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					Number    Word       Hittite     Tokharian Old IndianIranic          Greek    Armenian Albanian
      0                        -14        -2        -10        -14             -8      5          12
      2   ashes38    hass-       [unknown ] āsa         *āh-         téf-ra   ači-un     hi [< *ski(na)]
      6   bird33     suwai-      [unknown ] vi-                      ór-nis   haw        zog [< Ira.?]
      8   black48    dankui-     *erk-ent-              *śyāva-      mel-as   seaw       ži < *džedi
      9   blood20    esh-ar-     *yəs-ār     as-an-     *vahuni-     háim-a   ariwn      gjak [< *saka]
     10   bone34     hastai-     *āy         asth-      *ast-        ost-éon  osk-r      asht [< *ašt-]
     13   claw(nail)19                       nakhá
                     sanku(wa)i-*MekəwA [pl. ]          *nāx-        ónük-s   yeɣung [new! ] [< *atsāna]
                                                                                         thua
     17   die13      ak(k)-      wäl- [Toch. A ]        *mar-        thnḗ-skō meṙ-an-im vdes [< *awa-takja-]
     18   dog16      [unknown ] *kwən-       śvan-      *śvan-       kýōn     šun        ȼen [< Rom.?]
     19   drink15    eku- / aku- *yok-       pā-        *xʷar-                əmpem      pi [< *pīja]
     20   dry24      hat-        *ās-        śúṣ-ka-    *huš-ka-     áu-os    cha-makh thatë [< *saus-]
     21   ear32      istamana- *kəl-autso kárṇa-        *gauša-      oũs      unk-n      vesh [< *wausi-]
     23   eat25      ed- / ad- *śwā-         ad-        *xʷar-       esth-ìō  ut-em      ha [< *eda-]
     24   egg47      [unknown ] [unknown ] āṇḍá-        *āya-        *ṓwe-on ʒow         ve [< Rom.?]
     25   eye4       sakui-      *ekə        cákṣus     *čaš-man-    óm-ma, oph-thalmós sy [< *atšīwi]
                                                                              ak-n
     28   fire7      pahhur      *pəwAr agní-           *ātar-       pǖr      hur        zjarr [< *džera]
     31   foot43     pata-       *peye       pád        *pāda        poús     ot-ən      këmbë [< Rom.]
     36   hair27       tetana-    *ḱāku        kéśa-                 kóm-ē [< Cauc.?]
                                                                               vars          qime [< Cauc.?]
     37   hand11       kessar-    *ḱəsər       hásta-    *źasta-     khéir     ʒeṙn          dorë [< *dārā]
     38   head49       harsar     *ḱəpāl(V) śìras-       *sarah-     kephal-ḗ gəlux          krye [< *krānjā]
     39   hear45       istamas- *kəĺew-s- śru-           *śru-       klý-ō     l(u)-         dëgjoj [< Rom.]
     40   heart14      kir        *ār-əɲcə                           kēr       sirt          zemër [< Phryg.?]
     41   horn44       karawar *kərewr-                  *śru-       kéras     elǯiwr        bri [< *brina]
     42   I3 [stem 1 ] uk                      ahá-m
                                  näṣ [A ], ɲaś [B ]     *aźa-m      egṓ       es            u-në
     42   I3 [stem 2 ] amm-                    ma-       *ma-        me                      m-
     43   kill42       kuen-      *kew-        han-      *ǯan-       ktéin-ō   span-         vras- [< *awa-rautja-]
     46   leaf41       parstu-    *ṕəltA       par-ṇá-   *par-na-    phǘll-on terew          gjeth(e) [< *gadza-]
     50   louse17      [unknown ] [unknown ] yūka-       *świš-      phtheir   anic          morr [< *mērwa]
     53   meat46       [unknown ] mīsa [B ] māṁsá- *gau-[šti-]       kréas     mis           mish [< *miša]
     54   moon18       ar-ma-     *ḿeɲe        mās-      *māh-       selḗ-nē   lusin         hënë
     56   mouth31 ayis-                                  *āh-
                                  *ṣəŋkwə múkha- [< Drav.]           stóma     beran         gojë [< Ita.]
     57   name10       laman-     *ɲemə                  *nāman-     ónoma     anun          emër [< *enmen-]
     59   new23        newa-      *ɲəwe        náva-     *nava-      né(w)-os nor            ri [< *rija-]
     60   night50      isp-ant-             [?]kṣap-     *xšap-      nǘk-s     gišer         natë [< *nakti-]
     61   nose29       titita-                 nās-
                                  malaɲ [A ], meli [B ] *nāh-                  ṙngun-k       hundë [< *skun-tā]
     62   not30        natta      *mā          ná        *na         ou(k)          očh      nuk
     63   one21        sia-       *ṣe-         é-ka-     *ai-wa-     hei-s          mi       një [< *ain-ja-]
     65   rain39       heyu-                   var-ṣá-   *vār-
                                  *sw- [sw-ase [A ], sw-ese [B ]]    hüe-tós        anʒrew   shi [< *sūja-]
     78   smoke36 tuhhu-(wa)i-    [unknown ] dhū-má- *dū-            kap-nós        mux      ty-m
     80   star40       haster-    *ṣcər-       stár      *stār-      astḗr          astəł    (h)yll [< *skiw-ila]
     81   stone9       aku-       kär-weɲe [B ]áś-(m)an- *asan-ga-   líth-os        khar     gur
82   sun35        istanu-                svar / ] *xʷar-
                             koṃ [A ], kauṃ [Bsūrya-          ēéli-os   arew       diell [< *delwa-]
84   tail26       sisai-     pako [B ] púccha-      *dumba-   ourá      p:očh [new!bisht [< *būšta]
                                                                                    ]
87   thou5 [stemzi-k / tu-
                   1]        *tu-        tu-, tv-am *tuv-am   sǘ        du         ti
87   thou5 [stem 2 ]
88   tongue8 lala-           *kəntəwo              *źvā-      glōssa    lezui      gjuhë [< *glusā (< Grk.?)]
89   tooth22      kaga-      *keme      dant-      *dantan-   odoús     atam-n     dhëmb [< *dzamba-]
90   tree37       taru-      *stā-mə               *vana-     déndre-on caṙ        dru
91   two2         dā-        *wV        dvá-       *duva-     dǘo       erku       dy [< *duwō]
94   water28      watar      *wər       udán-      *āp-       hǘdōr     ǯur        ujë [< *udrjā]
95   we1 [excl. ; wēs 1 ]
                  stem       *wVs       vay-ám     *va-       hē-meis   me-kh      ne
95                anz-as
     we1 [incl. ; stem 2 ]              n-as       *a-h-mā-
96   what12       kui-t      *kwə-      ká-d, kì-m *či-       ti        zi-        se [< *tšjā]
98   who6         kui-s      *kwə-      ká-s       *ka-       tis       o(v) [< *kʷo-]
                                                                                   ku-sh [< *kʷu-so-]
Baltic        Slavic Germanic Latin           Celtic                   Saami
                                                            Baltic-Finnic        Mordvinic Mari
         -1       -1          -1         -2           -10            2         7        10         10
*pel-                *askō(n) kini-s
          *pepelъ/*popelъ                     *loutwi-      *tuhka- [< Germ.]    *kuloŋ/wu *lomə-ž
*pu-t-    *pъt-a     *fuglá-z avi-s           *fat-ar       *lintu-    *lontē-   *narmoni *käjək [< Turc.]
          *čьrnъ
*mal- ~ *mel-        *swarta- niger           *dubu-        *musta-              *rawužo- *sẹm(ə)
*as-en-              *blōd-      s-an-guis    *weli-        *veri-               *weri
*kaula-   *kostь     *bain-an os              *ast-no-      *luu-      *tāktē-   *lov-     *lu
*nag-a- *nogъ-tь *naga-la-z ungui-s           *angʷī-nā     *künsi               *kenži
          *mer-tī *diw-an- mori-or
*mir- ~ *mer-                                 *mar-w-       *kōle-     *jāmē-    *kulo-    *kolE-
*čun-     *pьsъ      *xunda-z kani-s          *kwon-        *koira-              *piŋe     *pĭɲ- ~ *pij
*ger-     *pьjō      *drenk-an- bib-o         *fib-o-       *jō-                 *śimi-    *jüA-
*saus-               *ϑirs-an- sikku-s        *tir-         *kuiva-    *koškē- *kośke      *kukšə
*aus-     *ūxo       *áusō       auri-s       *aws-         *korva-              *pile     *pĭlə-s
*ad-          *jē-mь*it-an-     ed-ō          *ed-o-        *sō-dä-             *jarsa-    *kɔčkA-
*wol-         *āje  *ajjá-n     ōvu-m         *āwy-o-       *muna-    *monē-    *alu [< ?] *mŭnə
*ak-          *ok-o *aug-an ok-ulu-s          *lakat- [?]   *silmä-             *śelmi     *šĭnća
*ung-ni-      *ognь *fō-n- / *fū-r-
                                igni-s        *tef-net-     *tuli-              *tolu      *tŭl
*kāj-ā              *fōtu-z     pē-s          *fod-         *jalka-   *jōlkē-   *pilgi     *jɔl
*plauk-a- *vol-sъ   *xēra-n     krīni-s       *wol-to- *hipus                   *čäjeri    *üp
*rank-a- *roNk-a- *xanðu-z manu-s             *flām-ā  *käsi                    *kädi      *kit
*galw-ā             *xa(u)bVda-zkaput         *kʷenno- *pää-          *ōjvē-    *pire      *wuj
*gir-               *xáusian- audī-o          *klow-   *kuule-                  *kule-     *kolA-
*čerd-     *sьrdьce *xirt-an kor              *kred-   *südä-                   *śede-ŋi *šü-m
*raga-s    *rog-ъ   *xur-na-n kor-nū          *kar-no- *sarvi-        *ćōrvē-   *śuro      *šur
*aš ~ *eš *āzъ      *ika        egō           *me      *mi-nä-        *mo-n     *mo-nu *mĭj
*me-       *me-     *mi-        me
*gal-      *bьjō    *dau-dá- ok-kīd-o         *mar-w-       *tappa-   *kontē-   *čaŋu-      *pustA-
*lap-a-    *list-ъ  *bla-da-n foli-um         *dol-         *lehti-             *lopa       *lĭštaš
*u-t-i-    *vъš-ь   *lūs        pedi-s        *luw-ā        *täi-     *ti-kkē- *śiji        *tij
*meɲs-ā             *mimzá-n karō             *kiko-   *liha-         *ōɲćē-    *siwe-li    *sĭj‑l
                    *mēnēn lū-na              *lug-rā  *kuu-                    *koŋu
                                                                      *mānō [< Germ.]       *tĭlə-źə
*mu-t-iā *ūs-tā     *múnϑa-z ōs               *ās-     *sū-           *ɲālmē- *kurgu        *ŭmsa ~ *ŭsma
*ward-a- *jь̄ mē *naman nōmen                 *anman *nimi-                     *lemi
*nau-j-a- *novъ     *niwja- novu-s            *now-yo- *uusi-                   *odu        *u
*nakt-i- *notjь     *naxt-s     nok-s         *noxtV- *yö-                      *we
*nās-i-    *nosъ    *nasi-z     nāsu-s        *srok-nā *nenä-         *ɲōnē-    *sudo [?]   *ner
*ne        *ne      *ni         no-n          *ni      *ei-           *ij       *a-         *ɔ- ~ *ĭ- ~ *i-
*wei-n-a- *ed-i-nъ *ai-n-a- ū-nu-s            *oi-no-  *ü-ksi-                  *wej-ke-    *i-k(-tə)
*lei-tu-   *dъždžь *rigna-z pluv-ia                       *vihma-               *piźi-      *jür
*dū-m-a-            *rauki-z fū-mu-s          *diyet- [?] *savu-                *kača-      *sĭks
*ǯwaižd-iā *gvēzda *stirna-z stēl-la          *ster-ā     *tähti-     *tāstē-   *täšti
*ak-mō              *staina-z lapi-s                      *kivi-
                                              *lip-enk- [?]           *keaδgē   *kewi       *küj
*saul-iā                           *sunnēn *sāwol-
           *sъl-nь-ce *sōwila-n / sōl                  *päivä-              *či      *kečə
*ōdeg-ā    *xvostъ *xalēn         kaud-ā   *er- [?]    *häntä-              *pulo    *pɔč
*tū                   *ϑū         tū       *tu / *te   *si-nä-   *to-n      *to-nu   *tĭj

*leiǯuw-i-s           *tungōn lingu-ā       *tangw-āt *kēli-                *käli    *jĭlmə
*dant-i-              *tánϑu-z dēn-s        *danto- *hampas-     *pānē-     *peŋi    *püj
*med-ia- *derv-o      *tri(w)u arbor        *kʷres-no- *puu-                *čuwtu   *pu
*dwV        *dъvā     *twai      duō        *dwāw      *kaksi-   *kōktē-    *kawto   *kok
*wand-ō *vod-ā        *wata-n/-r akw-ā                 *vesi-
                                            *uden-skyo- [?]      *ćācē-     *wedi
*me-s                 *wīz       nōs        *n-        *me-      *mij       *mi-ni   *mɛ
           *nā-       *un-s
*ka-       *čь-to     *xwa-      kwi-d      *kʷe-      *mi-                  *me     *mɔ
ka-        *kъ-to     *xwa-      kwi-s      *kʷe-      *ku- ~ *ke-*kea ~ *ki *ki     *kV
Permic       Ob-UgrianHungarianSamoyed                       Yukaghir     Turkic Mongolic               Korean
                                                                                              Tungus-Manchu
         6            1          12                     -6            1            -1    10          -4        8
*pojm-/n-               hamu        *kimä                    *nugo     *kül      *hüne-sü     *pulɲe- *čắi
*leb-                   madár       *sårmå                   *nɔ[n]da  *Kuĺ      *sibawu      *gasa     *sāi
*śöd-        *pek- [?] fek-ete                               *emi-     *Kara     *kara        *saka-rīn
*wor-        *wiɣrV vér                                      *lövɣə-   *Kiān     *čisu        *sēgV-     *píh
*lɨ-         *luwV      čont                                 *amu-n    *siŋö-k   *ja-su       *giram-ksa
*gɨž-        *küṇčV köröm [?] *kətå       ̂                  *öʒi-l    *dɨrŋa-k *kimul-su     *xosī-kta *tòph
*kul-        *kala-     hal         *kåə-     ̂              *javə-    *öl-      *ükü-        *bu(r)-    *čùk-
*pon-        *ǟmpä      eb                                   *tavəkə-  *ɨt / *it *nokaj       *ŋinda- *kàŋ-
*ju-         *(j)ä(ɲC)- [?]
                        iv-                                  *law-     *ič-      *uw(u)-      *um(i)- *mà-
*kös-                   sáraz                                *sil-     *Kūrɨ-k *kawra-        *xol-ga    *mằrằ-
*pil'-       *peli      fül         *kåw                     *unö-mə-  *Kul-kak *čiki         *sian      *kúi
*śVj-        *ϑē(ɣ)-    ev- ~ es- *əm-̂                      *legʷu-   *jē-      *ide-        *ǯe-p-     *čā-
*kVl'-       *moṇ- [?] tojás                                 *aw-      *jumurtka *ömdege      *umū-kta   *árh
*śin-        *šemä      sem             ̂
                                    *səjmä                   *waŋ-ʒə- *göŕ       *ni-dü       *ɲia-sa    *nún
*tɨl         *täwti     tűz         *tuj                     *lɔci-    *ōt       *gal         *toga
*kok-                   láb         *åj                      *noɲi-    *adak     *köl         *palga-n   *pár
*jür-si                 haj         *e ptə-           ̂      *mɔɲi-    *s(i)ač   *hü-sü       *puɲe-
*ki-         *kätä      kéz         *utå                     *tɔləʒə- *el        *gar         *ŋāla      *són
*jür-        *päŋ- [?] fej          *åjwå                    *jō[ŋ]    *baĺč     *tolu-gai    *dili
*kɨl-        *kʷāla-    hall-       *jüntə        ̂          *mö-[δi]- *ẹĺi-t-   *sonos-      *dōl-dī-
*śəl-Vm      *šimV      sìv         *sejə       ̂            *soɣə-    *jürek    *ǯirüke      *miaɲam    *mằɲằm
*śur-                   sarv        *ämtə           ̂        *önmuδ *bujŋu-ŕ *eber            *xüj(k)e
*me-         *mä        én          *mə-n   ̂                *me-t     *bẹ-      *bi          *bi        *nà

