Following are links to a number of websites that the author believes readers of the book
may find interesting and useful. They are listed by each of the book’s chapters.
1: An Engineering Perspective on the Risks of Hazardous Wastes
http://www.fplc.edu/risk/vol6/fall/pausten.htm#hea - This link from the Franklin Peirce
Law Center website provides background and history of risk assessment, as well as a
comparative review of international approaches to risk. The informative paper by Dennis
J. Paustenbach from the journal Risk provides resource materials for the first sessions of
any risk assessment course. Although the material is copyrighted, instructors need no
permission to reproduce articles from Risk for classroom use.
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/ - An EPA website with numerous links to the federal
government’s risk assessment programs, including individual links to:
Science to Improve Risk Assessment
Ecological Risk Assessment
Health Risk Assessment
Guidance and Support
Risk Databases and Tools
The site also has links to highly visible topics that can each be the subject of a class
discussion and exam topics. These include specific risk assessments for:
Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds
Drinking Water and Disinfection By-Products
The site also includes Cancer and Ecological Risk Assessment Guidelines, Benchmark
Dose Software, Ecological Stressor Identification, Exposure Factors Handbook, and
information about the Risk Assessment Forum.
http://www.epa.gov/iris/index.html - The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an
excellent resource for information about chemicals, especially their toxicity. It includes
links to background information on how the toxicity levels are established, and even how
they may be used in environmental regulation and enforcement. This site is one of the
first to visit when considering an individual chemical compound. If the compound is
listed, there is a wealth of information that is readily accessible.
http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/ - The Oak Ridge National Laboratory website for risk assessment
includes general risk assessment guidance and background information and a number of
tools that are very useful to teaching chemical risks. It also links to a number of Acrobat
files such as the White Paper on Quantitative Uncertainty Analysis of Superfund
Residential Risk Pathway Models for Soil and Groundwater, which can be used for
handout materials for topics discussed in Chapter 2.
http://www.epa.gov/scram001 - An excellent, user-friendly model website to model air
plumes using the SCREEN3 model. The advantage of using this for teaching and
screening purposes versus some other air models is that no meteorological data needs to
be input. If specific meteorological input is available, another model,
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief, is a good choice.
A homework assignment that may help introduce students to the concepts of
environmental risk assessment would be for them to log on and complete the “mini
course” (http://risk.lsd.ornl.gov/minicourse/rap_whatisra.shtml) beginning with the first
question and work their way to the end. A quiz based upon the mini course can help the
instructor gauge whether additional materials and lectures are needed to introduce some
of more complex subject matter of Chapter 1.
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/healthri.cfm - EPA’s National Center for Environmental
Assessment’s website for human health risk assessments. This site contains up-to-date
information about several of the contaminants of concern discussed in the book. It also
describes EPA’s risk assessment and risk management paradigm.
2: Entering the Risk Era
http://tis-nt.eh.doe.gov/oepa/risk/ - Comprehensive set of links to PDF files at DOE and
EPA, especially cancer slope factors, dose coefficients, exposure factors, and risk
http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/ToxTutor/ - The National Library of Medicine’s website for
tutorials in toxicology. These include course in basic toxicology, toxicokinetics, and
cellular toxicology. The instructor may wish to have students take the first tutorial as a
companion to reading Chapter 2 to enhance their understanding of the biological
principles of hazards and risk. To enhance the engineering and chemistry perspectives of
the book, the other two tutorials can provide the students with a background in some of
the more complex biological concepts of risk.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html - The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry’s website that includes frequently asked questions about specific compounds
and hazardous waste sites. There are links to all the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles and
how they are developed (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxpro2.html) and to the more
extensive Public Health Statements (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phshome.html).
http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/ecologic.cfm - EPA’s National Center for Environmental
Assessment’s website. This site provides the current guidance and information
concerning EPA’s ecological risk assessment methods, and placed risk assessment. This
includes the development of guidelines, assessments, and methods that quantify risks to
ecosystems from environmental stressors (including chemical agents) at different
geographic scales and for different ecological outcomes (or endpoints).
3: The Fate, Transformation, and Transport of Hazardous Chemicals
http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/methods/guide/methods.html - The EPA website with
links to PDF files of analytic chemistry methods for organic compounds in water.
http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/methods/fct4.html - The EPA website for Method
1613, Tetra- through Octa-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution
HRGC/HRMS. Method 1613 is used for water and soil analysis.
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ - Index to methods for air quality measurement and
analytical methods, including organic, inorganic, and trace metals in ambient air.
http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/ice/pubs.htm - One of the National Exposure
Research Laboratory’s websites with example chromatograms and information links to
other publications on state-of-the-science separation science and detection techniques.
Source of information for projects, laboratory experiments and research papers.
http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/Chem/ChemMain.html - The National Library of Medicine’s
website for chemical databases, including structures, nomenclature, and updates and
recent news about important compounds. It also provides links to chemical structure
software resources and newsletters.
- The website of the “Process for Identifying Candidate Substances for Regional Action”
under the Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative of the North American Free Trade
Agreement’s Commission on Environmental Cooperation. This includes excellent links
to chemical and physical criteria of chemical behavior and fate. Includes links to
technical documents (dossiers and decision documents) for highly toxic and mobile
http://riskcenter.doe.gov/techinfo/factsheets.cfm - Argonne National Laboratory’s
website with Acrobat file links to Summary Fact Sheets for Selected Environmental
Contaminants to Support Health Risk Analyses. Includes radionuclide and chemical risks,
as well charts of relative toxicities, chemical properties and biochemical information
about selected compounds.
