Ethiopian education

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					Author & date     Type of Work    Methodology
Maimire (2010)    philosophical   Utilized "theory of surplus-
                  discourse       history"

Paulos & Messay
Tekeste Negash   Discourse paper   Uses Michael Foucault's
(2010)                             discursive analysis. He
                                   analyzes discursively
                                   "relevant episodes and
                                   instruments" to show
                                   that the system of
                                   education is at brink of
                                   collapse (p. 10)

Messay (2010)    Discourse paper   Comparing traditional
                                   and modern education
Paulos (2010)   Argumentative           argument-framing the
                paper: historical       cause and the relation of
                events, trends, and     politics, economy and
                episodes analysis       education with the
                                        revolution by using
                                        Westerntheories of

Bekele (2010)   Argumentative           historical Narration of
                paper: historical and   sequence of events that
                educational policy      led to the revolution,
                analysis                mainly from the
                                        perspective of
                                        educational policies

Tibebe (2010)
Data (2010)      "Ethnographic and -Field Methods
                 pedagogical analysis '-Ethnographic study
                 of a pervasive       '-Empirical
                 disjuction between
                 the rhetoric of good
                 governance and the
                 reality of top-down
                 policy processes as
                 experienced in
                 southern Ethiopian
                 schools" (p. 117)

Narrowe (2010)   Ethnographic work      Participant observation
                 which explores how     and field work with the
                 three types of         women she met when
                 gender policies in     participating in three
                 development co-        women-oriented projects
                 operation contexts     in Ethiopia as both
                 have been pursued,     external evaluator and
                 practices and          researcher (qualitative
                 understood in          methods, semi-structured
                 Ethiopia;              interviews)
                 specifically, how
                 these three types of
                 policies "shape the
                 ways individuals
                 themselves as

Poluha (2010)                           -field work
Tafere, Abebe, &
Assazinew (2009)

Tatek Abebe (2008)   Empirical qualitative   uses "interdisciplinary
                     field study that        theories in childhood
                     "explores the           studies" (p. 3);
                     tension between
                     young people’s daily    made children's "wish
                     lives and their         lists" and "reality lists" (p.
                     future                  12) through interviews,
                     wishes on the one       focus group discussions
                     hand and, on the        and story-writing.
                     other, what they are
                     required to learn
                     through formal
                     education in order
                     to become full
                     members of society"
                     (p. 3)
Binyam (2007).        empirical study in     field work for 4 months in
                      Awassa on how          two schools with diverse
                      children perceive      children ethnically and
                      their surrounding      religiously;
                      (emphasis on
                      school, home and       personal indepth
                      neighbourgood) and     interview with the
                      the importance they    children one to one; also
                      attach to ethnicity    group interview when
                      and gender;            needed..
                      especially how
                      children consciously
                      and unconsciously
                      promote sometimes
                      change and other
                      times continuity of
                      their cultural

Nardos Chuta (2007)