*wi-         *welä-   öl-                  *kå-t- *puɲ-      *öl-tür-  *ala-                  *wā-       *čùk-jo-
*kor-                 lev-él               *jäpä  *pol-      *japur-gak*lab-či                           *nìph
                                                                                              *xabda(-nsa)
*tVj-        *tä-ktmä tetű                 *åncə̂ *pemə-ŋ *bɨt         *böɣe-sü               *ti-kte    *ní
*si/ɨl-                                 *åjå
                            hús [< Iran.]         *cūl       *et       *mikan                 *ul-(k)se *sắrh
*təl-                       hol-d                 *kiɲə-ʒə- *āɲ(k)     *sara                  *biaga     *tắr
*vVm-        *sū- [?]       sáj         *äŋ       *aŋa-ŋ     *Agɨ-ŕ    *ama-                  *amŋa      *íp
*ɲim-        *nemä          név         *nim                 *āt
                                                  *niu- ~ *nim         *nere                  *gerbǖ     *(n)ìr(h)-
*wɨl'-       *jil-pV        új          *ɲabV [?] *ilĺə-     *jaŋɨ     *sine                  *xir-      *sái
*oj-         *jijV          éj          *pi       *emi-l     *tün      *söni                  *dolba     *pám
*nɨr-        *ɲulV          orr                   *jogu-l    *burun    *ka[m]ar               *xoŋa-     *kóh
*u-z-        *ä-[-t/-l]     ne-m        *i ~ *e   *əĺə-      *=ma-     *e-se                  *e-        *àn-
*ə-tik-      *ü-k [?]       e-gy        *o-       *ürki-     *bir      *nige                             *hằnàh
                                                                                              *ume- ~ emu-
*zVr-                       es-ő        *sårå     *tivə-     *jag-     *kura                  *aga       *pì
*čɨŋ-                       füs-t       *küntə̂   *ĺəu-      *tüt-ün   *hutu-ɣa               *saŋɲan *nắi
             *kōɲća         čill-ag     *kVśkV *ĺẹrügüδie *jul-duŕ *ho-du                     *xōsi-kta
*iz-         *kewä          kő             ̂
                                        *pəj      *qaj-      *diāĺ     *čila-ɣu               *ǯola      *tōrh
*šon-d-              nap      *kåjå    *jälō     *gün(eĺ) *nara-n     *sigū-n   *hắi
*bVž-     *leɣ [?]   far-ok   *tåjwå   *ĺaqi-l   *Kudruk *seɣü-l      *xürgü    *s-kòrì
*te       *naŋ       te          ̂
                              *tə-n    *tə(t)    *sẹ-     *či         *si

*kɨl-     *ɲēlmä     ɲelv         ̂
                              *keəj    *wɔŋər    *dɨl      *kele-     *xil-ŋü
*piɲ-     *peŋkä     fog      *timä    *toδ-     *sīĺ      *si-dü     *xǖkte    *ní
*pu-                 fa       *pä      *sāl      *ɨ        *mo-du     *mō       *nàmò-k
*kɨk-     *kītä      két      *kitä    *kʷij-    *ẹk(k)i   *goja-r    *ǯube-    *tubu
*wa-      *wit [?]   vìz      *wit     *əoδi     *sɨb      *usu       *mū
*mi-      *mä-       mi       *me-     *mit      *bi-ŕ     *bi-       *bue      *ú-rì

*mVj-     *mV-       mi                           *nē-
                                       *lömə- ~ *nömə-     *jaɣu-n-   *xia
*ki-n-    *ko-       ki       *ki-     *ki-n-     *ke-m    *ke-n      *ŋǖ       *nú-
Japonic        Yupic       Inuit       Aleut        Chukchee     Itelmen               Telugu
                                                                             South Dravidian      Kolami-Gadba
           1           1           6           10           11            11        -5         15         -3
*páp(u)í    *áʁr(a)     *aʁra       *utxi-          *piŋ         *piŋ-piŋ *nīṟ-        *būḍ-      *Nīḏ
            *təŋmi(r)a- *təŋmi(r)a-                 *əpciq(a)    *uɲa-       *puḷ-     *pul-      *piṭ-
                        *qiʁ-nə-ʁ- *qaxca-
*kùruà- *taɣnə- ~ *taŋɣə-                           *əv-         *kt=əɣʷé- *kar-       *nal-      *kar-
*tí         *aruɣ       *a(r)uɣ                     *mullə       *müĺì-m *nej-tōr      *nettur    *netur
            *nănə-ʁ *caunə-ʁ                        *hət-həm     *qUt-hUm *el-[mb-] *emm-         *pur-n-
*túmái      *cətu-ɣ     *kukə-ɣ                     *veɣə        *k'uxʷ-     *ugir     *gōr-      *oger
*sín-       *tuqu-      *tuqu-                      *vih-        *iŕ(H)ə- *cā-         *cā-       *Cā-
*ínù        *qikmi-     *qiʔmi-                     *həthə-n     *qəśih-     *nāj-     *kukk-     *ɲaj-t-
            *əməʁ-      *əməʁ-      *tāŋa-          *iɣʷhici-    *iɣʷili-    *uṇ-      *trā-g-    *uṇ-
*kàwà(ra)-k-*kinə-ʁ- *panə-ʁ- *qaka-                *kъrɣъ-      *k'ɨźɣ(ʷ)i- *vaṟ-     *enḍ-      *āṟ-
*mìmì       *ciɣu-nt *ciu-nt                        *viłu                    *kev-i    *cev-      *kev-
*kùp-       *nəʁə-      *nəʁi-      *inu-           *=nu- / *=šu-
                                                                *=nu-       *tin-      *tin-        *tin-
*kàpì       *man(ŋ)i- *man[ŋ]i- *sāmla-             *liɣ(ʷ)     *ləɣʷi-lxə *moṭ-ai     *g(r)uḍḍ-    *karb-
*mài(N) *irə            *irə                        *əłła-      *lulə ~ *ilə*kaṇ-      *kan-        *kaṇ
            *əknə-ʁ *iknə-ʁ                         *miłɣə-n *ximɨĺxə *čic-            *cicc-       *kic
*pànkì      *itəɣ-      *itəɣ-                      *ɣъtka-     *qtHa-ŋ *kāl           *aḍi         *kāl
*kái        *ɲuja-      *nuja-                      *ɣʷir       *k'ɨm'-     *majir     *venḍr-      *tīr-
*tà-i       *árɣa       *arɣa-ɣ                     *keɣ-       *xik'e-     *kai       *kaj-/*cē-   *kej
*kàsìrà     *ɲarə-qu- *nia-qu- *kamg-               *Le(ɣ)ʷtə *kɨtxɨ-ŋ      *tal-ai    *tal-        *tal
*kí-k-      *niŋə-t-    *tuvca-     *tu-t-          *valo-m- *iluf-si- *kēḷ-           *vin-        *ven-
            *iʁca-qu- *ūma-                         *Liŋ        *ĺiŋʷi                 *gunḍ-
                                                                            *gunḍi-[kāj]
            *ciʁu-nəʁ
*tùnuá [< Austrones.] *naɣru-ɣ                                  *əntɨn-
                                                    *rətnə- ~ *tən-         *kōḍ-      *komm-       *kōḍ
*bà-        *vi         *uva-       *ti-ŋ           *ɣъ-m-      *kъ-ma      *nj-ā-n    *ɲ-ē-n       *ā-n
            *=ŋa        *=ŋa
            *tuqu-t- *tuqu-t-                       *ъtmъ-       *ĺime-     *kol-      *ca-mp-      *aṇ-
*pá         *pəłu-      *pIlu-                      *ъɣʷtъ-     *pəĺă-      *Il-ai     *āk-         *evg-
*sìrá-m(u)í *kuma-ɣ *kuma-ɣ                         *məmlə      *mil        *pēn-      *pēn-        *pēn
*sìsì       *nəqə       *nəqə                       *tərɣə      *tiH(ʷ)al *iṯ-         *eṟ-ac-      *ćep-
*tùkùi      *taŋqi-     *tatqi-                     *əjʁ-iłɣə-n *jeʔъlŋɨn *tiŋaḷ       *nel-a       *nel-
*kútí       *qanə-ʁ *qanə-ʁ *agil-                  *ъrk-ъrŋъ-n*qəśh(u) *vāj           *nōr-        *Sonḍ-
*ná(N)      *atə-ʁ      *atə-ʁ                                  *hela-ŋ
                                                    *nənjə ~ *nъnbъ         *pedjar    *pēr-        *pedr
*nípí-      *nu-ta-     *nu-ta-                     *tur(ji)- *neɲъ         *pUʒá- / *puʒú-
                                                                                       *kot-        *pun-
*duà        *unu-ɣ      *unnu-ɣ                     *nəki       *inkʷi ~ *nikʷi
                                                                            *ir-       *rēy         *ɲāḷ
*páná       *qəŋa-      *qəŋa-      *anʁu-si-       *ʁiŋ        *qъŋʷa      *mūŋ-      *mukk-       *muŋ-aḍ
*nà-        *=(ŋ)i-     *=(ŋ)i-     *ulu-x          *ellə       *xoj [?]    *al-       *kā-         *tōnḏ-
*pitə       *ataʁu-ci- *atau-cci- *=taQ-            *ənnen      *qʷiɲüŋ                *o-k(k)-     *o-k-
*àmâi       *ciła-łuɣ *cila(q)-luɣ                  *muqe       *čux-       *maẓ-ai *vān-           *vān-
*káiN-púri *puju-       *puju-                      *ъtqɨ                   *pUg-ai *pog-           *pog
            *aRɣu-      *uvlu-                      *eŋer       *eŋözi-     *mīn       *cukk-       *ćuk-
*(d)ìsí     *uj(a)ʁa-ɣ *ujaʁa-ɣ                     *ɣъbɣъ-n *kъw           *kal       *ṟāj         *kal1
*pí       *maca-     *ciqi-nəʁ              *tirkə-n   *(ku)ĺʷàč *poẓud- *prodd-          *pod
          *paməju- *pamiu-                  *ŋojŋъ-n   *ŋosH-    *tōk-ai                  *tōk-
                                                                              *vāl- [< Indo-Ar.]
*ná       *[əł-]-vər *[əl-]vit *ti-n        *ɣə-t      *ki-źa                 *ɲ-īv-
                                                                 *nj-ī-[n] / *u-n-        *nj-ī

*sìtà      *ulu        *uqa-                *jijłə      *iĺilə               *nālVk-
                                                                  *nā(v)-[lVg-]          *nālk-/*nav[ŋ]-
*pa        *kəɣu-ntə   *kiɣu-nt             *wal-nъ *kəʷpi        *pal-      *pal(l)-    *pal-
           *Nəkuʁa-    *napā-qtu-           *uj- / *uH- *uH-      *mar-      *ceṭṭ-      *mar-k
*puta-     *maləʁu-    *malʁu-              *ŋiš(š)e-q *kaśHə     *ir-       *irV-       *ir-
*mì-(n-tú) *əməʁ       *əməʁ                *mimłə      *iH-      *nīr       *nīr-       *ɲīr
*bà-       *vaŋ-       *uva-ŋ     *ti-ma-   *mu-ri      *mu-źa    *nj-ā-m    *ɲ-ē-m-     *ā-m

*nỼ       *ca-         *cu-       *alqu-    *še-       *ъn-       *jā-/*e-    *ē         *ē-
*tá       *ki-na       *ki-na     *kī-n     *mi=k      *ke        *jā-/*e-    *ē         *ē-
Gondwan                 Brahui
              North Dravidian     Narrow Kartvelian
                                             Svan        Akkadian                 Ethiosemitic
                                                                       South Arabian         Arabic
         -2           8        20         -8         9           -16           -5        -10         6
*nīḏ-         *oṛm-ā    kal-ūṛ    *ṭuṭa-     *ṭəṭ        ṭikmenn-u                *ḥamad- ramād-
*poṭ-         *ōṛ-ā               *par-      *nä-ṗol     iṣṣūr-u       *nVšr-     *ʕof-      ṭayr-
*kāṛ-ɣ-       *maṛ-q- ma-un                  *me-šx-
                                  *uć- (*wVć-)           ṣalm-u        *ḥwr       *ṣal[lV]m- ʔaswad-
*nej-tor      *qē-s-    ditar     *zisxL-    *zisx       dam-u         *ḏor-      *däm-      dam-
*peṛen-       *qōc-l-   haḍ                  *ǯiǯw       eṣem-tu                  *ʕaṣm-     ʕaẓm-
*gōr-         *orq      zīl       *prcx-     *cxa        ṣupr-u                   *ṣifr-     ẓufr-
*sā-          *kej-     kah-      *ɣar-      *dag-r-     mât-u         *mōt       *mwt-      mwt
*nāj-         *al-      kuchak               *žeɣ        kalb-u        *kalb-     *kalb-     kalb-
*uṇ-          *ōn-ḍ-    k-un-     *św-       *tr-        šatû          *sḳy       *sty       šrb
*vaṯ-         *qāj-     bār-un    *qam-      *pər-i      š=ābul-u      *ḳaŝVʕ- *ybs          yābis-
*kev-ɣ-       *qeb-d-   xaf                  *šṭim-      uzn-u         *ʔiḏān-    *ʔuzn-     ʔuḏn-
*tin-         *mōX-     k-un-                 *zweb-
                                          [< Cauc.?]    akāl-u         *tVw-      *blʕ-      ʔkl
*tōl-                                         *lə-gr-
                                   *ḳwerćx- [< Cauc.?] pelû
                        bayda [< Arab.]                                                      bayḍ-at-
                                                                       *ḳa(w)ḥil- *ʔa=nḳʷaḳʷVḥ-
*kaṇ          *qan      xan        *(ś)twal- *te-       īn-u           *ʕayn-     *ʕayn-     ʕayn-
*cic          *cic      xāx-ar     *ʒećx-               iš-ātu
                                              *le(=)mesḳ-              *ŝiwāṭ-    *ʔis-at-   nār-
*kāl          *qeḍ-     nat        *ḳurćx-              šēp-u          *ŝaf/b-    *ʔi(n)gir- riǯl-
*ter-         *tal-     puṭ        *(ś)tom- *pat-       šār-tu         *ŝVf-at- *ŝaʕr-       šaʕr-
*kej          *qeG-ā    dū         *qel-      *ṭoṭ-     qāt-u          *yed-      *ʔid-      yad-
*tal-         *kuk-     kāṭum      *(ś)taw- *txum-      qaqqad-u       *rVʔš      *raʔs      raʔs-
*ven-         *men-j-   bin-       *sem-      *sm-      šemû           *šemVʕ- *smʕ          smʕ
                        us-t       *gul-      *gu       libb-u         *=lbēb     *libb-     qalb-
*kōḏ-         *marg-               *kra-                qarn-u         *ḳVrn-     *ḳarn-     qarn-
*ɲ-ā-n        *ē-n      ī          *me-       *mi       anāku          *ho [?]    *ʔana      ʔanā
                                                         anāku
                        xall-ing   *ḳal-      *dagr-     dâk-u         *ltɣ       *ḳtl       qtl
*āk-          *ātq-ā               *po(ś)tel- *bal-      ar-u [?]      *ḫVṣ       *ḳʷäṣl-    waraq-at-
*pēn          *pēn      bōḍ        *ṭiź-      *ṭiš       upl-u         *kVnVm-     *ḳVmal-   qaml-
*ū-                     sū         *qorc-     *leɣw      šīr-u         *tVw-       *baŝar-   laḥm-
*nel-nǯ-      *bil-     tū-bē      *du(ś)te- *došd-      warḫ-u        *ʔar-       *warḥ-    qamar-
*vāi          *bā-ī     bā         *ṗir-      *wišḳw [?] pû            *ḫawḫ-      *ʔa-f[u]- fam-
*pedjor       *pinǯ-    pin                   *žax-      šum-u         *šVm        *sum      ʔism-
*puʔn-        *pun-ā    pūs-kun    *xal-      *max-      ešš-u         *ʔV-dīn [?] *ḥaddis- ǯadīd-
*nāḷ-         *māG-     nan        *ser-      *leṭ       mūš-u         *ʕṣr        *layl-    layl‑at-
*muŋ-el       *munj-ī   bā-mus     *ćxwir-               app-u
                                              *nepx- ~ *lepx-          *naḫrīr- *ʔanf        ʔanf-
*sil-         *mal      all        *wer-      *ma-       la            *ʔal-       *ʔal      mā
*o-r-         *o-r-t    a-si       *ert-      *ešx-      ištēn         *ṭad        *ʔaḥad    wāḥid-
*piḏ          *poj-     pir                   *učx-      zanān-u       *=lsē-      *zVnVm/b-maṭar-
*poɣ-         *moǯ-q-   mōḻẖ       *ḳwam- *ḳwam- qutr-u                *nidāḫ-     *tann-    duḫān-
*suk-         *bīṇ-kō              *murVcx- [?]          kakkab-u      *kebkib- *kokab- kawkab-
*kal          *cāc-ā    xal        *kwa-      *beč       abn-u         *ʔoben      *ʔabn-    ḥaǯar-
*poṛd-       *biḍ- [?]   dē       *mźe-    *miž      šamš-u     *šam                 šams-
*tōk-        *qol-ā               *ḳud-    *ha-ḳwad- zibb-atu   *ḏVnVb    *zanab-
*ɲ-ī-n       *n‑ī‑n      n‑ī      *si      *si       at-ta      *he-t     *ʔan-ta    ʔan-ta

