Mason Regional Park. Contact Park Ranger Phil Martinez at
phil.martinez@ocparks.com to register. Join one time and general volunteers on Wednesdays to assist with planting, watering and other
restoration projects.
Extinction and Depletion from Over-exploitation




                                                   Aurochs
                                       Year                                Number
                                      1565                                         30
                                      1602                                          4

     Aurochs                          1620
                                      1627
                                                                                    1
                                                                                    0
                       Source: Silverberg, R. (1967). "The Auk, the Dodo, and the Oryx". Thomas Y.
                       Crow ell Company, N. Y. 246 pp.
•3-foot tall, penguin-like, flightless   Great Auk
•North Atlantic
•Originally hundreds of thousands
•Hunted for feathers 1785-1844
•Extinct 1844
Carolina parakeet
-North America’s only endemic
parrot
-Fed on fruit and other crops
-Shot by farmers, collected for
feathers, collected for zoos


  •Extinct in the wild 1904
  (A few were left in zoos)
  •Extinct 1918
        Passenger Pigeon – the most abundant bird?




• John James Audubon: a flock passed over for 3 days at ~ 300 million birds/hour.
• Flocks could be heard 6 miles away.
• Nesting colonies ~ 40 miles long, several miles across.
• Occurred throughout Eastern North America
• Fed on acorns and beechnuts.
•suffocated by burning grass or sulfur below thei
•fed grain soaked in alcohol
•beaten down with long sticks
•blasted with shotguns
•caught in nets
•trapped using a decoy pigeon




                 Used for pigeon pie -
                 Extinct in wild 1889
                 Extinct 1914
                             Discovered 1741
            Used as food by sea-otter hunters
                                 Extinct 1768




         Steller's Sea Cow
          (Order Sirenia):
Tail for swimming; arms for steering; NO hind legs
    Lost: Caribbean Monk Seal
•   Hunted first for food
•   Later for oil
•   Last confirmed sighting 1952
•   Declared extinct in 1996
         Losing Species

• Present extinction rate = ~ one per hour
  = ~1,000 times normal, almost all
  caused by human activities.
• Number of species = ~ 5 million
• We have probably already lost 1 million
  species
• Several more million will be lost in the
  first few decades of the 21st century.
                       Number of Named
              Endangered and Extinct Animal Species
                         compiled from the IUCN Red List, 2006
                        Surviving
                                     Critically                                  Total
   Class      Extinct    only in                  Endangered     Vulnerable
                                    Endangered                                Threatened
                        Captivity
Mammals           70           4           162           348           583         1,093

Birds            135           4           181           351           674         1,206
Reptiles          22           1             73          101           167           341

Amphibians        34           1           442           738           631         1,811

Insects           59           1             68          129           426           623

All animals      698          38          1,528        2,222          3,973        7,723
                            Recently Extinct Mammal
                            Species and Subspecies
                     (from a list of 120 at http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/english.htm)

                                     Common Name:                         IUCN Links:
Scientific Name:
Acerodon Lucifer                     Panay Giant Fruit Bat                IUCN Species Information

Alcelaphus buselaphus
                                     Bubal Hartebeest                     IUCN Species Information
    buselaphus
Bettongia gaimardi gaimardi          Eastern Bettong                      IUCN Species Information

Bettongia lesueur graii              Burrowing Bettong                    IUCN Species Information

Bettongia penicillata penicillata    Brush-tailed Bettong                 IUCN Species Information

Bison bonasus caucasius              Caucasian Wisent
Boromys offella                      Oriente Cave Rat                     IUCN Species Information

Boromys torrei                       Torre's Cave Rat                     IUCN Species Information

Brotomys voratus                     Hispaniolan Edible Rat               IUCN Species Information

Bos taurus primigenius               Aurochs
Caloprymnus campestris               Desert Rat-kangaroo                  IUCN Species Information

Canariomys tamarani                  Giant Canary Island Rat
Canis lupus deitanus                 Spanish Wolf
Canis lupus hattai                   Hokkaido Japanese Wolf
Canis lupus hodophilax               Honshu Japanese Wolf
Canis rufus floridianus              Florida Red Wolf
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica           Portuguese Ibex
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica            Pyrenean Ibex                        IUCN Species Information