Mulugeta (1959)
The problem
- He argued that at the center of Ethiopian traditional education exists different concepts,
'- He believes modern Ethiopian education is in crisis by saying "the current exocentric system
based on Western education, which, oblivious to the processes that constituted Ethiopia as a
unique society, treats students as a tabula rasa on which one could write imported knowledge"
(p. 68)
'- I say the education is confused because to have a proper critical theory of Ethiopian
Education, there is a need to have a widely accepted political definition of the unique entity
called 'Ethiopia" and what constitutes it.
'- "a century of thoughtless embrace of western education has left Ethiopians with knowledge
that in most cases is alien to and often couters their aspiration for freedom, prosperty, and
justice" (p. 68)
'-modern education "has deprived students of the opportunity to make crucial transition from
the unhistorical consciousness of children to the historical consciousness of adults who
reflectively understand their circumstances and recognize themselves as agents capable of
changing these circumstances from within the historical possibilities available to them." (p. 71)
'- Traditional education is divorced from historical process because modern social sciences have
imposed divorce between history and culture. He said that in European studies, culture has
both philosophical and sociological meanings. E.g., culture in the West is related to "ideas of
freedom and progress" (p. 73) But in Ethiopian studies, "culture is devoid of comparable
philosophical underpinnings and is understood as an ensemble f immutable ideas, values and
practices with no future-oriented transformative potential." (p. 73)
-modern regimes in Ethiopia have not given adequate attention to the education of the youth
considering its importance to the fate of the nation.
'-"the pedagogical system that developed in Ethiopia was unlike the rest of Africa. It was more
cosmopolitan in that instructors and teaching manuals were imported from various countries."
(p. 2)- That is why it is confused and it doesn't have stable theory of its own.
'-Plus, it was elitist, it trained for "high level bureaucrats who would help run a modern state"
(p. 2)
'-TPLF's ethnic-oriented political system "assigned to the educational system the task of
furthering the ethnicization of Ethiopian society through the promotion of parochialism to the
detriment of national integration." (p. 3)
'-opportunity for education is still scarce. None of the universal higher or primary education
goals were even remotely met.
-"the official view of education in Ethipoia is based on an outdated knowledge (on the causal
link between education and development) and on the belief that any kind of education could do
no harm to its individual beneficiaries" (p. 9)
'- "The crisis of the education sector is very much a result of the abscence of a range of realistic
assessments of the role of education in social reproduction." (p. 9)
'- the crisis of education implies:
1) communication breakdown,
2) abscence of analytical capacity at system level,
3) the fragmentation of society,
4) loss of political legitmacy and perpetuation of authoritarian power,
5) eventually, political and social anarchy
As early as the 1980s, the decline of education quality was discussed among the ministr of
education, university professors and teachers in terms of growing teacher-student ratio and
pupil-section ration and declining proficiency of teachers in English. It is still true but I think
there are some changes.
'- The current language policy which uses more languages in different localities making
Ethiopians hard to communicate with each other. The unfying language is supposedly English,
but English cannot play that role because it is in state of depaire.
'-Eth is once again at a cross road with promise of building civicl society and some signs such
-while traditional education-especially of the church was ethio-centric and based on the
national identity meaning drawn by the church of Ethiopia from Kebra Negast- the story of
Makeda and Solomon and the transfer of God's favor to Ethopia, modern education was
uprooting, devoid of national objectives, and alien, and it was wanted to be so by the Western
supporters. He blames Haileselassie's socioeconomic policy and view of modernization as equal
to Westernization.
'-plus, traditional education was teh religious education extending to the secular life as "the
natural consequence of the basic and all-embracing cultural function of religion in Ethiopia" (p.
27)The religious instruction conveyed the norms of social behavior, meaning of social hierarchy,
rights and duties attached to the social status of individuals, incorporated both the muindane
and the spiritual. Religious belief was inextricably intertwined with a definite social system and
mode of life. -I disagree here to say that there was no traditional education that extended to
secular realm; rather the traditional education did not acknowledge such dualism.
'- Generally, the traditional education was highly integrative, national in function, and free
from political intervention because the church had exclusive control over education. BUT IT
'- Modern educated as implemented during the imperial regime lacked direction and national
objective. CUrriculum and instruction was at the hands of expatriate teachers from peacecorp
program and India et al. who have no idea on what the specific needs of society were.
'-The indicator that the education was not linked organically to the social condition of the
country and the economy was the alarming number of graduates of high school and university
who did not find sectors that could absorve them. As early as the early 1971 education sector
-Haile Selassie was overthrown by products of modern school system- which was alienating and
'- the revolution is the result of the education system, unlike some who would like to view
politics and education separately