*vajndeṟ-i   *taṭq-ā     dūī      *nen-    *nin-     lišān-u    *lVšVn    *lissan-  lisān-
*pal-        *pal-       dandān   *ḳb-     *šdik     šinn-u     *šn-      *sin-     sinn-
*maran-      *man        draḵẖt            *megem    iṣ-u       *hirām-             šaǯar-
*iri-        *ir-        ir-aṭ    *jor-    *jor-     šina       *ṯir-     *kilʔ-    ʔiṯn-āni
*jēḏ-        *am         dīr               *lic      mû         *=mih-    *may-     māʔ-
*ɲ-ā-m       *ē-m        nan      *čwen-   *n-       nīnu                           *ḥina
                                                                *nVḥ(an)- *nVḥ-na ~ naḥ-nu

*ja-         *e-ndr      a-nt     *ma-     *maj      mīnu       *ʔin-     *min       mā
*ja-         *n-ē        d-ē-r    *wi-     *ja-      mannu      *mUn      *man       man
           Semitic Zenaga                  T        North Berber
Northwest Egyptian (Middle) East Berber uareg (South Berber)   Tumak-SomraiLai             Kera-Kwang
       -21        -15         7         -8        1         -5         -11        -1               -1
*ʕumr-     ssf        *=gəf-    *=šəd [?] *eẓəd     *=ɣəḏ      *də=b(ə)ri-*tə=brI          *kə=brʌ [?]
*ʕṣr       ʔpd                  *gaḍiḍ     *gəḍiḍ   *a-gəḍiḍ *du(H)di *tidʌ                *koyo [?]
           km         *ədəl     *=SəṭVf *=ẓVḍVf *bark-         *ʔuriɲ- [?] *ʌndʌ           *sir-
*dam-      znf        *dəmm- *=damm- *=zəni         *=dam- *bar            *kʌ=bʌr-        *ko=war-
           ḳs         *i-ɣss-   *=ɣəs      *=ɣəs    *=ɣəs      *gus-       *ʔis-           *kʌs-
           ʕn-t       *skər     *=skir     *=skər   *=skər (*=ššər) [?] *gus(ə)ma
                                                               *Kər                        *ge(=)ler [?]
*mwt       mwt        *əmmi     *=əmmət *=əmmət *=əmmət *mad- [?] *ma                      *maye
*kalb-     jw         *iḍi      *Eḍi       *=iḍi    *=yḍi      *gʌd-       *gira           *koyʌ
*šty       zwr        *ešwi     *əsu       *əsu     *su ~ *səw *sə(g)-     *sʌ             *sE
*yVbVš- šw(y)         *ya-qwur *=qqUr *=qVr         *=qVr      *woǯ        *haye           *ken-
*ʔuḏn-     m=sḏr      *=mazgu-ḍ*=məzzuɣ- *=məẓẓuk *=məẓẓuɣ *sumi           *sʌmʌ           *sem-
*ʔkl       wnm        *əč        *əč        *əkš ~ *ətš *ətš      *wəm         *le(y)      *hamɛ [?]
           swḥ-t      *=ʔǯə-     *=s=adəl-t *=s=adal-t *=mə(l)lal *ŋ=a(s)      *kə=sʌr- *kə=čək- [?]
*ʕayn-     jr-t       *=uḍ       *=əṭṭ      *t=iṭṭ     *t=iṭṭ     *t=ud        *ti=di      *Tə=r
*ʔiš-      sḏ-t       *azzun     *=msi      *=msI      *=m(ə)s(s)i*d=uw-       *t=uwa      *t=owa
*rigl-     rd                    *ḍar       *=ḍar                 *gər         *g(w)ar- [?]*kampa [?]
*ŝaʕr-     šny        *=(ʔ)zbi   *=zaw      *=mẓad *=zaw          *gur- [?]    *=seb- [?] *ka=aɗ- [?]
*yad-      ḏr-t       *=fuš      *=fus      *=fus      *=fus      *geɲ- [?]    *kə=bʌ      *kʌ=si
*raʔš-    tp          *i-ʔf      *=ɣəf      *=ɣəf      *=ɣəf      *dʌ=Kʌ       *ča         *čə
*šmʕ      sḏm         *gəra      *səl       *səl       *səl       *ɗo          *ɗʌŋ- [?] *sʌKi
*libb-    jb          *uǯ        *ul        *əwəl      *ul        *tuw- [?]    *mu=gʌl- [?]
                                                                                         *tʌ=gun- [?]
*ḳarn-    ʕb          *=əska     *=skaw *=sək          *isk       *dub- [?]    *keb-     *gaw-
*ʔanā     jnk         *nik       *nekk-i    *nək       *nək       *nə          *ʔwʌ=n *=n
*ʔanVkV jnk           *nik       *nekk-i    *nək       *nək
*ḳṭl      smʔ         *əʔni      *ənɣ       *ənɣ       *ənɣ       *ʔʌǯ-        *dər [?]    *er- / *aw- [?]
*ʕāl- [?] gʔb-t [?]   *=ʔǯəh [< *=alV?]
                                 *=fraw-t   *=fraw                 *pʌl- [?]
                                                       *=fər / *=fri-          *sʌmʌ       *kʌ=sʌŋ-
*kalm-    ktt [?]     *=llik-    *=llək-    *=llik     *=lək- / *=lki-
                                                                   *ngirs-     *ngirs-
*bšr      jwf         *=fiʔǯǯi *=ksum       *isa-n     *=fiyi      *dUm        *si ~ *sĩ   *=suki [?]
*yrḫ      jʕḥ         *eǯǯir     *=ziri     *=yUr      *=yur       *dər        *Kʌ=dərə    *ki=Tir
*pay-     rʔ          *=mmi      *=mi       *=mi       *=mi        *bə(y)      *kU=bə   *ku
*šVm      rn          *ešm       *ism       *ism       *ism        *sumi       *kʌ=sʌ   *sʌm
*ḥadṯ-    mʔwy        *əyən     *=trVr      *=yn-ay    *=trar [?] *=rəwʌ     *(hʌ=)ruw- *mʌrwE
*layl-    grḥ         *iḍ       *yaḍ        *ihəḍ                 *tʌn-i [?] *ɗal-      *dugʌn- [?]
*ʔanp-    fnḏ         *=nžər-ən *=nzər-     *=nzar     *=nzər     *sen       *hin-      *nīnʌ
*lā       n           *wer       *=(n)k-    *wər       *ur
*ʔaḥad    wʕ          *yuʔ-      *(i)yu-    *yə-n      *(i)yəw-    *mən        *pəna       *mən
*mṭr      ḥwy-t       *=kkanək *=nẓar       *=gənna    *=nzar      *bʌlan-     *mug- [?]   *pepe [?]
         ḥtj          *oʔbi     *uBu        *ahu       *awu        *saw [?]    *=sʌ        *kʌ=se
*kabkab- sbʔ          *=ḏəri    *iri        *=tar(i)   *=ṯri       *su [?]     *ti=sʌ      *seska [?]
*ʔabn-   jnr          *=(i)ʔrg- *irəg       *=kadi- [?] *=zru      *dəy        *=Sə [?]    *pər- [?]
*šamš-    rʕ           *=ʔfuk-    *=fūk-     *=fuk       *=fuk-     *d(=)əw    *t(=)ʌBa   *t(=)əwa
*ḏVnVb sd              *=šuḍ- [?] *=baḥṣ- [?] *=sba- [?] *=zənḍ- [?] *=muro [?] *kin-     *=gnə ~ *čin
*ʔan-t(a) nt-k, nt-ṯ   *kuk       *šə-k       *kay       *ki ~ *šə-k *yə        *Kʌ       *tV [?]
          nt-k                                                      *kʌ
*lVšVn    ns           *əčsi      *iləs      *iləs       *iləs      *(dʌ=)les- *kʌ=le-n- *kʌ=lis-
*šinn-    jbḥ          *u-kš      *=sīn      *=sin       *sin       *syan      *ka=sin- *kə=səŋ
           ḫt          *=ššaʔr    *=mdik- [?]*=šək       *=sɣar-    *ʔaB(d)- [?]
                                                                               *da        *kə=paŋ [?]
*ṯVn- / *ṯVr-
           sn-w        *šin-      *sən       *sin        *sin       *sər       *suw-      *ray [?]
*may-      mw          *am-       *ama-n *ama-n          *ama-n     *nʌm       *k=am-     *k=am-
*naḥ-nu jnn            *nəkni     *nəkeni *nəkkən        *nəkn-     *na                   *n [?]

*mā        m           *ma        *mE-       *ma         *ma                   *mə [?]    *mʌ [?]
*man       m           *ma        *mV        *mi         *ma                   *wə- [?]
Mokilko Ubi-Sokoro    Mubi                  Tera                    Higi (A.3)
                                 Dangla-Migama(A.1) Bura-Marghi (A.2)                         Matakam (A.5)
                                                                                  Mandara (A.4)
       20          -1           4        -5          -10        -10          -3           -11        -15
ʔóddà-gé *rub [?] *fidad- [?]    *but-      *pʌč-        *pinǯu     *pcʌ-ɗ-       *fʌc-       *bIT- [?]
ʔèmɓù-su *diɗ-        *ɗeɗi      *ɗiɗo      *ɗiy-        *ɗi-kʌ     *ʔyi-kʌ       *ɗi-        *ɗi-
gammil    *kilim-     *ram       *ram       *tiɗ [?]     *k(y)ɛr- *ŋ=kur-         *daŋ- [?] *=tar- [?]
          *saɗe [?] *o=bʌr       *bar       *par-        *ʔmamši *mimi            *muvʌz- [?]*=m[b]az
ʔòssé     *ʔəs-       *kU=nono   *(k=)as- *ʌŝ            *ɗʌxi      *ʔyiŝ-        *ŝaŝa       *aŝ
kṓkè      *kwakam [?] *kʌr-um-   *kʌr-                              *ngiŝ- [?]    *ŝʌrb- [?] *ẑʌn- [?]
ʔí-nd-    *mit-       *mat       *mat       *mʌt-        *mtʌ-      *mtʌ-         *mčʌ-       *mət-
gédè      *kuy-       *pʌK- [?]  *kaɲ-      *yiɗ-        *kiLa [?] *kure          *kʌr-       *kʌr-
síɓè      *sa         *su ~ *si  *se        *s-          *sa        *sa           *sʌ         *sʌ
méeɗí      *ʔiy-        *gʌ=kʌK- *ʔaɗy-     *ɣori        *ʔwUl-     *ɣwul-        *ɣwul-      *kwʌl-
           *ʔon-        *sum-am- *ʔu=ɗʌŋ- *ŝim-          *ŝim-      *ŝim-         *ŝim-       *ŝim-
ʔóòmí      *tV                      *tʌy(-aw-) *sim-
                         *tuw- ~ *ti-                      *sum-     *zəm-                 *zʌm
                                                                                *wuz- ~ *zuw-
kù(=)mìl-só*ɗ=es-        *ɗ=is-     *[ɗ=]is- *(ŋ)gaʔil- *ŝiŝi        *ŝi        *ŝay-      *ŝay
ʔêr-(sá) *ʔid-           *iri-ni    *ʔudi-      *weni ~ *yi*nča      *nči-                 *re
                                                                                *[i=]dʌy- [?] ~ *de ~ *ɗe
ʔùwwó      *ʔako         *kawi      *ʔako       *xwat-     *ʔuʔu     *ɣwʌ       *uvu       *akʷo [?]
zíná       *ʔofen [?]               *ʔʌ=sIn- *sar-         *sil      *sʌɗ-      *sʌr-      *sʌr-
ʔílíl-só   *ləw-         *ale       *law-       *ɣwas-     *šiši     *šin-ti    *si-di     *ŋgwʌč- [?]
béy        *kway-        *pɔs-      *pos- / *pis-
                                                *Har-      *čʌy      *div-      *dəva      *Har(ay)
ʔéègó      *gon          *ka=č      *ka         *ʔin-      *kʌ-r                           *ɣʌ-r
                                                                                *ɣʌ-n ~ *ɣʌ-r
                                                                     *ɣʌ-n ~ *ɣʌ-y
ʔóllì(gá)   *nEy-        *ǯig-      *ɗoy-       *sʌk-      *ŋgardi   *fa        *čən-      *čən-
ʔùlbò       *ʔo-ŋil- [?] *korlo     *korlo [?] *mʌn- [?] *ɗufu       *mnʌ-      *ʌ=rvʌ [?] *=duw- [?]
ʔòpì-só     *gap         *gapi      *gapi                  *tʌ=mbʌl ~*tʌ=lʌm- *dʌ=rʌm- [?]
                                                *mbo(x)Uŋda [?]       *tʌ=lʌm              *dʌ=rʌm- [?]
nu-ŋ        *na          *nde       *nʌ         *na        *ya- [?]  *n- [?]    *ya-       *ya

t=ìdè       *da- ~ *de-*di          *dʌ(y)-    *ɓil-       *cʌy-      *čʌ-       *ǯʌ-       *kʌɗ-
púttù-sú    *ari [?]    *ɓere       *tap-      *Sowʔ-      *ŝar-      *ŝikʌ- [?] *ŝap-      *ŝʌm-
gérsè       *ŋgirsa     *ided-      *ʔint(at)- *ǯəŋgə(r)   *ǯaŋgar               *čVčV      *čVčV
séí         *biki       *kUme       *su-ɗ-     *ŝuw-       *kum       *ŝ-        *ŝuw-      *ŝuw-
            *[n]dal-    *tiri       *tere      *ndIra      *ŝya (*xya)*tir-      *tʌr-      *kiya
bì-zé       *bu-        *bʌ-ŋ       *bi        *mI         *mya       *mi                   *mʌ
                                                                                 *we ~ *(ɣ)aywe
sùmá        *sʌm-       *same                  *ŝim-
                                    *sum- ~ *sim-          *ŝim       *ŝim       *žir- [?] *ŝʌm
ʔáwàré [?] *ʔer(w)- *rew-           *mʌr(w)- *yiw-         *bəlin     *yəw- [?] *dawal- [?] *=ʌwʌ [?]
dìɗɗó      *ba=dʌŋ *ɗem [?]         *ʔan=Tʌŋ *fiɗ-         *viʔri     *vir-di    *vʌɗ-      *=vaɗ
búndì-só *dʌ=mEl- *i=tano           *ʔi=ten-             *čir
                                               *xʌ=dʌ(y)N-            *čin        *=tʌn       *=tʌr ~ *=tʌn

sṑ          *pʌn-       *pinI       *ke- [?]   *=da        *təŋ [?]   *tan ~ *taŋ *tek-       *tek [?]
-mizzi      *was [?]                           *feK-                  *van [?]                *vʌn ~ *vʌr
sā          *si         *iǯa        *moy       *ʔinʌ     *ɗer         *yin-       *ɗir- [?]   *=Cʌk
mooli-so    *=zo        *sisi-      *kāl-      *xwə=ndira*sasilga [?]*sasurgwa [?]
                                                                                *kwaẑ- [?]    *wurŝ- [?]
mó-kkòló *ɗise [?]      *wi         *damb-     *ɗakwen- *pyal-       *Hakw- [?] *pal- [?]     *kwar
pḕɗó        *puɗi-       *pat-     *pat-       *far-ta   *pʌč-     *viči     *fʌt-         *pat
sìl-mé      *bərbul-     *iŋawi    *ʔayaw-     *ndʌsʌ    *ku=ɗʌr   *šigʌ     *kʌ=tʌl-      *=tʌl
kḕ /kòn     *k-          *k-       *k-         *tʌ [?]   *n=g-     *ɣa       *ka           *ka