Cervus elaphus canadensis            Eastern Elk
                                                  Documented Animal Extinctions
                                                                      Mammals           121
                                                                      Bird Species      150
                                                                      Bird Subspecies   79
                                                                      Reptiles          25
                                                                      Amphibians        88
                                                                      Fish              87
Two subspecies of Pyrenean
ibex: but one brought back by                                         Mollusks          292
cloning – see later lecture                                           Insects           62
Some notable                                                          Arachnids          4
extinctions since                                                     Crustaceans        7
2000                                                                  Sea Anemones &
                                                                         Corals          2
                                                Western Black Rhino   Velvet Worms       1
                                                (subspecies)
                                                                      Flatworms          1
                                                                      Segmented Worms    1
          Miss Waldron's Red Colobus
          (subspecies)
          http://extinctanimals.petermaas.nl/
                                                                     Baiji River Dolphin – declared extinct
                                                                     after a thorough search December 2006.
                                                                     •The first whale or dolphin to disappear in
                                                                     modern times
                                                                     •The first large mammal to go extinct as a
                                                                     result of man's destruction of their natural
                                                                     habitat and resources




 Declined due to destruction
 of their habitat, illegal fishing
 and collisions with ships.
 Population:
 •1980s: 400
 •1997: 13
 •2002: Last captive Baiji died
 •2004: Last confirmed
 sighting

                                   http://www.baiji.org/start.html
http://www.baiji.org/start.html
                        http://search.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?q=baiji+dolphin&x=0&y=0&scope=all&edition=i&tab=av&recipe=all
                      Serial Depletion

                         Example:
The Fur Trade in Europe, Russia, Siberia and North America


  The Russian Fur Trade
13th-18th century: Squirrels, martens,
                  ermine, sable, foxes

1750-1790:      Sea otters

1791-1820's:   Northern fur seal
Sea otters: discovered in 1741. Then 150,000 – 300,000
                Sea otter
1750-1790: 250,000 killed. “Commercial Extinction”
1911: total 1-2,000. Protected by Intl. Fur-Seal Treaty
1965 estimates:
     Russia: 6,000
     Alaska: 25,000
     British Columbia: extirpated
     Washington: extirpated
     Oregon: extirpated
     California: 600
     Mexico: extirpated

1970’s estimate for Alaska:     50-100,000
                                             Why the
2000 estimate for Alaska:           6,000    decline?
2006 estimate for California:       2,692
        Sea otter decline in the
           Aleutian Islands
   Alaska




Aleutian Islands
Southwest Alaska population listed as
  Threatened under the ESA in 2005
  The Pinnipeds (Seals and Sea Lions):
            33 living species




Sea Lion and Fur Seal (Otariidae):   True Seals (Phocidae):
External ears;                       No external ears;
hind flippers used for walking       hind flippers not used for walking
     Northern Fur Seal Harem



Fur Seals
Fur seals in the Northern Hemisphere




               Northern fur seal hunt
            Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea
                    Annual kill:                Total population:
                                                   ~1,355,000
                                           75% breed on Pribilof Islands
                    1791: 127,000
                    1820's:  7,000
                    1867: 250,000
                    1890's: 17,000
• Studies in 1870s showed that the Fur Seals were
  being disastrously overharvested
• Led to the North Pacific Fur Seal Treaty of 1911
   – Russia, Japan, Great Britain, and the U.S.
   – the first international treaty for wildlife conservation
   – forerunner of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972.
• Treaty led to an Act of Congress in 1912 prohibiting
  any sealing activities for five years
   – allowed the herd to regenerate until 1960
   – But declining ever since, for unknown reasons:




                                 It is now illegal to hunt fur seals,
                                 except for an exemption allowing
                                 Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos to
                                 continue to hunt at a subsistence
                                 level (about 2000 a year).
 Serial Depletion of fur seals in the
    Southern Hemisphere, 1780-1820
         1790-1791: Tristan da Cunha
         1790-1791: Falkland Islands
         1790-1791: Tierra del Fuego
         1797-1803: Juan Fernandez Islands
         1800-1825: South Georgia
         ?:         South Shetland Islands
         1800-1825: Kerguelen Island
         ?:         Australian coast
         1810-1820: Macquarie Island
Now:
•Off Namibia in Africa, 40- 50,000 cape fur seal are killed by clubbing each year.
•Much of the profit comes from the sale of penises for the aphrodisiac trade in Asia.
The Harp Seal
  Original ~10 million; Present ~ 5 million
  1850’s kill: 600,000 per year
  2008 kill: 275,000
  Healthy population but vulnerable to global warming