'- he believes education was thought to be an instrument of modernization, which was
inherently contrary to feudalism. The recolution was a quest for modernization which replaces
ultimate power of monarchy by that of a nation-state.
'- "The regime [of Haile selasie] consistently favored social sciences -disciplines that would
create high level intellectuals to modernize feudalism from the top and not fundamentally
transgress its character and structurally transform it." (p. 52)
'- "...students' or teachers' revolt in Third World countries emanates not from the school as such
but from the contradictions of the workings of the pilitical system within which the institution
itself is located." (p. 52) the contraditions are between the autocratic and dependent state and
the progressive elements within itself that push it towards revolution. The educated ones
perception of their status and the status of the country compared to other nations in fueled
their sense of alienation and they wanted to push for revolution. There was a mismatch. The
alienation was also fueled by intense cultural penetration of America which was channeled
through the school system.
-he believes that the revolution happened because of the conflict of tradition and modernity
does not explain the whole story. He believes that "…indiscretion in the conduct of national
affairs on the part of Haile Selassie's government, rather than outright popular disaffection with
the tradition of royal rule, was the root cause for the downfall of the regime." (p. 58) It was
Haile Selassie's "injudiscious statecraft" and not national consensus to abolish the royalty that
caused teh revolution. (p. 58).
'- the revolution wouldn't have happened if the government of Haile Selassie simply
accomplished what it had promised in all fields, but especially in education. It was in education
that the government "sowed the seeds of its own destruction" (p. 59). "The regime set the
stage for its own denouement by subjecting all major aspects of teh Ethiopian school system to
foreign influence thereby failing to use education as a tool of political socialization." (p. 59). I
agree. It transferred no Utopia to the minds of the youth. "The teachers from different
nationalities practiced the philosophy of their own native land in the Ethiopian public schools.
COnsequently, the students were exposed to varying methods of instruction. Indeed, the
situation hardly allowed for the development of a unified philosophical approach to
both Orthodoxes and Pentecostals should understand that pentecostalism is an organic
development of the yearning of the neglected youth for spiritual transformation. IT is not
supported by foreign aid. It is not dumped on passive recipient…. Blah blah blah...BIG BIG BIG
-"…the central state still maintains tight control over the devolution process and there is a great
deal of continuity in power disparity between the centre and the regions" (p. 121)
'- "Where it becomes extreme is when the central state considers only its local agents as the
legitimate voice and dimisses everyone elese as "the few," anti-peace, anti-democratic
elements. In the case of WoGaGoDa, the state primarily consulted with its cadres and then until
the popular movement forced it to reconsider its decision, all those who resisted WoGaGoDa
were dismissed as "the few" and "anti-peace" elements." (p. 121)
'-After 2000, EPRDF "recognized the Ometo teritorial units such as Wolaita, Garno, Gofa, Dawro
and Konta as separate nationalities (nations)" (p, 121) based on the definition of "national" as
"occupation of a specific territory; spaking a common language, having a common culture or
sharing similar customs and a belief in common identity." (p. 122) (this is taken from the
constitution of Ethiopia).
'- the ruling part seemed to reverse its position when it attemped to 'unite' these northern omo
ethnicities under one acronym "WoGaGoDa" and even went upto the extent of opening an
ideological campaign strongly advocating that the groups that constituted Northern-Omo were
not distinct, rather they were members of the same ethnic group called "WoGaGoDa" It was
taken as an "ethno-linguistic" group. Textbooks were printed in teh new language.
'-However, the people didn't accpet. Especially students and teachers.
'-WOlaitans demanded self-administration.
-Development discourse increasingly became synonymous with poverty alleviation (due to the
'efficiency policies of 1970s and 1980s which focuses on giving attention to and supporting
women), and not change in the participants' (women in this case) "perception of their selves" in
terms of empowerment which comprises "self-consiousness and an acknowledgement of
presence of choices" (p. 133) That is what affirmative action means.
'-The three policiy types are:
1) market and skills-based production
2) Meeting basic needs and alleviating poverty
3) self-realization and empowerment
'-the discourse on education and training with goals on elevating the status of women is located
in the nexus between the local and the global.
'-Affirmative action is only focusing on "organizing projects which intend to improve skills and
job-related competencies" where as it should begin with "an acknowledgment of power
structures characterized by hierarchy and inequality and encourage women to consciously and
purposefully devise and implement personal and communal strategies to resist and/or
counteract these structures. In this sense, affirmative action can be seen as more intrusive than
other development interventions in that it openly supports empowerment and intends to
counteract traditional gender-related norms" (p. 131) It needs to "depart from a more critical
view of the social organization of society and to promote an essential new view of self." (p. 131)
There is currently very little data and research on the themes of: "children’s key transitions (in
education and work) and well-being (in terms of the physical, psychological, social and
economic aspects of children’s lives)" (p. 2);