ʔílzé    *silin-         *lesi     *lesi       *sʌn-     *kʌ=ɲaɗ- *ɣanʌ      *ɣan-       *Hir(n)-
sín-tá   *sin            *siŋ-     *sʌn-       *ŝyan-    *xyir    *ŝin-      *ŝin- ~ *ŝir-
                                                                                         *ŝʌn- ~ *ŝʌr-
ʔúndù-mú *čuw-                     *ʔet(aw)-
                         *aTu- ~ *aTi-         *=fʌ-     *fwa      *fu       *(u)fa        *hʷʌf [?]
síré     *modu [?]       *seri     *sEr-(ɗ)-   *su(ɣu)r- *sʌɗ-     *ɓʌk-     *hiS- [?]     *sʌl-
ʔàʔú     *ʔami           *ame      *ʔam-       *yam-     *yimi               *(y)im-
                                                                   *yam ~ *yimi            *(y)am
kì-né [incl.] ~ kàyé [excl.]       *n-                   *n- [?]   *m [?]    *m [excl. ]   *m
                                                                             *n [incl. ]
moo-me                             *m-         *m-       *mi       *wʌ       *wʌ           *mʌ
wee-we                             *w-         *wu-ni    *wa       *wʌ-      *wʌ           *wʌ
           D
Sukur (A.6) aba (A.7)Bata (A.8) Kotoko (B.1)  Musgu (B.2) Gidar (C) Masa         Hausa        Bole-Tangale
        20         -12         -17        -10          -9         20           2         20          -14
swa        *-leči [?] *=tʌɗʌk- [?] bud-
                                   *          *aveŋ       mo=ŋlo     *but                     *buto
*ǯa-k [?] *vʌk-        *vigin-     *(ŋ=)gudo *fin-        benga      *rukʷ-                   *ray- ~ *yar-
mingrin    *mimili [?] *duŋw-      *čilʌm-    *rigin [?] ti=tirre    *wʌra-                   *bu=rəm [?]
mumbuz *(m)bəmbiz*mamẑ- / *zamb- *ksi *fel
                                   *ski /                 bēli       *wurz-      ǯinī         *dom
th=aŝ      *kərŋ-      *ʔiẑ-       *haŝ-      *kʌŝ-       teŋteŋ     *(ʔu=)so ḳašī            *oso
pilak      *ẑʌr ~ *ẑʌŋ*giŝ-        *n=ḳʌN *tetreŋ                    *giŝ- [?] fárčè
                                                          purẑumay [?]                        *kwa[k]- [?]
aŋgwus     *mʌč-       *mtʌ-       *maT-                  ʔə=mca *mʌt
                                              *mʌr- ~ *mʌɗ-                      mútù         *mʌt-
kirra      *xʌza       *(x)ʌda *kəl-          *hir-g-     ʔəda       *da- ~ *di- kàrē         *ʔad-
sə-        *sa         *sʌ         *si        *s-         sa         *se ~ *če                *sʌ-
kwar       *kwʌl       *xur-       *ku-       *hul-                  *coʔ-       busašše      *fiʔ- ~ *foʔ- [?]
ŝəma       *ẑʌm        *ẑim        *ŝʌm       *ŝʌm        ŝum        *hum        kùn-nē       *kumo
dumni      *zʌm        *zʌm        *zəm         *səm      zəm         *ti          čì         *tʌ
daŋgəl=zai *ŝʌ-        *ŝi         *ʔen=ŝʌ      *n=ẑʌ     deng-se [?] *se          ḳwái       *ʔi<n>sa
ʔiss       *nʒe        *di         *se          *ray      ara         *ʔir-        idoo       *ʔido
khu        *k(h)aw-    *gun        *fu          *a=fu     afa         *ku          wutā       *ʔyas-
nas        *ŋaz        *sʌɗ-       *ʌ(n)sʌ      *(n=)zi   čímùn       *sem         ḳafā       *šeke
šumbut     *son [?]    *šim-       *msʌgʌ       *ayIr [?] muhuro      *ŋʌs [?]     gāši       *sok [?]
rii        *=ra [?]    *tiv-      *ŝaɗ-         *gVr- [?] de:ha:      *ɓa                     *sar-
khu-r      *tala [?]   *yi-n      *kʌ           *mok      kiko        *wa ~ *ya    kay        *kay
ŝyam       *ẑim-       *fʌ        *ŝʌn-         *ŝʌn-     pərəm       *hum-        ǯī         *kum-
mu=nduf    *nuv [?]    *=ɗuf- [?] *nəf-         *mu=dvay [?] kro
                                                          ma          *=gul- [?]   zūčìyā     *til- [?]
thuom      *faram      *map- [?] *kaŝ- [?]      *miy(ok) du=rom *myʌk              ḳàfṓ       *ɓʌl
ni                     *n         *n            *n        na          *na          niĩnaa     *nI

ʒəʒa       *ʒɔ         *ɓil- / *ɓiŝ-*ɣal-      *fʌɗ-      bay         *si ~ *či    kašē       *dukʷ-
vwax       *vedʌT-     *ba          *ŝim- [?]  *ŝub- [?]              *ŝap       gaɲē         *kum-
ǯangar     *burguč [?] *ǯaŋkar- *tasi [?] *ŋgirsa         tendi       *tar- [?]  ḳwarḳwatā *ǯaŋkar- [?]
ŝuwiy      *ẑʌy        *ẑʌw-      *ŝu          *ŝu-       ŝwa         *ŝiw                 *lU
tea        *tira       *liK-      *teɗ-        *tile      təla        *til-      wata      *tEr-
ngwu       *ma         *ma        *ga          *mʌ        mo          *vun       bā-kī     *bo-
ɓa         *ẑim-       *ẑim-      *ŝəm-        *ŝim       ŝum         *sem       sūnā      *sum-
           *yiw- [?] *kur- [?] *=taki- [?] *ḥaḥ-                      *wuli- [?]           *pogyo
vUɗ        *vuɗ-       *vʌɗ-      *vaɗ-        *div-      dəf-ɗa      *n=duf- dáréé        *bʌɗ-
šin                    *mʌ=čʌr *čʌn
           *mʌ=čʌn / *čin                      *sun- / *=čiŋ
                                                          miŋkin      *čin       (ha=)nči *wʌ=nti(n)
ka         *kʌ [?]                             *kay       ba          *ba [?]    ba       *bʌ
khəri      *tak- [?] *tʌn [?]                  *ɗʌw
                                  *tk- ~ *kt- [?]         taka        *ɗaw       ɗàyáa    *=ɗi [?]
yam        *van        *vʌn-      *yam-        *faŋ [?]               *buŋ- [?] ruwa-n-samāam
                                                                                          *
in         *=cax                               *
                       *ani- [?] *(ḳ)usel- [?] (a)giŋ     hénene                 hayāḳī
                                                                      *(d=)Vʔo- [?]       *olyo ~ *wulyo
gumẑa      *gʌmẑa                              *meẑe- [?]
                       *gumŝ- [?] *sʌlgʌ [< Kan.]                     *čiw-      ta=wrārō *ǯanC- [?]
yim        *=kəɗaŋ [?]*far-       *dagw- [?] *kuri                    *gwoy               *gučo
pis          *pIč           *fʌti    *sə           *futi     paia        *fəta      rana      *pUti
thur         *=tɛl          *n=gyʌz- *=zui [?]     *=TʌR [?] ku=tra      *čew                 *kʌtʌr
kwa          *kwa           *k- [?]  *k-           *k-       ka          *k [?]     kay       *kʌ


ganai        *gan-          *gyan-     *nŝi        *=les       ərẑ-um                ha=ršḕ
                                                                         *sIn- ~ *sIl-        *li(n)s-
ẑyin         *=dIŋ          *ẑin       *ŝʌn        *(si=)sin   ŝey       *sin-                *udo
fwoy         *mpay [?]      *fu        *=f=ta [?] *luŋ         wúlŋa:    *gu         itāčē    *rew-
bak          *sir-          *sʌr- [?] *=sda        *sulu       sula                  b
                                                                         *(ho=)(m)b- iyū      *belU
yam          *yʌm           *maʔyʌ [?] *am         *(y)ʌm      iŋkele    *mbi [?] ruwā        *am
mUn          *m-            *m- [?]    *m-         *m-         mə        *m(b)-      mū       *mʌ
nui [excl. ] *nɛ [incl. ]              *n [excl. ]                       *n [incl. ]
ma           *mʌ [?]        *mʌ        *me- [?] *mʌ            mi-di     *mi         mḕ       *miya, *n-
wu-nday *va- [?]            *wʌ        *wʌ- [?] *wʌ- [?]       na=way [?]*sa [?]              *lo ~ *no
Angas-Sura Ron                     N
                        Bade-Ngizimorth Bauchi           Bedauye
                                              South Bauchi              Agaw      Saho-Afar Somaloid
        -6        -20            6        -10        -14         20               -11     2       -15
*fʷat      *fut         *(be)beɗ *ṗʌt- ~ *ṗʌl-*buš- [?] *=haš           *wəz-     *gʌmbod *ben [?]
*y(ʷ)er    *yʌɗ-        *ɗʌ-t-     *zʌm- [?] *ɗʌ- [?] *kelay            *ǯäxa(la) *kimbiro *kimbir-
*tip       *ɓwi [?]     *ayuw- [?] *rim-      *duŋ-      *hadal         *ŋəcir-         *dati       *ḍa [?]
*toɣom     *ʒyam-       *tə=dəm *pər-         *Pʌr(ʌn) *boy             *bər            *bil-       *ḍig-
           *kyas        *awuk [?] *ḳʌs-       *yʌs       *mitat         *ŋac            *lafa       *lafi
*čigyen    *bir- [?]    *gurbak [?]*ḳaway- [?]*mbik- [?] *nʔaf                          *lifiʕ      *ʕiddi [?]
*mūt       *mot         *mutu                 *mʌs-
                                   *miy- ~ *mat-         *(i)yaʔ        *kə(t)-         *ra:b-      *go- [?]
*ʔas       *kyʌr-       *ǯa [?]    *ʔad-      *ʔad-      *yas           *gəzəŋ          *kar-       *kare
*ṣʷā       *šo          *sʌ        *sa        *ŝʌ        *gw(i)-    *ǯəq-               *ʕab-       *ʕabb-
*fī                                           *koŋ- ~ *kog-
                                                         *bal-ama *kag-                 *ka:f-      *ʔʌn=gag-
*ḳʷam      *kum        *guT        *kum       *kəm       *an(=)gwi:l*ʔənqʷ-             *ayti       *neb-
*ṣe-       *ti         *tʌ         *tʌ        *či        *ʔam       *qʷ-                *qʌm        *ʕam-
*hās       *hoɓ- [?] *agw- [?] *(a)Sʌ-        *mbʌŝ      *kʷahi     *qäɣal-             *nala- [?] *ʔukaḥ-
*yit       *yIr- [?] *da           *ida ~ *adi*yir
                                               [?]       *lili      *ʔəl                *ʔin-ti    *ʔil
*wus       *waš- [?] *ʔaka         *ʔakw-     *wut-      *nʔe-t     *läx-               *gi:ra     *dab
*šī        *siy-       *zʌgʌl      *cim-      *=cʌm-     *ragad     *ləkʷ               *iba       *luk-
*sʷōp      *s(w)o- [?] *yʌɗ        *(n)gʌž- *kyʌp-       *ham(o)- *cəbk-a               *Tʌgʌr      *tim
*ṣār       *šar- [?] *ʔam-         *ḳəm-      *ʔam-      *ay-       *nan                *gaba       *gaʕan
*ḳā        *hay        *aɗa        *ɣam-      *gam       *girma     *ʔaɣʷäR             *amo        *maTaḥ
           *hʌl-
*ḳyel- ~ *ḳələŋ- ~ *sʌl-
                       *kum-       *kuz-      *kum       *masu-     *was-               *ʔab        *maql-
*tuɣup- ~ *pūt-
           *bwiy       *gazafa [?]            *mbaŝ-     *ginH-                         *afʕado     *wadn-
*ɓil       *šom [?] *fuwak [?] *par-          *nyʌw-     *ḍaʔ-      *gix                *ga(y)sa    *gays-
*ha=n      *yi=n                   *m- [?]    *am        *an-       *ʔan                *ʔanu       *ʔani

*tu        *ʔ(y)ek      *tək       *təɣ-        *tʌk        *dir        *kəw            *gʌdʌf      *gi-s-
*yim                               *ŝʌp-        *wal- [?]   *la:t       *xac-           *ayyuf- [?] *ʕalay- [?]
*syam                                           *sʌr [?]    *ta:t       *ʔint-          *ʔinqaʕ     *ʔingir
*luwā      *lU          *ŝuw-      *ŝuw-        *ŝu-        *šaʔ        *səx-           *ḥado       *so:
*ṭār       *tur- [?]    *təra      *tʌr         *tyʌr                   *ʔärb-
                                                            *terig [< Eth. (?)]         *ʔalza      *deyya-
*pʷo       *fo          *miy-      *vʌn-        *pi         *yaf        *ʔäb            *ʔaf        *ʔaf
*ṣum       *sum         *wuɗ [?]   *šim         *sum        *sim        *šəŋʷ      *migaʕ           *magaʕ
*ṗʷē       *mu-         *kara- [?] *mʌr-    *mʌr-           *gayi       *ʔärəz-    *ʕusb-           *ʕusub
*par       *foɗ         *viɗ                *vʌɗ-           *hawad      *qʌr- ~ *xʌr-
                                                                                   *ba:r            *haben
*ziŋ       *tin         *stʌn      *(V=)tʌn *=čiN           *gʌnuf                 *san             *san
*bā                  *bai [?]                               *ka-        *la             *ma [?]     *ma [?]
*mē        *ham- [?] *kʌɗ- [?]     *wuti        *nəm        *ga-        *la             *inki       *kow
*fʷan                              *abi [?]     *fʷan       *bile       *səw-a          *rob        *ro:b
*ɗyeɣel                 *zawuk [?] *ḳyan- [?]   *Kʌn-       *e:ga       *təz-      *ʕir             *ḳi(ḳ)
*zar                               *sasuw-      *ŝar-       *hayuk      *cəngərw-a *ḥotuk           *ḥid(d)iK
*ɣìk       *hay-        *kačar [?] *zəḳ- [?]    *tar- [?]   *awe        *kərŋ-     *ḍa:(y)          *ḍagaḥ
*pūs      *fat      *afa      *fʌt-     *pʌt-      *yi:n     *kʷar-a   *ayro        *ʔari-
*daŋ      *TaKun [?]*kutər    *Sʌw-     *kʌTʌr     *niwa     *cəmar    *sara [?]    *dab-
*ka       *ha [?]   *k- [?]             *ka        *bar=uk   *ʔənt-     *a=tu       *a=ti
                                                             *kʷə-
*līs      *lʌs         *marɲi   *sinaḳ- *n=lʌs [?] *mida(la) *lanq-     *ʔanrab-    *ʕarrʌb
*haɣas    *Hagwʌ(r) *yʌn        *ṭiḥin- *šin       *kʷər-    *ʔərkʷ-    *ʔi(l)ko    *ʔilk-
*ṭiŋ      *yiC- [?] *waka [?] *Bama [?] *ɲaN(č)- *hinde      *kan-      *ha:ḍa      *gayd-
*vel      *Pʌl         *sIr-    *cir    *m=beŝi *malo        *läŋa      *lamma(y)   *lama ~ *laba
*ham      *ham         *am      *ʔam-bi *mal [?] *yam        *ʔaqʷ      *lay        *bik(y)ʌ
*mū       *ka(n)       *ya [?]  *mi [?] *m-        *ha=nʌn *ʔənn-       *nanu       *ʔinnu
          *ni [excl. ]
*me       *mʌ          *m [?]   *mʌ                *nan      *wə        *maḥ-       *maḥ-
*we ~ *wu *wa          *tai [?] *we [?] *wʌ        *aw       *ʔay ~ *ʔaw*ʔay        *ʔay
            Oromoid Werizoid High East Cushitic
Dasenech-Arbore                              Yaaku         West Rift Qwadza Dahalo             Ma'a
        -13         -9         -5         -9        20             1          20         20              20
*rom [?] *da:r-        *darʕ-     *da:r-     hro:n         *ʕur-                               iʔora
*kimr-      *xambir- *a:gI-                  légéi         *ciraʕa   desito                    himeno
*(w)ʌti     *po:r-     *kumm- *kol-          kumpuʔ        *boʕ      -abesu      hímmàṯe       hame
*ḍiK        *ḍi:Ka                *ṭe:g-     sógó          *ce:de:   saʔuko      ḍīga          sako
*laf(i)     *laf-      *miḳ-ʌt- *miḳ-                      *fara     falaʔeto                  i=fwara
*kUnUf *ḳen- [?] *goʔe            *ṭulunka ségíl                     ceʔuko [< Omot.]
                                                                                 cole          lu=ḫemu
*kuf [?] *do(w)- *fɛr             *reh-      -kup-         *gwaʔ     gwaʔ        ʒāʔ-          =ga
*ker        *Her [?] *kaHar       *waša      kohen         *so:ʔay   kaʔ-uko naʕēṯe            idiʔe [< Maasai]
*ʔik-       *ʔʌk-      *ʔuk-      *ʔag-       -eq-         *wah      wa-t-       maʔaw-        waha
*gog-       *gog-      *HaH-      *gog-                    *kah-     kalahayi ḅaʔama           =halaʔe
*neb-       *nap(H)-   *ḳam-      *ḍag-                    *ʔeʔ-     wato        ʔágaʒʒo       ilama
*Kom [?]    *ḍam-     *yiʔ       *ʔit-      dʔe:t          *ʕag-      ag-          ʕag-        =ʔa
*hak- [?]   *(H)ukuk- *Hugaḥ- *ḳuṗ-         ḅolḅol         *ḳanḥ-     kake-to      ʕógohi      i=kokoha
*ʔil        *ʔil      *ʔaH-t-    *ʔilla     il             *ʔila      ili-to       ʔila        ila
*ʔeg        *ʔapitt-  *k(ʌ)Ha(-)te
                                 *gi:ra     iku            *ʔaŝa      ḫaʔo      ʔe:ga          m=waŝa
*luk-       *luK-     *luK-      *lokka     dáp            *yaʔe      yaʔo      ḏakaʕa         ku=saʔame
*rifan      *rifan-   *rif- [?]  *danana [?]risin          *saʔam-    *saʔam-   ṭata           aŝú
*gil [?]    *harka    *har(k)- *ʔanga       kiʔine         *daba                ḏaba
                                                                      muʒaʔiku-to              i=harega
*meteʔ      *mat-     *muKaʔ- *muga [?] mitɛh            *saga        *sag-        ʕani        muʔa
*ma(q)l-    *ḍak-       *ḳaba(ḳ)- *akkab- [?] =deč- ~ =dek-
                                                         *aHas-       kekem-       ʔēṯiṯ-      =ko
*wʌdin-     *o(d)n- [?] *zaʕ(ko) *waʒana                 *muna        muna-ku      muna        swaho
*gas        *ga:s       *ga:s-    *bu:da:     mailɔg     *Har-        halin-ko     tumpo       i=ḫaremu
*yʌ-        *ʔan-       *ʔano     *ʔani                  *ʔan                      ʔaɲi        ani