•Canada's stated aim: “sustainable harvest”, recommended 275,000 per year
•~20 Canadian conservation groups lobbying for a reduction in the TAC
•Canadian Sealers' Association asked for a 10% increase
•Claim the decline in Cod is related to predation by seals
             http://www.hsus.org/protect_seals.html   http://www.seashepherd.org/news/media_070425_1.html
A success story! Northern Elephant Seal
                 1800’s: hunted for oil by whalers
                        1884: Suspected lost BUT
                a small population (50-100) found
            on Guadalupe Island, Baja California
                                  Now: ~160,000
Walrus: Killed for oil, skin and ivory




                                  Russian Eskimos
                  Walrus
                  Distribution




Alaska: Native subsistence harvest
Russia: Commercial and subsistence
Population: ~200,000
Harvest: 5,500-10,300 / year

BUT (Feb 08): Center for Biological
Diversity has petitioned USFWS to
list Walrus (and Polar Bear) as
Endangered under the Endangered
Species Act. Why?
REASON: Both Species require sea ice for feeding, resting and raising young,
            and the ice is melting fast due to global warming
Population = ~130,000
(Polar bear population = ~ 25,000)
     Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972
• Congress found that:
• certain species and population stocks of marine mammals
  are, or may be, in danger of extinction or depletion as a
  result of man's activities;
• such species and population stocks should not be
  permitted to diminish beyond the point at which they
  cease to be a significant functioning element in the
  ecosystem of which they are a part, and, consistent with
  this major objective, they should not be permitted to
  diminish below their optimum sustainable population
  level;
• measures should be taken immediately to replenish any
  species or population stock which has diminished below
  its optimum sustainable level; ...
• marine mammals have proven themselves to be resources
  of great international significance, aesthetic and
  recreational as well as economic.
• The MMPA established a moratorium, with
  certain exceptions, on the “taking” of marine
  mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on
  the high seas, and on the importing of marine
  mammals and marine mammal products into the
  United States
• To "take" means "to harass, hunt, capture, or
  kill, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture or kill"

• The moratorium does not apply to taking by any
  Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo who resides in Alaska
  and who dwells on the coast of the North Pacific
  Ocean or the Arctic Ocean if such taking is for
  subsistence purposes or for creating and selling
  authentic Native articles of handicrafts and
  clothing, and is not done in a wasteful manner

• optimum sustainable population means “ the
  number of animals which will result in the
  maximum productivity of the population or the
  species, keeping in mind the carrying capacity of
  the habitat and the health of the ecosystem…”
      Different Views on Marine
           Mammal Hunting
•   Strongest opposition from anti-cruelty activists and animal welfare
    organizations including the International Fund for Animal Welfare
    and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. They argue that
    clubbing animals to death or puncturing their skulls with an iron
    spike is inhumane.

     – The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission is conducting
       scientific studies on the best way to kill marine mammals.

•   Another form of opposition has been based on the danger it poses
    to the survival of these species. This viewpoint emphasizes that
    most hunts have not been sustainable, but have seriously depleted
    or wiped out the target population in a "boom and bust" cycle.

     – The fact that many hunted populations have recovered quite
       well after we stopped hunting them leads to pressure to
       continue hunting and to try to manage the activity on a
       "sustainable" basis.
     – The High North Alliance was established to defend the right of
       coastal communities to utilize marine mammals sustainably.
Threats from International Trade
  Legal exports reported by CITES, 2000
  Live Primates                                         35,421
  Live Parrots                                         518,577
  Live Lizards                                         978,006
  Live Snakes                                          249,271
  Cat skins                                             57,769
  Crocodile skins                                      786,952
  Lizard skins                                        1,556,321
  Snake skins                                         1,297,685

      Almost all exported from developing countries,
            and imported by developed countries
   **Does not include trade between non-CITES countries
                          World Resources Institute
     Major Wildlife Exporters and Importers
 •   Exporters                     •   Exporters(cont.)            •   Importers
 •   Argentina                     •   Philippines                 •   Canada
 •   Bolivia*                      •   Senegal                     •   China
 •   Brazil*                       •   South Africa                •   European
 •   Central African Republic                                          Economic
                                   •   South Korea
 •   China                                                             Community
                                   •   Sudan
 •   Congo                                                         •   Hong Kong
 •   Guyana                        •   Taiwan
                                   •   Tanzania                    •   Japan
 •   Honduras
                                   •   Thailand                    •   Singapore
 •   Indonesia
                                   •   Turkey                      •   Taiwan
 •   Mexico*
 •   Paraguay*                     •   United States               •   United States
 •   Peru                          •   U.S.S.R.
                                   •   Zaire