"Research on child education has focused largely on countable figures of enrolment rates and
number of schools rather than on the quality of education. Assessment of quality needs to take
into account the experience of the children themselves." (p. 19) ...Methodologically- "Much of
the literature is based on fragmented survey results where mainly adults were the sources for
the data. They lack in-depth qualitative investigation of children’s own perspectives on their
lives. The few available qualitative studies are sketchy and unable to draw on the real lives of
children." (p. 19)

"However, rural children’s learning experiences, life aspirations and opinions concerning their
own education – formal and informal – have attracted little attention. " (p. 3)

"More specifically, the paper discusses: a) how children acquire life skills by working within
families (core and extended); b) the ways in which socialisation within
families differs from the education children receive in schools; and c) children’s
perceptions of what they learn in school and what they need to know to have a good life in the
context of engagement in economic and social reproduction in their society. In so doing, the
paper highlights the complex process of socialisation and the significance of geography and
geopolitics in shaping children’s knowledge for earning viable livelihoods." (p. 3-4)

"I will explore the gaps between national aspirations in education and children’s aspirations and
local realities regarding their real life experiences" (P. 4)

one concern is the children as "beings" vs "becomings" controversy in the study of socialization
of children in sociology.

"A further concern, and one that especially arises from this study, is the dissonance
between how what the State wants children to be through universal education differs from
what their local environment requires them to learn or what the children themselves aspire to
become in the future." (p. 6) ... "In the context of my research, the tension is manifested in
terms of the mismatch between what the State decides children need to know (influenced by
local, national and global politics) and children’s perspectives on what they need to know and
use in order to have a ‘good enough’ life in engagement with, and constructing ideas of being
part of, society." (p. 7)

"In recent decades the growth in the enrolment of children in schools has led to an
increasing shift away from participation in agriculture and entrepreneurial activities,
the study hopes to fill the gap of less focus of research on children's voice. Also wants to depict
the cultural and geographical context children's experience is situated in.

Children wanted to avoid discussion by denying that it mattered in their lives; but after
repeated interviews, they opened up adn told that they don't want to provoke others. The
school director said ethnicity is only during registration to fill out forms. Also, there is a general
understanding that all nations and nationalities have inalienable rights granted by the
constitution, and past labeling and vilifications and derogatory callings are no longer acceptable
and might provoke very unwanted reaction from others. So, better to stay quiet is the strategy
held by the children and also the adults themselves in the schools.

teenage students talked things such as if we respect each other, then no one will bring up
successionist agenda; if we respect each other, then we can solidify our unity. Note that
solidifying unity is what is needed through respecting ethnic rights. Some openly denounced
narrow nationalism such as befreinding people from one's own ethnic group. But those who
befriended only from thier own ethnic group, they said that is only because they have teh same
taste, language, village, and also sometimes family connections, and not intentionally to
segregate others.

It was obvious most had sent ethnicity to the background and they don't ask ethnicity of their
freinds; they get intimate based on other attribute such as character and interests.
Predominant tendency in the school then was indifference to ethnic backgrounds. A multi-
nationalist and instrumentalist view of ethnicity dominated students' view in Awasa.