*ʔaKi-s-    *ʔika-s-   *boK-      *siy-                    *ga-s-     gaʔ-is-      ʒeʔeḏ       -gaʔa
*bal- [?]   *ba:la [?] *a:H-      *daro [?]                *lohiʕ-                             i=hopi
*ʔingir     *ʔingir    *ʔiṣq-     *ʔibib-     laśiyoi      *ʔiti-     daliko       ʔittōte     giŝo
*so(ʔ)      *so:-      *korVs-    *ma:la      y'ɛʔɛi       *fuʔ-      taḫelato     ḏaḅi        garema
*leH                   *leʔo
            *leyya ~ *leha        *ʔagan-     l'ɛ:ʔ        *ŝah-      ŝahay-iko    háge        m=ŝíhe
*ʔafu       *ʔafa-     *bʌKo      *ʔafaʔo     mɛ:ʔ         *ʔafa      afu-ko       ʔafo        muʔo
*mekʔe      *maḳaH *makaḥ-        *sumʔa      díiʔ         *ʔuma      solongayo sa:re          iŝe
*har- [?] *ha:r-       *qoyt-     *ha:r-      ŋeǯugi       *ʕab       koʔof                    tiʔale
*arawa [?] *halk-      *awin-     *hašš-      áûn          *ʔama-     bali-ko   hi:ma          ama
*son-      *sina       *sind-     *sano       núkaʔ-       *udung-    ningw-ato sína           nuŋa
*ma [?]     *-n- [?]              *-b- [?]    ŋ'inin [?]   *ma
*tok-       *tʌkkʌ     *to(ʔʌ)k *mitto        wɛhɛ         *wak        beʔa        waṯṯúkʷe    we
*ʔir        *ro:p      *ʔirraw- *ṭe:na        sɔḫɔ         *ƛubay      hubu-ko     maʔa        ma=re
*ʔIr-       *a:r- [?] *ku:(t)-    *wili:le    ise          *quʔ-       selem-uko   ṭoggwa      mʔwaʔu
*ʔizʌK-     *ʔurǯʌ [?] *wɛnč- [?] *beʒ-       hinsoʔ       *čičaʔi [?] sasaʔamo    !íngiliʕe   ntondo
*wa:r [?]   *ḍag-      *awr-      *ḍah-       tepu         *ƛaʕ-       ƛaʔ-iko     máwèète     i=saheru
*ʔawʌT- [<*ʔaduʔ [?] *uqay-
           Omot.?]             *ʔarrI-     ṭe:soʔ    *le- [?]    aso       ʔàḏo    i=ʔaze
*DuP- [?] *si:tta    *si:d-          [?]             *ḥayso      hayisowa riḳa     i=harige
*kʌ       *ʔa=ti    *ʔa=to     *ʔa=ti      a:šu=k    *ku                  ʔatta    ari [?]
                               *ke-
*ʔe(r)rep *ʔarrap   *Harrab-   *ʔarrab-    ɛrɛ                   ondalimo ʕḗna     lu=ʔanda
*ʔilk-    *ʔilk-    *ʔilg-     *ʔinḳo      inǯe-ni   *siḥn-      iŝik-uko kalaṯi   iʔike
*Hor-     *ġoyr-    *gar(k)-   *haḳḳa      kédén     *ḫaʔ-       caʔun-ko ḳoro     mhatú
*lama-    *lam-     *lame      *lame                 *čar                 lí:ma    nu
*bič-     *bis-     *ʔand-     *waʔ        anto      *maʔay      maʔaya   maʔa     maʔi
*ʔinu     *ʔinu     *ʔin-      *na-        ni:niʔ    *=nd- [?]             naɲi    nine

*mʌ       *ma:-na   *mo(ʔ)     *ma-        (di)=nyɔh *mi- [?]    ho=mi     ma-ka   aḫoni
*mʌ       *ʔay-     *yaH       *ʔay-       iyo       *-ma [?]    ǯi        ǯi-ko   ǯi
South OmoticMaoid        Dizoid        Kefoid         Yemsa          Bench-She Chara      Ometo         Ongota
        -17        -20            -1            -14             20            1        20          -9            20
*bIdi-ni *pendi          *sʔiak        *tullʌ         bed-na         *be(d)n [?] bénda    *budi-n-       táuni
*afti       *kɨFi        *kafa         *kafo          kap            *šoyt       kɨfa     *kaP-          karbo [< Nilo-Sah.?]
      [?] *tiši [?]      *ṣahn-  *ʔa:ḳ-               kara                       kärtɨ    *kar-t-        ḍaḳ-muni
*mʌḳʌs      *hambilɛ *yɛrm- [< Surmic]      anna                     *su(-)t      sú:(-)ta               šoho
                                                                                             *suH(-)c- [?]
*ḳoss [?]   *milṭɛ [?] *ʔu:s     *ša(w)ušo mega                      *mert        mertɨ      *meḳet
*guš-                  *šiš                 difna                                            *ṣuguN- qúbakkó
*diʔ-       *hɛḳ-      *šub-     *ḳId-      kitu                     *hayḳ        hɨy-       *hayḳ-      tip
*kanɛ       *kan-      *kian-    *kan- ~ *kunan-
                                            kana                     *kyan        kɨna       *kan-       qʔaske
            *ʔiš-      *ḳiS- [?] *ʔus-      uša                      *ʔuš         úš-ša      *ʔus-
*wuč-       *kyam- [?] *kʌl-     *šuḳ-      išma                     *kol         kó:la      *mela      ḅaʕatuni
*ḳa:mi      *wʌl-      *ha:y     *wa:z-     odo                      *hay         wó:ya      *hway(-)t- ʔo:wa
*ʔic-       *mʌ-       *m-       *mʌ-       me                       *mʔ          ma-        *m-
*ɓul-       *kɛ [?]    *mʌl-     *ke- [?]   kewa                     *mul         mó:la      *ɓuɓul-    ʕugaxe
*ʔa:fi      *ʔa:f-     *ʔa:f     *ʔa:fo     a:fa                     *ʔaf         á:pa       *ʔa(y)ṗe   ʔá:fa
*nUʔ        *tam-        *tamu         *tamo          geya           *tam         táma       *tama      ʔóxona
*durti [?] *dakka [?]    *a:šu         *tuf- [?]      orgo           *toʔ         tá:ya      *tuk-      haka
            *until       *cič-                        soma           *kus-t       kúsnaʔ     *bina:n-   ḅine
*ʔa:ni      *kuC-        *kuč-         *kIš-          kušu           *kuč         kučá                  iya
*mʌtʌ       *tok-        *geli         *tokk-         te:ta          *to          to:yá      *ḳumm-     ḅini
*ɛsɛ-r- [?] *šiš-        *sis-         *ši-           we:so          *sis         hayṭ-na    *s-        ʔa:š
*bud-       *ɛŋɛ         *šUn          *mul- [?]      niba           *fik- [?]    ma:ya      *bud-      lââta
*ḳušum      *ʔišim-      *ʔušum        *qaro          kala           *ʔuš         úša        *ʔušum-    gattakko
*=ta        *tʌ [?]      *nʌ           *ta            ta             *ta          tá-ni      *ta(-ni)   ka:-ta

*dɛ-s-      *pɛŋ-     *wuš             *wuṭ-      woru               *woṭ         wóṭ-       *woḍ-      ǯiʔ
*ḳalḅ-      *wʌl- [?] *ha:y            *ma:r- [?] toša               *kar         wúya       *hway(-)t- há:še
*ḳas-       *ḳiš- [?]                             tuʔa                                                  ṣamiṣa
*wʌH-       *ʔɔS-     *ʔaš-k-          *ḳıŋgo     aša                             áča        *ʔa(y)š-
*ʔarfi     *ʔamsI       *ʔac           *ʔagane        assa           *ʔyarp       dóza       *ʔagəna léʕa
*ʔaf-      *wandI       *ʔe:d          *no:no         no:no          *non         no:ná                 ʔi:fa
                                                                                             *no:n- ~ *do:n-
           *yiš-
*nami ~ *lami [?]       *su:m          *su:-c-        suna           *sum         sumá       *sun-c-    miša
             *Hʌl-
*(k)alli ~ *(k)illa     *ḳal-          *andir-        gaddo          *ḳay         ká:ya      *ʔor-ac- ʔabba
*soyti       *šibbi [?] *gʷat-         *ṭum-                         *dutan [?]   únta       *ḳama      ʕua
*nuki        *šin-      *sin-          *šin-ṭ-        siya           *sin-ṭ-      sín-ṭu     *sin-ṭ-    si:na

           *ʔis-k-
*wʌkʌl- ~ *wʌlʌk-[?] *ʔis- [?]         *ʔikk-         isa            *maṭ         issá       *ʔis-t-    akala
*dubi      *ʔimsi    *ʔiru             *ʔamʌS-        iro            *wol         í:ra       *ʔira      ha:ǯe
                                                      čuwa                                              *ʔarto [< Tsamai]
            *kɔz-                      *ṭoǯǯ-         ba:kura        *šayt [?]    wónčeta               walʕana
*seni       *šow- [?] *ɲal-            *šuč-          šuʔa           *ɲal-        šučá       *šuč-
*ʔay       *ʔaw-     *SʌS        *ʔaw-   awa      *ʔoba-r   oyá       *ʔaw-
*gul-      *ŋwI- [?] *ʔasu [?]   *duc-   uɲu      *ʔuŋk     ṣéra                 laʔaka
                                                                      *gɔl- ~ *goy-n-
*ya        *hi(n)    *ye         *ne     ne       *ne       néni      *ne-       ǯa:

*ʔʌdʌb                *yalb              terma              ʔínṣila             ʕadabo
                                 *gaš-   aʔya     *gaš                          ʔitima
*aH(a)k-   *ʔinC-     *ʔinč              iʔo      *ʔinč     míca
*lam [?]   *dombo     *ṭagn      *gʌt-   hep      *nam      *nam-     *nam-     lama
*lUḳ-                 *ʔa:y              aka      *soʔ      á:ṣa      *hwa:cI
*wʌ-       *nu-       *nʌ        *nU     inno     *nU       núni      *nu-nʌ    ǯo:(-ta)

*a-re      *kin-      *yır-      *ʔa-    a:-nba   *ha-      á:-ze     *ʔay-     ha:ka
*ay        *hay [?]   *i(g)t-    *k=on   o:n      *ʔon      ó:ne      *ʔo:-n-   ha:kà
Nakh         Avar            Andian          Tsezic         Lak           Dargwa        Khinalug Lezghian West Caucasian
         3               8              -5             -4            20            -3          20      -18        -9
             *rVq:V                                                                     zäḳ
                             *š:aki-b        *mihnV                                                        *b=əšA
                                                            luħi-
             *bi             *ħinHi                         uI            *ħi           ṗi       *ʔäʔ
                                             *ƛʷɨrV         t:arḳ         *lik:a        inḳ                  *b=əq:Iʷə
*mʡāra                       *miƛu           *mɔLu          mix           *mikʷa        čimi
*=aŁ-                                                                     *=ibḳ-        ḳ-
*pħu         *hʷej                                          k:ač:i                                        *ŁIʷa
                                                                          *=i(r)č:- cuvi         *HVq:Vr- *zʷA
                                             *qoqV-                       *=erʁʷV-                        *ʁʷV
*la          *ʕin            *ħan-di                                      *leħi     ṭop          *ʔIam:   *ŁA- / *ĺA-
             *kʷan-          *ʔikʷVn- *kək-                 =uka-         *=i(r)kʷVn-            *ʔikʷVn- *fV
*gagan                       *qonu                          k:unuk        *k:ik:ari ḳaz          *q:VlVq: *ḳanəḳa / *ḳaḳanə
*bʡa         *b=er           *ħarHi   *ħɔre                 ja            *ħuli     pil          *ʔʷil    *b=ĺa

*kōḳ         *HVṭV                                          č:an          *ṭʷaħ         ank:     *ja(m)tur [?]
*čo          *kar            *karHV          *kẽ                          *ʁeʒ
*ko          *kʷer                           *kʷɨrV         ka            *naq:I        kul      *kʷil
*kōrta       *beṭer          *minʔa-r                       baḳ           *beḳ          miḳir                *SqIa
             *rʌʕ-           *ʔanƛV-         *tuqʷ-         =aya-                       k-i      *ʔi(r)kɨ(r)-
*doḳ         *raḳ            *roḳʷo          *rɔḳʷə         daḳ           *ʔurḳi        ung      *jirḳʷ       *ǵʷə
*mɦaʔo       *ƛ:ar                           *šelu          qi            *qi           wäč      *ḳalč
*sō          *du-n           *di-n           *də            na            *n-           zɨ       *zo-n        *sA
                                                            t:u-          *du
*-ɦēw-                                                                    *-awš(:)-     -ib-
*ʁa                                          *ƛib(u)                      *ḳapi         yarpaʁ               *Ła(m)pa
                                             *nɔcə                        *nez
             *han                            *riƛ           diḳ           *diɣ          lɨk:a                *ĹA
*butt                                        *bocV          barz          *bac:                  *wac:       *mVza
*baḳa        *ḳal                            *šiḳu                        *muħuli       aʁzɨ     *s:ɨw
                                                                          *zʷe
                                                                                        taza
*bus-        *šor-do         *riƛo           niš:e         x:u            *duk:i        san      *ʡiš:ʷ
             *meʕer          *mihar          *maru         maj            *maħul        ḳɨtɨr    *muʔel      *pʷA
*ca                [?]                       *-at- / *-aṭ- q:a-           *ħe           -i-      *t:V-       *mə
*cħa         *co             *ci-                          ca             *ca           sa       *s:a        *zV
*d=aʁu                                       *ʁ:ʷədə       ʁaral          *mark(ʷ)a              *ʔoq:ʷa-    *kʷV
*ḳur         *ḳ:ʷi           *ḳ:ʷinhi        *qʷɨ          purḳu          *k:aw     ximi         *k:un:      *ʁʷA
*ṭɦari                                       *cʷã                         *zuri
*qēra                                        *ʁ:ur         čaru           *q:arq:a               *č:eH [?]
                            *boq     barʁ      *berħi             *wiraq:   *(mV=)rəʁa
*muʁ      *maʁ     *miʁa             maʁ       *ḳimi              *ħɨrč:ʷ
*ħō       *mu-n    *mi-n    *mə      ina       *ħu        wɨ                *wA
          *du-     *du-     *dɨ-     wi-                          *ʁu
*moṭṭ                       *mɨc     maz       *mec:              *melc:    *bəźA
*ca       *ca      *colu    *s:ɨl    k:arč:i   *cula      culoz   *sɨl:     *c:A
          *ʁʷeṭ    *rišʷa   *ʁ:ʷən   murx      *k:alk:V   wišä              *ʁʷənə
*ši(n)    *ḳi-     *ḳi-              ḳi=a      *ḳʷi       ḳu
                                     š:in      *xin       xu                *bzə
          *n=iž    *ʔiš:i   *ʔilV    žu        *nu=š:a    yi-r    *ǯi-n
*waj      *n=iƛ:   *ʔiƛ:i                      *nu=x:a    ki-n    *Łä-n
*fu-(n)   *š:V     *Hi-     *š:i-    ci        *s(:)e     ya      *šʷi      *sA
*mV       *š:V     *Hi-     *š:i-    cu        *čV        k-la    *š:i      *xA
Basque                          O
          Yeniseian Burushaski ld Chinese  Karen           Tujia      Bodo-GaroKonyak          Jingpho
            9     -7         10         -5        -4               20         -5        -15           20
*hauc     *qolən     *phétiŋ               *pha            pu-chi     *thap=la *tʌp=la         tap
*čori     *duma                 *tīwʔ      *wa             nie-pi     *tao       *ʔaw [?]      u
*belc     *tum-      *mat-                 *sun            laŋ-ka     *Gə=səm *ɲak             čaŋ
*odol     *sur       *mu(=)ltán *s=wī-t    *s=wi           mie        *th=əi     *(s=)i        s=ai
*ɦe(n)sur *ʔaʔd      *-ltén     *kūt       *K=rwi          lu-ka      *k=reŋ     *ə=ra [?]     *n=ra(ŋ)
*hac      *(x)īń-    *=úrʌ      *ćrūʔ      *m=i(N)         kho-tha    *yak=si-kur*yak=sʌn      *lə=m=jin
*hil      *qɔ-       *-yur-     *sijʔ      *si             se         *thəi      *Li           si
*(h)or    *čip       *hu(-)k    *khʷī-nʔ *thwi             ha-lie     *ki [?]    *kuy [?]      kui
*edan     *ʔop-      *men-      *ʔəmʔ      *ʔɔ             hu [< MY] *ləŋ        *liŋ          luʔ
*eiɣar    *qʌGi-     *qaq-      *kār       *sɛŋ                       *ran
                                                           ka [< Chin.?]         *ran          ka
*be=larri *ʔɔgde     *=ltumal *nhəʔ        *na             eŋ-ćhie    *na-cur *na              na
*=an-           *sī-       *śi       *lək       *ʔam       ka           *ca        *sa         ša
*arraulcʌ       *jeŋ       *ṭiŋán    *rhō-nʔ    *di        a=lie        *pi=təi    *a=ti       ti
*b(=)egi        *de-s      *=l-ći    *mhuk      *mɛʔ [?]   lo-pu        *mək       *mik        mjiʔ
*śu             *boʔk      *phu                 *me        mi           *bwar      *wal        wan
*(h)oin         *bul       *-húṭ-    *ćok       *khaŋ      ći           *ya-theŋ   *la ~ *ya   lə=ko
*ülhe           *cəŋe      *bur      *pat                  sa-ćhi
                                                *(kho=)lu [?]           *khi=ni    *mil        *kə=ra
*esku                      *-reŋ
                *pVg- / *ŕɔŋ         *ƛhuʔ      *cü        ćie          *yak       *lak        lə=taʔ
*buru           *cɨʔG-     *-yáṭe    *s=luʔ     *kho       ko-pa        *kho       *khU        po
*encun          *tʌ        *-yal-    *mən       *ɣun       zu-liau      *khə=na    *ta-t       mə=ta-t
*bihoc          *p[u]-     *=s       *səm       *saʔ       li-kho-lo    *kha       *mʌŋ        sə=lum
*adar                      *=ltúr    *krō-k     *noŋ       khe          *kroŋ      *roŋ        *n=ruŋ
*ni             *ʔaʒ                 *ŋhā(jʔ)   *ŋəʔ       ŋa           *aŋ        *ŋʌ         ŋai
                                                *khwI
*hil            *ʔēj-      *d=l-     *srāt      *ma=si     pu         *sʌʔt [?]*mʌy [?] sat
*orri                      *ltap     *lhap      *laH       ɣe-ta      *laj     *la(k)     lap
*sorri                     *kharú    *srit      *sun       si-si      *thək    *sʌk       ciʔ
*Haragi         *ʔise     *ćhap      *nhuk      *ŋa        si         *=doʔr [?]
                                                                               *mey       ša-n
*(H)ile         *(ʔV=)suj *halá-nc   *ŋot       *la        su-su [?] *yʌŋ [?]  *lʌ        šə=ta
*aɣo                      *qhát      *khōʔ      *khɔ [?]   ca-ćhi     *khu     *ʒu [?]    n=kup
*üsen           *ʔiG      *yek       *mheŋ      *min                  *muŋ
                                                           min-ci [< Chin.?]   *miŋ       mjiŋ
*berri          *giʔ      *thoṣ      *sin       *saN       a=śi       *Gə=dal  *ə=nal     n=nan
*gau            *siG      *thap      *lia-s     *na        pe       *phwar     *ya(n) [?] šə=naʔ
*śudur          *xaŋ      *muś       *bhit-s    *na        eŋ-ćhi   *kuŋ       *na        lə=ti
*es             *wə-      *a-        *pə        *ʔe [?]    ta       *N [?]     *ma [?] n
*bat                      *he-       *ʔit       *təʔ       la       *sa        *Cʌ [?]    lə=ŋai
*euri           *xu(-)r   *harált    *whaʔ      *=wʌ [?]   [me=]ce *=kh=a *(k=)wa(y)mə=raŋ
*ke:                      *thas      *hun       *khü       khɨe-kha *=khu(-n)- *=khu      wan=khu-t
*isar                     *así(m)    *shēŋ      *cha       śi-pu-li *ha-tʌ-khi *sa=ha     šə=kan
*harri          *čɨʔs     *dan       *diak      *loŋ       a=pa     *loŋ       *loŋ       n=luŋ
*egu-(ski) *xiGa      *sa       *ni-t    *mü       lao(-chi)   *sal        *sal       čan
*bustan    *puGʌ-ʒ    *=súmal   *məjʔ    *me       lie-phoŋ    *mai [?]    *məi       mai
*hi        *ʔaw       un        *nhejʔ   *na       ni          *na(ŋ)      *naŋ       naŋ