                                       - U.S. responsible for $1 billion
                                       out of global trade of $5 billion
Source: World Wildlife Fund, U.S. Department of the Interior.
* Countries that prohibit most wildlife exports. Most trade in species taken from
these nations is illegal and is "laundered" through other countries.
into U.S. 2000-2004




             Broken Screens: The Regulation of
          Live Animal Imports in the United States




                         (2007)
                                                                                 The result:
                                                                          Drastic depletion due to
                                                                            international trade:
                                                                      • Amphibians
                                                                      • Turtles and tortoises
                                                                      • Alligators, crocodiles
                                                                      • Tigers, Rhinos, Elephants
                                                                      • Fur-bearing animals: cheetahs,
                                                                        cats, otters, chinchilla, vicuna,
                                                                        some monkeys
                                                                      • Tropical hardwoods: Mahogany,
                                                                        cedar
                                                                      • Orchids, other plants
                                                                      • Tropical fish, birds

           Snow leopard
TRAFFIC, founded in the 1970s by WWF and IUCN (The World Conservation Union), works to        Chimpanzees just don't understand
ensure that trade does not threaten the survival of wild species or their role in natural      how humans can be so careless
ecosystems.
Convention on International Trade
 in Endangered Species of Flora
       and Fauna (CITES)
 • Objective: to ensure that trade will
   not cause the extinction of plant or
   animal species.
 • Came into force on 1 July 1975
 • Now 175 countries
 • Appendices I, II and III
 • Parties meet every three years
         http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.shtml
      Appendix I (in danger of extinction) –
May not be traded for commercial purposes:


• Great apes                 • Large cats
• Great whales               • Many parrots
• African elephant           • All sea turtles
• All rhinoceros
                             • Most crocodilians
  species
• All tiger                  • Several orchids,
  subspecies                   cacti and cycads

    Total 597 animal plus 295 plant species (2008)
  Appendix II (may become threatened with
   extinction if their trade is not regulated)
    -May be traded with special permits:
All of the following not
                              Plus:
on Appendix I:
•     Primates                • Black bear
(apes, monkeys, lemurs)       • Various snakes and
•    Cats                       lizards
•    Parrots                  • Poison-arrow frogs
•    Crocodilians
                              • Some butterflies
•    Cacti
•    Orchids                  • Some corals

  Total 4359 animal plus 28,674 plant species (2008)
•Birds – especially Parrots, Macaws, and Cockatoos
•Each year >8 million birds taken from the wild for market
•U.S. one of the largest importers.
    •~225,000 illegally imported into the U.S. every year
    •`50% die during capture and holding.
•Pet trade responsible for serious decline of 40 species in the wild.
    •Hyacinth macaw (pictured; largest in the world) down from 100,000 (20
    years ago) to <3,000.
Spix’s Macaw
Last sighting in the wild: 2001.
About 120 in captivity
Appendix I species   How the Tiger Lost Its Stripes: An Exploration into the Endangerment of a Species
                              Tiger Subspecies
       (4,650-5,000 total population = 3% of historic; down from ~150, 000).
   3 subspecies extinct; ALL threatened by habitat loss AND trade; ALL listed on CITES Appendix I

                                                                           Siberian (Amur)
 Caspian
                                                                           Wild        450-500
  0 (1968)
                                                                           Captive         490

                                                                             South China
                                                                           Wild        0 (1994)
                                                                           Captive          59

                                                                              Indochinese
          Bengal                                                           Wild            ~1,200

Wild                  X
                   ~2,000
                                                                           Captive                30

Captive              333
                                                                                  Malayan
X -Corrected                                                               Wild           600-800
in 2007:
                                                                           Captive            113
1,300-1,500
                    Sumatran
                Wild        400–500      Java           Bali                 Historic Range
                Captive         235     0 (1972)       0 (1937)
 CITES tiger agreement 1994
23 countries including most of tiger range, agree to:

• enact internal tiger trade bans
• enhance border controls and the sharing of illegal
trade information
• increase funding for antipoaching, field
conservation, and public education programs.