-Modern education during the imperial regime of Haile Selasise was not expanding fast enough,
so it became an accentuator of class division and perpetuation of the ruling class ideas. It was
not about Utopia, rather it was a mark of social status. The promise of the regime was just a
"better life" (this is found in Messay 2010 p. 31)
Evidence for the problem
-one of the lowest literacy rate in the world, still
'- high attrition rate; enrollmemt rate smaller than the average for sub-saharan africa
'- high gender gap when compared to other african countries
'-accute shortage of skilled manpower in all fields
'- "cultural disorientation" of the modern-educated. He says they are often depicted in the
contemporary ethiopian literature as
"purposeless...faceless...restless...aimless....unsteady....undecided....confused" (p. 71) ..who
only came up with different ideologies like red terror, ethnic politics, etc. and purpetuated
opperession and poverty.
'- "the erosion of our cultural confidence in our capacity to cope with our country's problems
through our own understanding and imagination" (p. 71)
'-through out ethiopian history, there have been sudden eruptions of "polyphonic
subterranean world of repressed ideas, values and practices that incubate new forces,
identities, hopes and ideals that mature imperceptibly" (p. 75). Such as Lalibela's utopian
vision of second jerusalem, Queen Gudit's sudden rise, Tekle haymaot's vision of restored
ethiopia, unexpected emergence of deqiqa estifanos, unexpected victory of adoa, unexpected
fall of dergue, the swift demise of imperial regime, the democratic eruption of may 2005
election etc. that cannot be explained by the empirical description of the historical context.
'-surplus-history shows that "there is an atagonistic split between the historically actual-the
esablished order- and the historicaly possible, a split burried in the actual." (p. 78) "the more
-poor literacy of those who finish fourth, or even eight grade
'-"The expansion of secondary education, the continued growth of vernacular languages (at
primary schools) and the shortage of funds appear to lead the education sector from crisis to
system collapse." (p. 9)
'-'-the country appears to be devleoping backwards, poverty is not alleviated at all, and
education's role in the alleviation of poverty has not been significant at all. Ethiopia is pooer
now than 50 years ago when the rate of enrollment was not as wide as now.