*minhi     *ʔej       *=yúmus *lat       *ph=le    yi-la       *sə=lai     *li        šiŋ=le-t
*(h)agin   *ʔīti      *me     *thəʔ      *mɛ [?]   si-si       *(p=)hwa    *p=ha      wa
*su-haic   *ʔɔksi     *draxt  *mhōk      *seŋ      kha-moŋ     *bol-phaŋ   *pʌ(l)     phun
*bi        *xɨ-na     *alto   *nij-s     *ni       nie         *(ki=)niŋ   *ɲi        lə=khoŋ
*(h)ur     *xur1      *chel   *tujʔ      *thi      che         *təi        *tei       n=cin
*gu        *ʔaʒ-ŋ     *mi     *ŋhājʔ     *pə [?]   aŋ(-ni)     *ciŋ        *=mʌ [?]   an-the

*se-r      *ʔas- / *sV-*be      ghāj     *t(h)ə [?] =śi        *ma         *h(a)i     pha
*no-r      *ʔan-       *me-     *duj     *Pa [?]    a=se       *sa-r       *h(a)u     kə=tai
            Hrusish
Sherdukpen-Sulung West Himalayan   Digaro        Tani       Jiarong      Qiang              Kiranti
                                                                                       Lepcha
        -15         -2         -15           2          1           20           -14            20  -10
*=mʌn       *=pu       *pha        *gu        *=pu          =pka [?]     *l(y)ɛ [?]
                                                                                yu          *(ʔ)pu=lu
*hu(a)      *mu=zuʔ *pya           *pra       *pə=taŋ       kə=byɔm      *(k=)wefo          *wa
*ə=s(ʌ)i [?]*mU        *wom [?] *maŋ          *kə=yaŋ       s=nak               a=nók
                                                                         *na ~ *nɛ          *k(y)ek
*(p=)hua *š=ai         *ś=i        *r=wi [?]  *ə=yi         tɔ=š=i       *š=ɛ   vi          *hi
*s=kit [?] *lyaŋ [?] *H=roŋ        *rɨ        *a=loŋ     =rə             *=rə   a=krăt      *(sə)=ru-s
*=sIn       *k=thən [?]*CiN        *=łɨn [?]  *lak=sin tɔ=nʒu            *(lə=)cə
                                                                                pŭn-či      *sen
*yi [?]     *ci        *śi         *ši        *si        kɔ=ši           *si    mak         *si
*čh(a)i [?] *S=žiH [?] *k(h)wi *ku(i)         *ə=ki      khə-nɔ          *(t=)khuɨ          *khlè
                                                                                kă=ʒu [< A.-A.?]
*liŋ        *thuŋ      *tuŋ        *tioŋ      *tʌŋ       kɔ=mot     *thiõ       thăŋ        *ʔtùŋ
                                   *šɔŋ
            *khrʌŋ [?] *thar ~ *char          *Sʌn       kə=rɔm     *(g=)rə [?] šin
*kh=ũ       *SuH [?] *k=nUŋ [?]*=naŋ          *ɲʌ(-ruŋ) tə=r=nɔ [< *nə
                                                                    Tib.?]      a=ɲo-r      *ɲə
*či- ~ *ču- *cU        *ʒa          *Cha      *do                   *ʒə
                                                         kɔ=zɔ [< Tib.?]        zo          *ʒo
*=ri        *=ri-n [?] *li-t [?]    *ća [?]   *pɨ        tɔ=gɔm     *H=tə [?] a=ti          *ʔtí
*myak [?] *myiH        *mIk         *lʌm      *mik       tə=mɲɔk *myɛ           mik         *mík
*ba         *mai(H) *me:            *mʌ       *mə        tə=m-čik *mi           mì          *mí
*la         *lai       *baŋ [?] *=roŋ [?] *lə            tɔ=me      *ʒʌ [?]     thoŋ        *lə(ŋ)
*K=zaŋ      *=cə [?] *k=ra [?] *thʌŋ          *=mʌ(C) tɔ=ko=rɲe *mə [?]         a=cóm
*ʔik [?]    *IK [?]    *la          *=tio     *lak       tɔ=yɔk     *lɛ         ká          *gù(t)
*Kɔ [?]     *Khʌ       *pi-śa [?] *kə-rʌ      *dum-poŋ tɔ=ko        *kho        tok
*rɔŋ [?]    *C=rə      *t(h)a-      *(H)rʌŋ *ta          kɔ=m=sɔm *ćʌ [?]       thyo        *ɲì(-s)
*=lUŋ ~ *=lUk
            *luŋ       *dʌl [?]     *po       *ʔaŋ(-puk) tə=š=ne *sə=nʌ [?] lŭt             *cV(p)-ba [?]
*k=vʌŋ      *=rʌŋ      *ru-T        *rau      *rʌŋ       tə=ru      *ru         róŋ         *g=räŋ
*gU         *nʌ(ŋ)     *gö          *ŋ        *ŋɔ        ŋɔ         *ŋa         kă-do       *ʔòŋ
                                                                    *ka-                    *g- ~ *k-
*wat [?] *ši- [?]      *se [?]      *se       *mʌŋ       kɔ=n=čhɔ *sat          sót         *sét
*a=lap      *leH                    *naŋ
                       *pat(r)- [< IA]        *nə        ta=ywak *chʌ [?] a=ɲóm
*rek        *SəH       *śe: [?]     *chʌ [?] *tə=yik sor            *śuə        šak [< Tib.]*sèr
*su         *su        *śa          *b=reŋ    *ə=diŋ     šɔ         *śʌ         mán
*b=lU       *b=lu      *laʔ         *lɔ       *pə=lo     cə=lɔ      *łʌ         lă-vo
*=čhaw [?] *ko [?]     *Ka-kUŋ [?]                                  *nʌN
                                    *bʌm [?] *nap-paŋ [?]ə=kha [< Tib.?]
                                                         t                      a=boŋ       *kam [?]
*a=(r)=beŋ*minH        *mUŋ         *mʌŋ      *min       tə=r=me *mĩ            a=bryaŋ *míŋ
*faC [?] *khəN [?] *ɲu-             *miŋ      *ni(-te)   kə=šək     *sə         ăl          *ní- ~ *nu-
*b=ya       *=gʌ [?] *=tiŋ          *tioŋ     *ə=yu      tə=mor     *Khu- [?] nap           *sènV
*=phuŋ      *nʌ                                                     *(s=)nʌ nóm
                       *t=kus [?] *xə=nia [?]*(=)nI(-) tə=šnɔ [< Tib.?]
*bʌ         *ma        *ma          *m        *ma        mɔ         *ma         mă          *mV
*yU         *ʌŋ        *tak [?] *khɨn         *a=kən     kə=tek     *tə         kat         *th(ì)k
*P=r=ʌ [?] *P=r=ʌ [?] *mo           *=r=a     *=doŋ      tə=mu      *(mə=)K=(u)a [?]
                                                                                s=o
*=k(h)ʌw *thuŋ [?] *khu             *khɨu     *=kə       ta=khə     *khə        kan [?]     *ʔkù‑n
*=zuk [?] *=cʌŋ        *=karH       *=dɨn [?] *ta=kar    cəu-ri     *z=grə [?] să=hór       *s(əŋ)=ʔkar
*luŋ        *=luŋ      *ʔoŋ [?] *=laŋ         *=ləŋ      ʒʔə=lək *lũ            lăŋ         *lùŋ
*=ni      *ʒU       *nI(k)      *=ni       *do=ɲi   kə=yɔm      *mə=Cə [?]să=cŭk     *nəm
*ɲʌk                *=ceniŋ [?] *mʌ-n
          *r=m(ʌ) [?]                               tai-yɨi
                                           *=mi ~ *=me          *mɨ       ší(m)      *mé-
*naŋ ~ *no*nʌ       *ga         *ɲoŋ       *no      no          *nʌ       hó         *=na
                                                                                     *Kʌ-
*l(y)ʌ    *b=la       *le       *lʌ(ŋ)    *(ə=)lyo    tə=šme     *(C=)lə     lí      *lè(m)
*t(h)uŋ   *thu [?]    *s=u      *p=ra [?] *ə=yi [?]   tə=swɔ     *s=wʌ       fo      *kʌŋ
*hIŋ      *SoN        *sʌŋ      *sɨŋ      *sɨŋ        šək-phu    *sẽ(-phu)   kuŋ     *síŋ
*ɲi-      *k=si [?]   *ni       *kə=ni    *ɲi                    *ɲi
                                                      kə=ne-s [< Tib.?]      nyă-t   *nì(k)
*khU      *khu        *ti       *ma=ći    *ə=si       tə=či           [?]    uŋ      *kù
*ga       *ni         *ni-ŋ     *ŋ        *ŋʌ-lʌ      ŋə-ɲe      *ŋa-        ka-yu   *Kʌ

*mu [?]   *ha [?]     *Ka [?]   *kə-di [?] *n- [?]    thə       *ćhV [?]     šu      *má-
*ha       *ʒU         *Ka-      *šʌ        *še- [?]   sə        *sʌ          šu      *su
Dhimal         Magar           Kuki-ChinNaga
                            Mikir                              Meithei             Lolo-Burmese
                                                                              Nungish          Kham
          20           20             -3
                                      20        -15                      20           -3   -7          20
bu-suri  ba=dap     phe=lo     *vut      *(ə=)vu               ut                  *=La
                                                                              *=p(h)u          duh=li:
ʒi=ha    g=wa       vo         *va       *wa                   ou-hek         *ćha *(h=)ŋyak ba=za
da-ka    cik        ik         *vom      *=nak                 amuba          *naH *nak        mol
hi-ti    h=yu       vi         *t=hi     *ə=yi                 i              *ś=i *S=ujH ʒ=i:h
ha=ra    h=yu       re-pi      *ruH      *=rɨ                  ša=ru          *=rɨ *rəwH       ruh-s
khur=siŋ (mi=)arkin chi-mi [?] *tin      *=Cin                 khu-ʒal  *ńIN       *SinH       sen
si       si         thi        *thi      *si                   si       *śi        *śij        si
khiya    čũ         me=than *ui          *=cɨ                  hui      *də=gi     *khujH ka:h
am       ga         yun        *dʌn      *yoŋ                  tak      *aŋ ~*ŋa *taŋ          o
seŋ-ka   chok       kreŋ       *ro       *cuk                  a=kaŋ-ba *sɔŋ       *s=kruk [?]
nha-toŋ (mi=)ne-kep no         *na       *nʌ                   na       *ə=na      *naH        (o)=r=na [< Tib.?]
ca             ʒe  cho                     *ei [?]   *chʌ      cha      *Ca        *caH        *ža
tui                vo=ti
               (mi=)rhu                    *tui      *dui      ye=rum   *lIm       *wuH        bazu=hti
mi                 mek
               (mi=)mik                    *mit      *myik     mit      *mEH       *mjak       mi:
me             mhe mei                     *mei      *mi       mei      *tə=mi     *mejH       mé:h
khokoi   (mi=)hil keŋ                      *ke       *ph(e)i   khoŋ     *xrE       *khrij
pu-siŋ   (mi=)mha a=chu                    *sam      *sʌm      sam      *ə=ni      *cham       cem
khur     (mi=)huṭ ri                       *kut      *khet [?] khut     *vur       *lakH       kwi:
pu-riŋ   (mi=)ṭalu phu                     *lu       *ku=(ro) kok       *Ku        *ɣu         ŋəih
hiŋ      se        ʒu                      *h=ria    *zu       ta       *t(h)ɔ     *K=ra       thəi
kon-dhaŋ (mi=)gin miŋ                      *luŋ      *=luŋ     puk=niŋ *=guŋ [?] *(h=)nʌK ʔyũ:
daŋ      (mi=)ryəm nu                      *ki       *=kE      chi      *K(r)ɨ [?] *kh=rəw
ka       ŋa        ne                      *kei      *ŋi       ei       *ŋa        *ŋa         ŋa:

seʔ            səṭ          ap             *that     *set      hat       *sat              *satH        səih
lha-pha        lha          arvo           *h=na     *=nʌ      la        *(s=)lap          *phakH       khya:
sira           sik          rek            *hrik     *srʌk     hik       *śIn              *śanH        šar
biya           ša           an             *ša       *šʌ       sa        *śa               *šaH         (o=)ša:
ta=li          gyo-hot      chik=lo        *th=la    *la [?]   th=a      *sə=la            *C=laH       s=yah-woi
nui            (me=)ŋer iŋho               *ka       *mʌŋ      kâ        *nə               *nUt         ya:h
mi             ar=min men                  *h=miŋ    *myʌŋ     miŋ       *bIŋ              *miŋ         min
nawa           mi-nam [?] ki=mi            *thar     *=sʌn     a=nou-ba *sər               *śikH        shar
nhisanta       nam-bik a=ʒo                *za-n     *zʌ-ŋ [?] a=hiŋ     *ya-diŋ           *mjVH [?]    ri:
nha-pu         (mi=)mha no-kan             *h=nar    *na       na-tol    *sə=na            *s=na        sə=ni:
ma             ma         mo            *lo          *mʌ       mai       *mʌ               *mʌ          ma:h-
e=noŋ          kəṭ        isi           *khat        *khat     a=ma      *thiʔ             *ti(k)H      tu=bu
wai            na=mas     a=r=ve        *r=waH       *=r=uɨ    chum-thaŋ *chʌ              *r=yua       wa
duha           dhwã       me=hi         *khu         *=khʌ     mei=khu *mə=I               *khəwH       mih=kwi
phur           tu-ga        chik-lo-loŋso
                                        *ar-si       *(hʌ=)Kan [?]       *kho-ni(t)
                                                               thawan-michak               *kr-aj [?]   soro:
un-thui        lhum         ar=loŋ      *luŋ         *luŋ      nuŋ       *luŋ              *k=luŋH      lũ
sa=nhe    nan-khan ar=ni       *ni         *nI        nu=mi-t   *nʌm       *nij       ni-mi
me-thoŋ   (me=)mek ar=me       *mei        *mi        mei       *mi-       *mrejH     (o=)r=me:h
na        naŋ      naŋ         *naŋ        *na(ŋ)     naŋ       *nɔ        *nhaŋ

de-toŋ    (me=)leṭ   de        *lei        *(mə=)li   lei        *pə=lɛ    *s=lja     s=e:
ta-siŋ    (mi=)šak   s=o       *h=a        *h=U       ya         *s=a      *s=wa      h=a:
su-te     siŋ        theŋ-ri   *thiŋ       *siŋ       u ~ u-pambi*śiŋ                 sĩ:
                                                                           *siŋH ~ *sik
nhe-loŋ   ni-s       hi=na     *niH        *(kə=)ni   a=ni       *ə=ni     *ni(k)H neh-blo
ci        di         laŋ       *tui        *dui       i=siŋ      *thi      *rij       ri:h
ke-lai    ka-n       ne-li     *kei(-ni)   *=ŋ- [?]   ei-khoi    *ŋ-       *ŋa-(tu) ge:

hai       hi         ko=pi     *=eN [?]    *Tʌ [?]    ka-ri     *kha [?]   *cU(ŋ) [?] kəi
ha=su     su         ko=mat    *ko [?]     *su        ka-na     *kha [?]   *su        su:
           Tshangla Tibetic
Tamang-Gurung                   Haida      Tlingit    Eyak                   A
                                                                 Athapaskan tayal        Tsou
         1         20        -1         20         20         20          -1        -14         -13
*ph=rE thu=lu         *thal                gún=e:té: cĩʔƛʔ-g                 *qabu-lid *ʔabu [?]
*nʌm=ya [?]kha        *b=ya                                                  *kabah-niq *ʔažámə
*m=lʌŋ     ćhaŋ lu    *nak                                       *=žʷəŋ(ə) *ma=qalux *ma=licəcə [?]
*kʌ        yi         *khrak    qay        šeiyée                            *damuʔ *caráʔə
*H=ri      khaŋ       *ru-s     skhuci     sʔaGée                            *baq-niq *cuʔúlałə
*chin      chiŋ       *sen                                       *=Gaŋ-əʔ *kamil [?] *ʔałuko [?]
*si        śi         *śi                  =na:       sĩh        *=cʌ [?] *mana=hawqil   *m=acáyi
*na=ki(n) khu         *khji                kèiƛ                              *hu-        *tačáu
*thuŋ                 *thuŋ                di=na:     =la        *=naʔŋ2 *m=imah *m=ima
*khar      saŋ ma     *s=kam    ḳa:-ga:    ya=xo:k ʔehd          *=Gaŋ       *dəŋuʔ      *rəmiʔ [?]
*na                   *r=na
           r=na [< Tib.?]       kyu:       gók                   *ǯəx-əʔ     *caŋiaʔ *calìŋaħa
*ca        za         *za       ta:                   =a         *=(h)aʔŋ *kan           *=k1
*phum      go         *s=go     qhaw       ḳwúṭ       =d=ʔuhd-g              *baluŋ [?] *qəcurə [?]
*mi:       miŋ        *mik                                                   *dawriq *macá
                                                                 *=n(ə)=weʔG-ə
*me        mi         *me                                        *qʷənʔ      *hapu-niq *apúžu
*p(h)a=lI bi          *r=kaŋ    s(=)ṭa:               ḳ(ʷ)ahš    *=keʔ       *kakay      *Capałə [?]
*cham      cham       *s=kra    qhaci                            *ci:ḳ [?] *saynaw
*ya:       ga=daŋ     *lak      s(=)ƛl     ǯín                   *laʔ        *qabaʔ      *(ra=)mucu
*kra       śa=raŋ     *m=go     qhaci      šúh        qah        *=ciʔ       *tunux      *vúŋúħu
*the:      than       *tho      qa:ntaŋ                                      *səmiliŋ [?]*təmał- [?]
*tiŋ       thiŋ-lom *s=niŋ      ḳu:ka                            *ǯey [?] *kualun [?]*tʔəkə [?]
*ru        wa=roŋ     *rwa      ḳyəm       šei(=)dée də-leh      *=deʔ       *ʔuruŋ      *suʔúŋu
*ŋa                   *ŋa                             xu:        *š- ~ *x(ʷ)-*kuʔ        *=aku

*sʌp      śe         *sʌt        tya:h      ya=ǯa:q   še          *=ɣeʔ(-ŋ) *pə=hawqil*p=acáyi
*p(h)ʌ   śa-ba       *lo-ma      xil        kuyanée               *=ṭaʔnʔ *ʔabaw ~ *nabaw [?]
*šet     śiŋ         *śik        ṭam        wéisʔ     gugs-g      *yaʔ      *kuhiŋ    *kúcúħu
*ša      śa          *śa         khiqa      Łèey      ceʔ      *=cəŋʔ         *hiʔ       *berahci [?]
*la      la-ɲi       *s=la       quŋ        dís                *šʷa [?]       *bural-    *vuláłə
*suŋ     no-waŋ      *kha                             saʔ      *=sadʔ                   *ŋuϑuʔu
                                                                              *(ŋa=)quwaq
*min     miŋ         *miŋ        khiqa       sayée    wə(=)šeh *žiH           *haŋan    *ŋázánə
*char    siŋ-ma      *g=sar      ƛah                                          *buʔu-raH [?]
*mUŋ [?] bi=naŋ      *nam        qa:l        tàt                              *hŋan [?] *(bə=)rʌŋan [?]
*na      na-wuŋ      *s=na       kun         lóh      ni:(-)ḳ                 *ŋuhu: [?] *ŋəc- [?]
*a ~ *e  ma          *mə         gam... -qaŋ          diḳ... -G   *do:- [?]   *niʔ       *ʔoa [?]
*K=ri    thor        *g=ćik      sqwa:n-     ƛéixʔ                            *qutuh     *cáni
*nam     ŋam-su      *ćhar-pa    dall        séew     ḳu(=)leh    *čʌn [?]               *ʔúčáłə
                                                                              *qawalah [?]
*mi=ku mu=gu         *du         qayu:       sʔeiq                            *hiluq [?] *bəlbəl [?]
*sa:r(a) kar-mi      *s=kar-ma                                    *səŋ2ʔ      *biŋah [?] *caŋərał- [?]
*yuŋ     luŋ         *r=do                  téh       ca:         *ceʔ        *batu-nux *vátuħu
*ti=ni     ŋa-m     *ɲi-ma     ciquya:y   Gugàn              *šʷa [?]     *wagiʔ    *hire [?]
*me:       śam-pi   *r-ŋa-ma   sḳja:w     lʔe:dée            *ćʌʔ [?]     *ŋuŋuʔ    *civci [?]
*k=yEŋ [?] nan      *khjo-t    ta-ŋ       e:        ʔi:      *ŋən         *ʔi=suʔ   *Su

*le        le       *lće       ṭa:ŋal     lʔóoṭ     laʔṭ     *zaʔd [?]    *həmaʔ    *umo [?]
*s=a       ś=a      *s=o                                     *=xʷuʔ       *gipun    *ałíSi
           śiŋ
*Tuŋ [< Tib.?]      *śiŋ(-sdoŋ)qajd       às        lis      *čʌN [?]     *kahu-niq *káiwu
*n(h)i:    ɲi-k     *g=ɲi      stiŋ                 laʔ-d    *naʔ-t(V)-   *dusaʔ    *rúSa
*kyu       ri       *ćhu       qanƛl      héen      giyah    *=tuʔ     *qusiyaʔ *čałúmu
*ŋi-       ʔai      *ŋa-       ṭ-allŋ     ha:       Gə-yəG   *nʌh-     *=ami        *=mi ~ *=mo
                                                                       *ʔitaʔ       *=to ~ *=ta
*tʌ       haŋ       *ći        gu:-s      da:-t     de:                *ma=nuʔ *nʌ [?]
*kha-     ʔi-bi     *su        gi:-sda    a:do:     du:                *ʔi-maʔ *si- [?]
                                                             *(də=)wə(-d-) // *(də=)yə(-d-)
Rukai         Thao          Bunun          Puyuma   Malayo-Polynesian Kam-Sui Ong-Be
                                                          PaiwanZhuang-Tai
          2            20              1              1     -25    11   -3         1          5
*abo       qafu     *qabu       *ʔabu     *qavu     *ʕabuʕ      *R=bau     *phwu:k *dɔu
*aðamə rumfað       *qaðam *ʔayam *qaya=qayam       *manuk *R=nok *m=nok *nok
*ma=icəḷəŋə a=qusum *=taqduŋ [?]
           m                                        *ʕi(n)təm *C=ʔdam *ʔnam
                                *ʔuḍə=ḍəm*qu=cəŋə=cəŋəḷ                              *C=lam
*əray      tałum    *qaidaŋ [?] *damuk              *daraʕ      *lɨat      *phla:t   *baʔ
*paðor [?] puqu     *tuqnað *ukak         *cuqəḷaĺ              *C-ʔdu:k *ʔdra:k     uaʔ
*loka      kuku     *kus-kus [?]*hamay    *kalusə=kusan
                                                    *kukuʕ      *R=lep     *ʔdlyap   *C=lʌp
*p=acay m=aϑay *m=atað *m=aṭay *m=acay *matay                   *C=ta:i    *tay      *dai
*aϑo       atu      *asu        *su-wan *vatu       *ʔasuʕ      *hma       *hŋwa     *ma
*ʔoŋolo mi=qiła     *qud        *ṭ<əm>kəḷ *ṭ<əm>əkəḷ*ʕinum      *kin       *C=um [?] *lum
*ma=pacay ma=qałiw *qazaw [?] *marum *mə=tad *kəɣaŋ
            [?]                                                 *xaɨ                 *so
*caḷiŋa    łarina   *taŋiaʔ     *ṭaḷiŋa   *caḷiŋa   *taliŋa     *R=xu      *khra     *sa
*kanə      k<m>an *ma=ʔun *mə=kan *k<əm>an *kaʕ                 *kin       *ca:n     *kɔn
*batoko qariϑuy *qaipuan [?] biṭu-nun *qəciḷu
                                *                   *təlur      *khrai     *kray     *ɲʌm
*maca      maϑa     *mata       *maṭa     *maca     *mataʕ      *C=ta      *n=ta     *da
*apoy      apuy     *sapuð      *apuy     *sapuy    *ʕapuy      *v(a)j     *C=fʌy    *vəi
*ḍapalə kuskus      *bantac     *ðapal    *kuḷa     *kakiʕ      *ti:n      *ti:n     *kok [< Chin.]
*isiw      fukiš    *qulbu [?] *ʔarbu     *ŋisŋis   *buʕuk      *phlʌm     *plam     *fui [?]
*aḷima     rima     *himaʔ      *ḷimaʔ    *ḷima     *limaʕ      *R=mɨ      *R=mɨa *mɔ
*aoḷo      punuq    *buŋu       *taŋuruʔ *quḷu      *huluʕ      *R=thua *kru         *hau
*ki=laḷa t=un=má:ðaʔ*tanʔa      *ki=ŋər   *ki=ḷaŋda *dəŋəɣ      *ɲin       *hai      *hIŋ [< Chin.?]
*avava     šnaw     *qumun *marðuðu *qavuvuŋ *pusuʕ [?] *caɨ                         *tʌm
                                                                           *səm [< Chin.] [< Chin.]
*la(=)oŋo waqa      *vaqa       *suʔaŋ    *təquŋ    *tanduk *khau          *kwa:u    *vau
*=ako      ya=ku    *ða=ku      *ku       *tia=kən *ʕakuʕ       *k(a)u     *ye [?]   *h(j)au


                   *pa=pataz *p<in>aṭay*q<əm>ci *bunuh
*pa=pacay ka=ma=p=aϑay                                     *C=kha                           *C=xa     *ka
*sopoŋo fiłaq      *lisav    *biraʔ    *asaw    *daʕun     *ʔbaɨ                            *fa       *bɔ
*koco     kuϑu     *kutu     *kuṭu     *kucu    *kutuʕ     *R=thau                          *trɨu     *kat
*boatə    bunłað   *titi                                   *nɨa                             *na:n      *nan
*ḍamarə furað      *buan     *buḷan    *qilas   *bulan     *ʔblɨan                          *C=nɨan   *sai
*ŋodoy    ruðiϑ    *ŋułus    *uðuŋ     *aŋaĺ    *babah [?] *pa:k                            *pa:k     *bak
*naganə łanað      *ŋaan     *ŋaðan    *ŋadan   *(ʕ)aRan ~ *ʒɨ
                                                           *ŋaRan                           *C=ʔla:n *nɔi
*baʔoanə faqłu     *baqlu    *bəkaḷ    *vaquan *baɣuʕ      *hmaɨ                            *hma:i   *nau
*ma=oŋo ~ ma=humhum
          *ma=soŋo *ma=qmut *karaub *qə=cəmə-cəmət
                                                *bəŋiʕ     *ɣɨN                             *Ca:n    *vən [?]
*ŋoŋoʔanə muðin    *ŋutus    *uŋṭan             *ʕiRuŋ     *ʔdaŋ                            *ʔnaŋ    *lɔŋ
*ini [?]  ani      *ni                 *ini                *mai                             *kʌ [?]   *mən [?]
*=sa      ta=ta    *ta=sʔa *sa         *i=ta    *ʕitaʕ     *ʔdiau                           *(ʔ)do    *ʌt [< Chin.]
*odalə    qusað    *qudan *ʔuðal                           *f(ɨ)n                           *C=xwɨn   *fʌn
*əbəḷə    qumbu    *qucʔul   *ʔasban *cəvuĺ     *ʕatuʕ     *gwaN                            *kwan     *kuan
*tariaw       kiłpuð        *bintuq-       *bituʔən       *vituqan      *bintaŋ   *C=ʔdau   *nʒit
*ḷənəgə       fatu          *batuʔ         *barasaʔ       *qacilay      *batuʕ    *R=thin   *du:i     *din
*vaʔi     tiłað     *vali    *kaðaw   *qadaw    *vaɣiʕ   *ŋwan    *ʔvan       *vən
*taoϑo    wa=wišwiš *ʔikuł   *ikur    *iku      *ʕikuɣ   *R=tha:ŋ *C1=srut    *tuʔ
*=so      i=hu      *suʔu    *=nu     *ti=sun   *kav     *mɨŋ     *ńa         *mə