BUT:
• a 1997 study showed that the governments of many
of these countries had largely ignored the
recommendations.
    • Only two countries had enacted trade bans
    since the resolution, and only seven had done so
    earlier.
Tiger and Leopard “Poaching” 2006: All 16-18 tigers at the
       (illegal hunting)     Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in
                                 Rajasthan were killed by
                                 poachers.




                                 2007: Indian police officers
                                 display three tiger skins and
                                 skeletons they seized in
                                 Allahabad.
                                       http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/12/071206-AP-india-tiger.html

                                 http://www2.philadelphiazoo.org/getfile/3f29cb92-ed3e-4f4d-8d3b-52b573463475/ccgraph.aspx
    Tibet: a major market for tiger
                 skins
• In 2005, in Lhasa, Tibet, TRAFFIC
  representatives found nearly 25 stores openly
  selling robes made from tiger and leopard skins.
• Becoming more widely popular as fashion items,
  as are tiger and leopard skin rugs.
• Steady flow of tiger parts from India to Tibet
• 1999-2004: China’s Customs police seized:
   – 80 tiger skins, 31 tiger skeletons
   – 744 leopard skins, 6 leopard skeletons
   – 19 snow leopard skins
Tiger Parts Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine




                   Tiger penis soup,
                   selling for up to
                   $320 a bowl, is
                   sold as an
                   aphrodisiac
“Organotherapy”
  –Rhino horn, tiger penis
  in China, Taiwan,
  South Korea, Burma,
  Middle East
  –Seal penis in China
            CITES 2006, 2010:
 HALF-HEARTED ATTEMPT TO SAVE THE TIGER

• 2006: Delegates attending the CITES Standing
  Committee failed to take the maximum measures
  available to them to save the wild tiger.
• The CITES Secretariat made a recommendation
  to convene a high level enforcement meeting
  with all the tiger range States.
• The USA government made a recommendation
  to develop parameters to measure progress in
  the battle to stop the trade.
   – Neither was endorsed. Instead, the
     Committee decided to postpone discussions
     until the next full CITES meeting (2010).
   – 2010: EU, China and India agreed on
     increased intelligence sharing against the
     criminal networks
        Captive Tigers in U.S.
 • Estimated > 5,000 Tigers in captivity in the U.S. - more
   than the total wild population
     – In zoos, carnivals, exhibits, rescue facilities, some privately
       owned.
 • Many were bred in captivity. Inbreeding and lack of
   controls on breeding mean that they are NOT suitable for
   reintroduction into the wild
 • CITES members have agreed that “countries where Tigers
   are bred in captivity should “ensure that adequate
   management practices and controls are in place to
   prevent parts and derivatives from entering illegal trade
   from or through such facilities.”

•U.S. has not implemented
this resolution - authorities
have no way of knowing
how many there are, who
owns them, or what
happens to their body parts
when they die.
                White tigers




All probably descended from a cub captured in 1951
Popular in shows, like Siegfried & Roy’s magic show in Las Vegas
Roy Horn attacked and nearly killed on stage in 2003
                 Five Rhino species:
         >90% of total population of Rhinos
                         lost since 1970




Southern:          3,725                  2,400                                       <50                         250
~14,000            (4 subspp.)
(Up from ~50
a century ago)        (But: West African subspecies of Black
                          Rhino declared extinct in 2008)
Northern: 4
                                  ‘Prepare for rhino case bombshell’ - 12-Oct-10: South Africa Poaching article


      Numbers (wild+captive) from International Rhino Foundation, 2008
                    Rhino Horn
• Powdered horn sells in China, Taiwan,
  South Korea and the Middle East for up
  to ~$60,000/kg (2009); Gold is worth
  ~$43,000/kg
• Used as a “remedy” for nosebleeds,
  headaches, diphtheria, food poisoning.
  Also popular as an aphrodisiac.
• No scientific evidence for any effect on
  the human body. It consists almost
  entirely of keratin (same as fingernails)
• Use of rhino horn and tiger bones for
  medical purposes was declared illegal
  in China in 1993
• Poaching and illegal trade continues        The Rhino usually
  because of the extremely high value.         bleeds to death
Black Rhino




     (population about 3,750)
Amputating Rhino horns in Zimbabwe
Indian Elephant

• 25,600-32,750 in wild
  – population highly
    fragmented
• 15,000 in captivity
• CITES Appendix I
African
Elephant

• Larger
• Bigger ears
• Bigger tusks
  The Ivory trade




Stockpile of African Elephant Ivory
   African elephant population
1979: ~1.3 million
1989: 625,000
Listed on CITES Appendix I
1998: 300,000
1999: Some populations downlisted to
Appendix II: Allows trade in hides and
meat, but not ivory
2002: Increase - 402,000-677,000
2006: >10 tonnes of ivory (From ~800
elephants) seized in Hong Kong and Taiwan
2008: CITES allows African countries to sell
ivory stockpiles.