-"There is no denying the lack of national orientation of the educational system has greatly
encouraged, not only the alienation of the educated elite from the traditional elite, but also
the polarization of the educated elite itself. So uprooted an elite could hardly assume the task
of unifying the country: subjected to various and contradictory external influences to the
detriment of national norms, the educated elite could not produce any consensus about
Ethiopia and its future direction. Unlike the traditional Dabtara who had subdued their ethnic
and regional attachments to what permanently defined Ethiopia, the modern educated elite
fell back on ethnic and regional ties because it had become alien to national mission. After the
ilusive and temporary unity provided by the adherence to Marxism-Leninism, which was itself,
an expression of alienation, nothing was left but to adopt the even more divisive ideology of
ethnicization" (p. 36). So, evidence- Look what we are left with! He also believes ethnicization
has polarization effect.
-currently, we are beyond feudalism and the problems are endless: ethnicization, exile in
millions, globalization and its packages we have to deal with, excessive materialism, substance
abuse and suicide, narcissism, inward-lloking repressed generation, c
- Women are silent, less active in political contexts, have inward personality, are shy, and
women-oriented programs have been evaluated as less effective/practical and more as
"tokens" by the ruling party to get donation from the West by pleasing them through talks
(these are evaluations by Ethiopian researchers and student teachers Narrowe reviewed the
studies of and interviewed.)
The solution
- Traditional education: modern education brought up the likes of the above where as traditional education
enabled others to succesfully defeat colonial powers.
-the church, Gada, village, mosque etc.
-the chumanizing process of traditional education (instead of the uprooting and alienating western education)
'-But, it is also important to "inquire into the reasons for the failures of traditional education to initiate
emancipatory social transformations in Ethiopia." (p. 72)
'- searching the emancipatory potential from the traditional education itself is necessary and that needs to
"consider traditional education as a historical process." (p. 72)
'- The surplus-history's "we" should inform education. He believes traditional education has both the
hegemonic order and the surplus in it. Even if it is conservative in its expression of the meanings and values of
the established order, it also has the surplus history in it as the "worq" implicitly pointing to the unjust
conditions and indicating the directions towards transformation. He believes we should excaveate these
implicit surplus-history values and ideas. He believes the surplus meanings indicate to utopian vision, and
therefore, they should inform educational practices. He believes, and I agree, "one of the most deeleterious
consequences of imported education is the excision of imagination and utopian visions from Ethiopian
education. Yet, from Plato to the present, including hard-nosed materialusts such as Marx, imagination and
utopian visions play important roles in thinking about our conditions, in the generation of anticipatory
concepts, and in disclosing a different future. The presence of forward-pulling emancipatory aspirrations in
surplus-history empowers our imagination, our utopian visions, and critical capacities." (p. 79) That is why my
question of-• Let’s assume we have democracy, enough money and infrastructure, and we are not in trouble.
What is the value that we live for AS ETHIOPIANS? The question is “the end is out of sight and we are spending
-avoid English as medium of instruction at all levels of education, including tertiary level.
'-overhaul language policy in Ethiopia- use Amharic and Afan Oromo to create a trans-ethnic national identity
because more than % of the Ethiopian people are fluent in either of the two (unlike the current language policy
which uses more languages in different localities making Ethiopians hard to communicate with each other. The
fact that Amharic is taught as a subject in non-Amharic speaking areas "is not sufficient to make Amharic as a
vehicle for a trans-ethnic media of communication" (p. 22). But, I think, Tekeste has forgotten the fact that
Oromo people are in state of haterade and rejection towards anything Amhara and Amharic, including names,
religion, culture, holidays to celebrate, and anything Amhara. They have hated each other. That is why the only
way to present national identity is the Tewahedo way and it should be given a chance to be presented as an
alternative as a continuation of the ancient to the recent past process, adn anyone who accepts it accepts it!
'-slow and consistent change, unlike Messay and Maimir, but he supports their idea of complete overhaul. He
suggests starting from doing away with English as language of instruction.
'- "An astute reader may ask: survival for what and what kind of survival? I understand survival as a term that
encompasses well-being of the great majority of the citizens of a given community, as well as the capacity of a
community to cope with internal and externam challenges." (p. 21)
-"melkam astedadeg" (which he translated as "good breeding" )-traditional values and morality, and religious
percepts. (p. 56)- he believes that is not all the youth needs but that at least keeps him rooted and provides
them with fundamental values that protect them with "anomie" or pathological behaviors.

-a civic education that does political socialization (the process through which the values, beliefs, and principles
underlying the system of government are transmitted to the student (p.61) and nurtures "noble ideas such as
unity, patriotism, equality and justice." (p. 62) should be introduced in elementary and secondary schools.
'- "In order to be able to develop a course of instruction on civics, one must absorbe the ethos of a nation and
have athoug=rough knowlede about its history and culture." (p. 62) For that, no expatriate can do that. There
should be indeginous pedagogic expertise made available by leaders of a nation.
'-" the case of Ethiopia, there is a plethora of indigenous materials from which a course of study on civics
may be developed: folklore, songs, poetry, anecdotes and adages of ethnic communities, historical records of
foreign travelers, accounts of chronicles of sovereigns, written and customary sourses of law, as well as spiritual
adn secular literature of ecclesiastical origin are but a few of such materials." (p. 63) E.g, he says Fetha Nagast
may help in lessons about justice. Kebra Nagast to learn ethiopian literary traditions and philosophical
perspectives. Zemena Mesafint to learn the importance of tolerance and stability to peaceful co-existance.
'-he also suggests studying ethnicities to facilitate understanding of the need to have common national language
to have social cohesion. It may also help to understand the historical process that led Amharic to become the
lingua franca.
-Ethnic politics ends up hurting the ordinary citizens.