*ḷidamə   ðama      *mʔama   *smaʔ    *səma    *dilah    *lin       *ma       *lin
*valisi   nipin     *nipun   *waliʔ   *aĺis    *ʕipən    *vaN       *C=fan    tin
*ʔaŋato   kawi      *lukic   *kawi    *kasiw   *kayuʕ    *R=mai     *mai      *dun
*ḍosa     tuša      *dusaʔ   *ḍua     *ḍusa    *ḍuvaʕ    *so:ŋ      *ra       *vʌn
*acilay   saðum     *danum   *ẓanum   *zaĺum   *ḍanum    *R=nam     *R=nam    *nam
*=na- [?] yamin     *sa=am   *=am     *ti=amən *ka=miʕ   *rau       *ntra:u   hau-lo [?]
*=ta      i=ta      *ta      *in=ta            *ki=taʕ   *tu        *ntiu
*manə-manə u-ma
          n         *maʔað   *a=manay *a=nəma *ʕapaʕ     *saŋ [?]   *ma:ŋ     *kəi
*anə-anə ti-ma      *ci=ma   *i=man   *ti=ma             *phʌ [?]   *nau      *na
Lakkia     Li (Hlai) Kra (Kadai)   Munda        NicobareseAslian                             K
                                                                        Bahnaric Viet-Muong atuic
         20        -14         -16       -23            -17        -23         -17       -16        -10
plɛu       *ʔbu [?] *tau           *kop         *ti [?]     *tə=pəh [?] *bə=lɔ     *bʔuɲ     *bə=lɔ
m=lok      *nɔ:k       *m=nok *pʌri-d [?]       *sicu- [?] *cE(p)m *ce:m           *cim      *cIm
lam        *lo:k [?] *ʔdam         *hende [?]   *al [?]                 *ɲu:ŋ
                                                            *Pə=l(t)ək [?]         *ɲə:m     *kuːm [?]
liet       *łʌT [?] *p=la          *mʌɲam       *mə=ham *ma=hʌm *mə=ha:m *sa:mʔ              *haːm
           *zwɨ:k
kuət [< Chin.]         *ʔdak [?] *ʒ(=)aŋ        *ʔʌŋ        *ʒə=ʔa:ŋ *(kə=)tiəŋ *sɨəŋ        *N=haːŋ
p=li:p     *li:p       *lIp        *rʌma(r)     *sUh        *cə[n]=ros *kə=niəyh *kə=sam *kə=rieyh
p=lei      *hlʌt [?] *p=lʌn [?] *goʒ-           *pah        *kə=bʌs *kə=cit        *ce:t     *(kʌ=)ceːt
           *pou [?] *ma            *soʔ         *ʔam        *cɔʔ        *cɔ        *cɔʔ      *(ʔʌ=)co
ho:p       *hyau [?] *lʌm [?] *ɲu               *top [?]   *(ʒə=)ʔɔh *ʔo:k      *ɲəwʔ     *ŋuɔc
khjo       *khʌy       *so [?]     *=sɔr        *ɲɔ [?]    *kə=reh [?]*=raŋ [?] *khʌw [< Tai?]
                                                                                          *=riɛŋ
ya         *zai        *C=Sa [?] *lu(=)tur      *naŋ       *ʔə=(n)tVŋ *to:r     *sa:y     *kə=toːr
cen           *la        *kən        *ʒom  *ɲa             *caʔ       *ca       *ʔan      *ca
lo:m          *lʌ:m  *tam [?] *=Com [?] *hʌ[yʌ]         *kə=pɔh [?]*(kə=)tap       *tə=lulh    *də=riɛl
p=la          *cha   *ta        *mʌt       *mat         *mʌt       *mat            *mat        *mat
pu:i          *fei   *pəi       *sʌ(=)ŋʌl *he=wE [?]*ʔɔ-s          *ʔuɲ            *kulh       *ʔuːyh
puk        *khok [< Chin.]      *ʒʌŋ
                     *k(h)ok [< Chin.]     *la [?]      *ʒʌŋ       *ʒəŋ            *cəŋ        *ʒʔɨːŋ
kyə:m      *gwau [?] *Sam       *ʔuʔb      *yE          *sɔk       *sok            *suk        *sok
mie        *C=meɨ *məi          *ti        *tʌy         *ti(ŋ)     *ti             *səy        *təy
kyɛu       *gwau [?] *khya [?] *bʌ(=)kob *kuy           *koy       *kəl            *k=lɔk      *pə=lʌ
ɛ          *plai [?]            *ʔaɲ=ʒum [?]
                                           *(h)yaŋ      *(kə=)ʒʌŋ *səŋ             *maŋ [?]    *səŋ
fɛm [< Chin.]
           *łau      *łʌy [?]   *bʌruk [?] *nəɲ [?] *nʌs [?] *nuəyh                *to:ŋ [?]   *pə=hʌːm
kou        *hau      *Qau       *ḍe(=)reŋ *=top [?] *tan- [< Austr.]
                                                                   *key            *tə=kɔy     *tə=kɔːy
ci         *hou      *k(a)u     *ʔʌɲ       *t(=)i(u) [?]*(y)əɲ     *ʔaɲ            *ho [?]     *kʌ

a             *hau       *pjən [?]   *goʒ-        *=paH    *kə=bʌs *Cə=se:t        *ce:t [?]   *kə=ceːt
wa            *bəɨ       *lʌ [?]     *ʔʌ(=)lak *rʌy        *sə(=)laʔ *la           *laʔ        *sə=la
kyou          *swau      *tau        *si          *sey     *cɛʔ        *cay        *cʌyʔ       *n=cəy
mom           *ʔak [?]
                     *ʔau            *ʒilu        *=ha [?] *səc        *sac        *si:t [?]   *sac
man-lieŋ      *C=ɲa:n*tʌn [?]        *aɲgaʒ [?] *kʌ(=)hE *gə(=)cɛʔ *hiay           *pə=lɔŋ     *kə=sɛy
tei        *pom [?] *ŋu [?]          *tʌ(=)mot *ʌl=vaŋ *pa(k)ŋ [?] *ʔbər           *kʌŋ        *bʔaːŋ [?]
ya:n       *phe:ŋ    *ɲe             *ɲʌ(=)mu *mi- [?] *mɔh            *niʔ [?]    *sɨ       *rə=mɨh
wai        *ʔbɔn [?] *ma:L           *tʌn(=)me *tiyə [?] *pa:y         *me         *ta=ma    *tə=mɛy
bən [?]    *śop [?] *və [?]          *ɲinda [?] *ha(=)təm *pə(=)tɔm *maŋ           *tem      *dʔaw
naŋ        *khat     *ŋat [?]        *mu-         *mʌh     *muh        *muh        *mulh     *muh
hwãi       *gwai     *lʌ [?]         *bʌ [?]      *hʌt     *bʌ [?]     *bʌ         *ʔɔ       *kah [?]
in         *kyɨ [?]  *Cʌ [?]         *mi-         *hEŋ                 *
                                                           *muy ~ *naymuəy         *moc      *muoy
fen        *fun      *yu:t [?]                             *
                                     *gama [?] *ʔa(=)mi [?] gə(=)ma *miə           *mɨa      *məa
nyĩ:n [< Chin.?]
           *hwo:n    *Kan                         *lul
                                     *mu-t ~ *mu-k [?]     *ʔəj-ʔVj [?]*ʔɲuy       *k=hɔːy *yək
tau        *ra:u [?] *K=lUŋ          *i(=)pil [?] *mat [?] *pərlɔy     *sə(=)maɲ   *kə=miɲ [?]
                                                                                             *pəN=tuor
fa:ŋ       *chin     *lʌ [?]         *sʌreŋ [?] *maŋ [?] *tə(=)mu *tə(=)mɔ         *taʔ        *tə=mɔw
wan     *wan       *vaN       *si(=)ŋgi *hɛŋ [?]                                   *mə=(C)aːŋ [?]
                                                     *kʌ(=)tɔʔ *(mat=)ŋəy*(mat=)bə=ləy
kyieŋ              *Cut       *cʌ(N)d- [?]
                                         *rEt        *sən=taʔ *tiaŋ      *tuəy     *sɔːy
ma      *meɨ       *mə        *ʔam       *mE         *mi- / *im- *may    *mʌy      *may

wã      *łi:n      *mʌ        *laŋ       *ta:k       *lən=ta:k   *Lə=piət   *laːyh    *n=taːk
wan     *fan       *paN [?]   *gʌ(=)ne   *k<an>ap    *lə=mɔń     *Cə=niaŋ   *kə=saŋ   *kə=nieŋ
cey     *c(h)ay    *tay       *siŋ [?]   *co: [?]    *də=lɔŋ     *lɔ:ŋ      *kəl      *ʔə=luoŋ
hou     *łau [?]   *sa(u) [?] *b(=)ar    *ʔã [?]     *=ʔa:r      *ʔba:r     *haːl     *bʔaːr
num     *C=nom     *ʔʌŋ       *dak       *ryak [?]   *dʔak       *dʔa:k     *dʔa:k    *dʔak
ta      *zwau                 *ʌle       *hE         *ʒəʔ        *nʌn [?]             *hɛy

ka-lɛ   *mʌ        *mʌ [?]    *mʌ [?]    *sU         *mʌh        *kʌ [?]    *ʒi       *mʌ [?]
nɛ      *ʔʌ [?]    *nʌ        *ʒʌ [?]    *cI         *cʌʔ [?]    *kʌ [?]    *ʔa:y     *naw [?]
Khasi          Khmer        Khmu          Monic
                                             Palaung-Wa  Pearic                  Miao       Yao        Ainu
          20           10           -22             3-12          2                       1          1         1
dy=pei         phə:h    *bɔh      *pə=tiŋ    *ɲauʔ       *pɔh                    *čʰwoːy [W]*šaːi [P] *u(y)na
sim            sat=slap *siːm     *kəN=ciəm*sʰi:m        *chiːm                  *noŋ [P] *nɔʔ [P] *tika-
ioŋ            khə=maw *hiaŋ [?] *lə=cɔk *lɔŋ [?]        *caŋ                    *qlʸuəŋ [W]*kʸia [P] *kunne
s=nam          ʒhaːm    *maːm     *cə=him *n=haːm *mə=haːm                       *ɲčʰʸaːm *ǯʰyaːm [P]*kEm
shʔieŋ         chəʔɨŋ   *cə=ʔaːŋ *ʒə=(l)u:t *ʔa:ŋ        *kə=lɔːŋ                           *cʰuŋ [P] *pone [< Jap.]
                                                                                 *tϑʰʷʸʌeŋ [W]
tyr=sim        krə=caok *mɔŋ [?] *=liəm      *N=hiam *kəs=rayh                   *kʌN [?] *ɲAu [P] *Ham
iap            slɔp     *haːn     *kə=cət    *yʌm        *ho:c                   *dAi [W] *tay [P] *day
k=sew          chəkɛː   *sɔʔ      *Cə=lur [?]*sʰoʔ       *chɔ                    *qlʌu [W] *klu [P] *sita
dih            phɨk     *ʔɨak     *so:ŋ      *s=rɨp [?] *taːl                    *həp [W] *hop [P] *ku
rykhiaŋ        sŋuət    *=Taŋ [?] *cə=kas *k=roh         *bah                    *NqʰAːy [W]*gʰaːy [P] *sat
shkor          trə=ciək *tor      *kə=tɔ:r *s=yauk *laːŋ                                    *
                                                                                 *mbǯʌy [W] nɔm [P] *kisAr
baːm           chi:         *ca           *ca:ʔ         *som         *cha       *nyɛn     *ɲen        *ʔe
pylleŋ         bɔːŋ         *kə=doŋ       *Kə=may       *tɔm         *tuŋ       *qlʷʸau   *kyau [P]   *nok
khy=mat        bhə=nɛ:k     *mat          *mat          *ŋay         *mat       *mʷæi [W] *mʷəi [P]   *sik
diŋ            bhlaəŋ       *ʔoːyh        *mat          *ŋʌl         *bə=le:w *dəu [W] *tou [P]       *apE
kynʒat         ʒaəŋ         *ʒɨaŋ         *ʒuŋ          *ʒauŋ        *ʒiŋ       *təu [W] *cau [P]     *kema [?]
shɲiuh         sok          *sɔ:k         *sɔ:k         *haɨk        *suk       *pɭoi [W] *pyei [P]   *EtOp
k=ti           tay          *tiʔ          *təy          *ta:yʔ       *ti        *bwʒæu [W]*pua [P]    *tE(-)k
khlih          kəpaːl       *gə=ləʔ       *kə=ʔdap      *kɛ(:)ŋ      *toːyh     *ɣoi [W] *pyei [P]    *pa
s=ŋow          ḷɨ:          *ʔal [?]      *mɨŋ          *s=moŋ       *saŋ                  [W]
                                                                                *[mw]næəŋ*maŋ [P]     *nuː
kloŋ snam      pəh=ṭu:ŋ     *ɲɨam [?]     *ɲyum [?]     *nuaH [?]               *pɭəu [W] *fim [P]
                                                                     *cay [< Thai]                    *sanpe
reŋ            səne:ŋ       *kuʌy         *də=raŋ       *k=ruŋ [?]   *sə=roːc *kloːŋ [W] *kyɔŋ [P]    *kiraw
ŋa             ʔaɲ          *ʔəɲ          *ʔəy          *ʔʌʔ         *ʔiɲ       *kəːŋ [W] *y[a] [P]   *ku

py=niap        səm=lɔp      *bəl [?]    *kə=cət    *ciat [?]         *hoːc    *dAi [W] *tay [P] *day-ke
s=la-diŋ       sə=lɨk       *hə=laʔ     *sə=la:ʔ *s=laʔ              *khə=laʔ              *mblɔːm [W]
                                                                              *nblɔŋ [P] /*nɔm      *hyam
k=si           cay          *seʔ        *cay       *shaiʔ            *chi     *ɲčhoi      *ʒei [?]  *ki
doh            sac          *sec [?]    *p=cun [?] *neʔ              *ʒuːc    *ŋGwei      *ɔ [?]    *kam
by(=)nai       khɛ:         *kiʔ        *=tu:ʔ [?] *k=hɛʔ            *kaːŋ                *lʰaː [P] *tiqu-p
šyntur         ma:t         *tə=nɔ- [?] *pa:ŋ      *mɔɲ [?]          *ka      *ɲʒuːy      *ʒuy [?] *prAː-
kyrteŋ         ʒha=maoh     *məh      *Hə=moʔ           *mʌlh        *cɨ                   [W]
                                                                              *mpw[c]æu*bua [P] *dEː
thy=mmai       thə=mi:      *həN=meʔ *tə=mi:ʔ           *mʌʔ         *bə=la   *čʰæŋ [W] *śyAŋ [P] *ʔasir
miet           yɔp          *sɨam [?] *pər=tam          *s=yʌm       *khə=rɛːŋ            *maN      *kunne
kh(=)mut       crə=muh      *mu[i]h *cə=mɔh             *mɨlh        *pə=tuːt *mbǯʋːi [W] blui [P] *EtU
                                                                                          *
em             min          *mVn [?] *ha [?]            *mV [?]      *kɔh [?] *či [P]     *ma [P] *somo
wei            muəy         *mo:y     *mway             *mʌ          *muːy    *ʔe         *yet      *sinE-p
s(=)lap        bhliəŋ       *kə=maʔ *rəy                *s=leʔ       *kə=maʔ *n[m]Aŋ *bluŋ [P] *duyan [?]
ndem           phə=sɛ:ŋ     *pə=təʔ *yak                *tauʔ        *khə=mah *ɲčʰAu      *śyou [P] *sipuya
khlur          phə=ka:y     *sər=meɲ *maɲ               *məɲ         *sɨm     *qa(n) [W] *rʰey [P] *notiw
maw            thə=mɔː      *gə=la:ŋ *tə=mɔ:ʔ           *ma:uʔ       *khə=moʔ *ŋklau      *ryou [P] *suma
s=ŋi        thə=ŋay     *ŋiʔ     *tə=ŋay *ŋay             *ŋiʔ              *nɔy [?] *tiqu-p
tdoŋ        kən=duy     *həN=taʔ *pər=ta:ʔ *taʔ           *phas    *twu [W] *twei [P] *sAr
me          ʔnɔ:k       *me      *beh      *maiʔ          *bo      *mwu [W] *mwəy [P] *ʔe

thy=llied   ʔəNta:t     *həN=ta:k   *kən=ta:k   *ta:k     *taːk    *mblet [W]*byet [P] *aw- ~ *ag-
by=niat     dhə=mə:ɲ    *hə=ra:ŋ    *ŋiək       *r=Sa:ŋ   *khoːy                       *Nima-k
dieŋ        ṭaəm ʒhaə   *lam        *chu:ʔ      *k=hɛʔ    *neːm    *ɲṭyaŋ [W]*dyaŋ [P] *niː
ar          bi:r        *ba:r       *bʔa:r      *ʔa[r]    *baːr    *ʔıu [W] *ʔi [P]    *tuː
um          dɨk         *ʔom        *dʔa:k      *ʔoːm     *daːk    *ʔum      *wʌm [P] *wakka
ŋi          yaəŋ        *ʔiʔ        *pəy        *yiʔ      *hɛːŋ    *pe [P]   *pua [P] *ti- [?]

a-iu        thi:        *məh        *mo:ʔ       *mʌ:h [?] *piʔ                         *ne-p
uei         khəṇao      *noh [?]    *ɲaH [?]    *məʔ      *mih     *tʌ [P]   *tʌ [?]   *ne-n
Nivkh
          13
*hilm-
*pəy-ŋa
*vul-vəl-
*ŋar
*ŋəɲ(ɣə)f
*tək(-)ɲ
*mu-
*qan
*ra- (< *da- ?)
*cʰe- (?)
*nos
*ɲi-
*ŋoyɨq

*tuɣər
*ŋəc(-)x
*ŋəmɣ
*təmk
*coŋr
*mə-
*ŋif
*muRki
*ɲi

*xu-
*com-r [?]
*amrak
*cus
*loŋ
*əm(-)ɣ
*qʰa

*urk
*viɣ
*qʰau-
*ɲi
*ləx
*tʰuf
*uɲɣər [< Chuk.?]
*kʰeŋ
*ŋɨki
*cʰi

*hilɣ
*ŋəɣs
*tiɣ(-)r
*mi-

*mə-

*si- [?]
*aŋ

				
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