But: Even one-off sale of stockpiles is
increasing poaching:
   Chad’s Zakouma National Park had 3,885 elephants in
   2005, but only 617 elephants in 2009; and 11 rangers had
   been killed by poachers in the four-year period.
Kruger National Park




  Overcrowding of elephants on reserves
  leads to habitat destruction. Solutions: “culling”;
  translocation; removing fences; contraception?
Proposals for African Elephant
   at 2007 CITES meeting
• Opposing views on how to improve management:

   – Botswana and Namibia have now submitted a proposal to
      maintain status of Appendix II populations (allowing trade,
      with permits), and Tanzania is recommending that their
      elephant populations be transferred to Appendix II. They
      argue that trade in ivory of their elephant populations is
      “sustainable and a valuable instrument of conservation”.
   (“Market-based Conservation”)

   – Kenya and Mali are recommending a trade ban in ivory for a
     period of 20 years. They argue that allowing any trade in ivory
     will increase the killing of elephants.
 Giant Panda
• One of the most critically
  endangered species in the
  world.
• ~1,000 in the wild
• ~140 in zoos and breeding
  centers, mostly in China.
• Some U.S. zoos have rented
  them (e.g. San Diego Zoo for
  $1m a year - revenue
  increased by $4m a year!)
• Skin is worth $40,000 on the
  illegal market in Japan, Hong
  Kong and Taiwan
Problems in enforcing CITES
agreements
  Implementation
  Laws are not international:
  - Nations must pass laws to enforce the agreements

  Reservations
  By "entering a reservation" on a species, a nation is not bound
  by CITES trade restrictions on that species
  - e.g. Japan holds reservations on twelve Appendix I species,
  more than any other country. Three of these are for sea turtles
  (20,000 killed per year for carved turtle shell products)

  Illegal trade
  -rampant – e.g. illegal wildlife imports into U.S.
  $100 - $250 million per year
 CITES implementation in the U.S.

• Endangered Species Act
- prohibits the export and import of listed species

• Wild Bird Protection Act
- prohibits the import of all CITES-listed birds (almost 1,000 species]


• African Elephant Conservation Act
- controls import and export of raw African elephant ivory

• Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act of 1994

• 2007: Reauthorization of the above two Acts

• Pelly Amendment to the Fisherman's Protective Act
    The “Pelly Amendment” to the
     Fisherman's Protective Act
•   Requires the Secretary of Commerce or the Secretary of the
    Interior to “certify” to the President when nationals of a foreign
    country are engaging in trade or taking that diminishes the
    effectiveness of an international program (e.g. CITES) for
    endangered or threatened species.
•   Once a country has been "certified," the President may impose
    trade sanctions (e.g. ban fish imports) against that country.
•   22 countries or entities have been certified under the Pelly
    Amendment
     – Japan in 1991 for trade in hawksbill sea turtles
     – China and Taiwan in 1993 for trade in rhinoceros horn and
        tiger bone.
     – Iceland (since 2004) and Japan (since 2000) for whaling
        (violates another international agreement) BUT no trade
        sanctions)
•   1994: Trade sanctions imposed against Taiwan, for trade in
    rhinoceros and tiger parts and products.
     – lifted in 1995 after Taiwan demonstrated some improvement.

                                      PELLY AMENDMENT--Legal Protocol and Interpretation
The Rhino and Tiger Product Labelling Act

 •      Problems with previous laws:
        1.     In order to bring charges, the agencies must prove that the
               products actually contain products derived from endangered
               species, but this is often not possible
        2.     the Endangered Species Act prohibits export and import but
               not SALE of products from endangered species


 •      The Rhino and Tiger Product
        Labelling Act of 1998
 •      prohibits the import, export and sale of any
        product for human consumption or
        application containing, or labeled or
        advertised to contain, any substance derived
        from any species of rhinoceros or Tiger;

 •      carries a penalty of up to six months in
        prison, and fines of up to US$12,000 per
        violation