-Affirmative action policies, which as promoted through different development policies and aids, should
promote not only skills and training, but also to "change some ways of presenting themselves in social life" (p.
'-there is a need to shift from skills "how to do" to empowerment- "how to be" (p. 144) a change of "social
behavior" becoming "more assertive" and "more conscious of self" (p. 144)
"Any attempt to understand the ill/well-being of children would be
meaningless out of the context of the perceptions of children themselves. Trying to
investigate the impact of work and heath on children’s education or other aspects of their
lives would be difficult without employing a longitudinal approach which gives the opportunity
to examine the linkage of different life trajectories of children." (p. 19)

"Any attempt to understand the ill/well-being of children would be
meaningless out of the context of the perceptions of children themselves. Trying to
investigate the impact of work and heath on children’s education or other aspects of their
lives would be difficult without employing a longitudinal approach which gives the opportunity
to examine the linkage of different life trajectories of children." (p. 19)


"The relevance of education in respect of enabling children to secure stable rural
livelihoods and in preparing them for work and transition to adulthood thus requires critical
re-examination (Punch, 2002). If the pedagogic agenda of schooling is (even we are no more sure what the
pedagogic agenda is)the betterment of
children’s future lives, active dialogues that incorporate the perspectives of young people
are necessary. In such dialogues, a focus on how children and young people negotiate
roles in an attempt to live up to the imposed expectations of globalisation-driven national
development priorities is pivotal. To what extent are schools preparing children and young
people to deal with transient livelihoods? How can children’s points of view about their own
education be solicited and incorporated in curriculum design? In what ways can education
in Ethiopia be made responsive to the wider cultural, socio-economic and political changes
that are taking place? (WHat? Let's study it from a scratch) How can schools be used to produce citizens who
are locally
sensitive and globally competent? These few questions are intended to provoke pragmatic
thinking and ideas for consideration in the ongoing debate on educational reform in
Maimire Mennasemay (2010). Towards a critical
Ethiopian theory of Education. In Paulos Milkias &
Messay kebede (Eds.), Education, politics and social
change in Ethiopia , (pp. 67-97). Los Aneles, CA: Tsehai
Publishers & Distributors.

Paulos Milkias & Messay Kebede (2010). Introduction. In
Paulos Milkias & Messay kebede (Eds.), Education,
politics and social change in Ethiopia , (pp. 1-8). Los
Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors.
Tekeste Negash (2010). The curse of English as a
medium of instruction in the Ethiopian education
system. In Paulos Milkias & Messay kebede (Eds.),
Education, politics and social change in Ethiopia, (pp. 9-
24). Los Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors.

Messay Kebede (2010). Comparing traditional and
modern education: the decentering of Ethiopia. In
Paulos Milkias & Messay kebede (Eds.), Education,
politics and social change in Ethiopia, (pp. 25-37). Los
Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors.
Paulos Milkias (2010). The challenge of modernity:
Western education and the demise of feudalism in
Ethiopia. In Paulos Milkias & Messay kebede (Eds.),
Education, politics and social change in Ethiopia , (pp. 39-
56). Los Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors.

Bekele Haile-Selassie Tomas (2010). The education
system of Haile Selassie's government: The roots of
political fiasco. In Paulos Milkias & Messay kebede
(Eds.), Education, politics and social change in Ethiopia ,
(pp. 57-65). Los Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers &

Tibebe Eshete (2010). Governance, language politics and
education in southern Ethiopia: the tirbulations of
inventing WoGaGoda. In Paulos Milkias & Messay
kebede (Eds.), Education, politics and social change in
Ethiopia , (pp. 99-115). Los Aneles, CA: Tsehai Publishers
& Distributors.
Data Dea (2010). Education, modernity and revival
moments: making sense of Pentecostal expansion in
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