 How the Tiger Lost Its Stripes
     March 19, 2008: Five Major Wildlife Trade Busts in
                      Southeast Asia
•   March 3rd: Indonesian Police intercepted a shipment of 3,500 Green
    Turtle eggs being smuggled by boat in East Kalimantan.
•   March 10th: Indonesian Customs stopped the transport of 23,000
    dried seahorses destined for South Korea
•   March 6th: Viet Nam Customs intercepted 17 tons of pangolins
    being smuggled from Indonesia to China
•   March 10th: a team in the Philippines raided pet shops and
    confiscated 94 protected species including eagles, squirrels,
    turtles, lizards and snakes.
•   March 14th: Thai Authorities detained a Russian man at Bangkok’s
    Airport, when they found 20 live baby slow loris packed in
    cardboard boxes in his baggage, as well as 25 fly river turtles and
    30 small monitor lizards, all protected species.
• Illegal wildlife trade is one of the most
  lucrative criminal activities
  in Southeast Asia
• Often carried out by the same crime
  syndicates that trade in
  drugs and weapons
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

Location: Geneva, Switzerland
Established: 1 January 1995
Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations of
GATT (1986-94)
Membership: 153 countries (2011)

 “a system of rules dedicated to open, fair and
          undistorted competition.”
  World Trade Organization
  (Committee on Trade and Environment)

• Aim is to force countries to remove trade
  barriers, regardless of the environmental, social
  or moral consequences.
• WTO does not recognize trade restrictions
  based on ethical grounds as legitimate.
• National laws to reduce suffering and preserve
  endangered species have been abandoned as a
  direct result of the WTO.
• Countries cannot ban import of goods based on
  ethical standards of producing countries – this is
  considered trade discrimination
• This makes Pelly Amendment certifications
  empty threats
Amphibians as pets
   Hong Kong’s booming
   pet trade: importing and
   exporting salamanders,
   newts, toads and frogs
   from all over the world.

   Per year:
   • 34,000 Oriental Fire-bellied
   Toad (Bombina orientalis)
   • 9,350 Japanese Fire-bellied
   Newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster).                     Goliath Frog, Conraua goliath world’s largest frog (1 foot long) found only in
                                                    a few rivers in western Africa. Costs $3,000 in America. No current
                                                    restrictions on trade: Cameroon allows 300 to be exported each year.

   Also trading in protected
   species:
   • Tomato Frog (Dyscophus
   insularis)
   • Hong Kong Newt
   (Paramesotriton
   hongkongensis)
   • Kweichow Newt (Tylototriton
   kweichowensis),
   • Tailang Newt (T. tailangensis)
   • Giant Salamander, (Andrias
   davidianus)
http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/exploitation.html
                               Amphibians as food

                                 Frog legs: popular in Europe, Canada,
                                 U.S. and China.

                                 Millions of frogs, all collected from the
                                 wild, mainly in China.




Legs of Chinese Edible Frog,
Hoplobatrachus rugulosus
         "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of
       Calaveras County" (Mark Twain, 1867)
                                                                     • California red-legged frog
                                                                     (Rana aurora draytonii).
                                                                     • Harvested for its legs 1800s - early 1900s
                                                                     • ~ 80,000 frogs harvested annually
                                                                     • As they became rare, bullfrogs were
                                                                     introduced (1896), to help satisfy the demand
                                                                     for frog legs
                                                                     • Bullfrogs preyed on red-legged frog,
                                                                     threatening its survival.
                                                                     • Present in ~10% of historic locations
                                                                     • Listed as Threatened since 1996.
                                                                     • Critical habitat designated 2006:
                                                                     http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr5071.pdf



                                                                  Manager of the Calaveras County
                                                                  Fair and Frog Jumping Jubilee,
                                                                  stands at the gate to Frogtown at
                                                                  the county fairgrounds in Angels
                                                                  Camp, California


http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/01/02/tech/main535036.shtml

                                                                                                                            Bullfrog   Red-legged Frog
23 species, ALL listed under CITES; Seven are critically endangered
                   Asian Turtle Crisis
• The economic rise of China, together with a
  growing market of consumers, pose grave
  threats for amphibians and reptiles
• Tortoises, turtles, snakes, and geckos are also
  consumed in South China with a huge trade
  volume.
• In 1993-1994 Hong Kong imported and exported:
• > 460,000 tortoises and turtles from Indonesia
• > 110,000 snakes from China
• > 36,000 Tokay Geckos from
  Thailand

 http://www.tortoisetrust.org/articles/asia.html

				
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