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/ - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s
website for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution provides links to
information on persistence, airborne transport and fate of organic chemicals and heavy
Chapter 4: Opportunities for Hazardous Waste Intervention by Engineers
http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/research/risk/risk.htm - The website of the
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs provides resources related to
managing public health risks.
http://www.epa.gov/superfund/resources/soil/index.htm - EPA’s website describing risk-
based, soil screening levels (SSLs) for protection of human health. The screen approach
is a flexible, tiered approach to site evaluation and screening level development. It
focuses on a simple methodology for setting site-specific screening levels, but also
includes detailed models and generic SSLs to be used where site conditions warrant.
Though not national cleanup levels, the screening levels are intended to enhance the
evaluation and cleanup of site soils by helping engineers to eliminate areas, pathways
and/or chemicals of concern at National Priority List sites. The site has three links:
1. Quick Reference Fact Sheet with an overview of the development and use of the
soil screening levels.
2. User’s Guide for implementing the site-specific methodology for calculating site-
3. Technical Background Document (TBD) that gives the technical foundation of the
soil screening process, detailed site-specific models and generic SSLs.
http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/otherpubs/iso14000/index.html -The engineer
may also lead efforts in a company or organization’s environmental management
planning process. This may be part of the formal, yet voluntary approach, such as
meeting the ISO 14000 family of standards. The International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) has offers a portfolio of standards for environmental sampling and
testing methods, including more than 350 international monitoring and measurement
standards for air, water, soil, noise and radiation. It may be a good source when working
outside of the U.S. and Canada for technical bases of environmental regulations. The ISO
also publishes standards for environmental management, that can be followed by both
public or private organizations. So, the ISO 14000 family of standards is an additional
source of environmental monitoring methods for the practicing engineer and researcher.
Chapter 5: A Risk-Based Assessment to Support Remediating a Hazardous Waste
Chapter 5 was written with both the instructor and student in mind. The instructor can use
the chapter to design and administer exams using realistic risk assessment scenarios. The
student can use this chapter to determine to how well the quantitative measures of
exposure and risk are understood. Other sources of questions are included in the website
http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/gis/gisenv98/class/risk/rskchar3/sld001.htm, which was
designed by Jim Rocco, Eric Nichols, and Lesley Hay Wilson of the Department of Civil
Engineering at the University of Texas. The site includes seven exercises:
1. Adult Ingestion of Water
2. Adult Inhalation of Vapors
3. Child Soil Ingestion
4. Risk Characterization: Carcinogens
5. Risk Characterization: Non-Carcinogens
6. Risk-Based Solution Levels in Groundwater for Benzene
7. Risk-Based Solution Levels in Groundwater for Toluene
Chapter 6: The Role of the Engineer in Emergency Response
http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p703-714lioy/abstract.html - Abstract for the
recent article in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, presenting research on
the dust and air quality around Ground Zero at the World Trade Center.
http://www.epa.gov/superfund/tools/today/risk2.htm - EPA’s Superfund website that
includes case study on how interventions can be successful.
http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/sw846.htm - The EPA website link
supporting the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,
SW-846, which is EPA’s official compendium of analytical and sampling methods that
have been evaluated and approved for use in complying with regulations under the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). SW-846 is the primary guidance
documentation of acceptable, although not required, methods for use in responding to
RCRA-related sampling and analysis requirements. EPA continually reviews advances in
analytical instrumentation, and as they are found, incorporates updates to SW-846. To
date, EPA has finalized Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, III and IIIA to the SW-846 manual, and
the updated and fully integrated manual contains approximately 3500 pages.
http://www.epa.gov/wtc/ - The EPA website for the World Trade Center environmental
response; includes monitoring summaries, figures and tables of monitoring results, and
maps of monitoring locations.
Chapter 7: Risk Perception: What You Say May Not Be What They Hear
http://riskcenter.doe.gov/techinfo/profiles.cfm - Link to Acrobat file, “Risk Profiles and
National Risk Communication Issues” that provides pilot studies and cases useful for
class discussions and homework on options available for risk communication and
http://www.bk.psu.edu/academic/sts/SylRisk.htm - This is the website of the
Environmental Risk Assessment Unit of the Pennsylvania State University Science,
Technology and Society course (STS 200), taught by James Hamilton. It provides an
introduction to some of the quantitative policy aspects of risk and includes a scenario on
means of estimating risk perception at the community level.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/child/ - The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry’s website for children’s risk. This site provides links to specific risk assessment
and management issues related to the children’s unique sensitivities and routes of
A homework assignment related to responsible science and research is to log onto
http://cme.nci.nih.gov/ and complete the human subjects certification. This site has an
excellent mix of history, particularly case studies of how NOT to conduct scientific
research and studies. It also covers areas important to those doing field work that
involves human subjects, such as the appropriate means of attaining informed consent.
Chapter 8: Closing Thoughts on the Future of Hazardous Waste Engineering
Much is being written about risk assessment. The focus of the course will dictate the use
of any companion texts. One candidate is the National Research Council’s 1994 book,
Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. The electronic book can be found at
http://www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaljustice/index.html - The EPA website for
Appendix 1: Glossary of Hazardous Waste Engineering Terminology
http://www.environment-search.com/EnvDict.html - EPA’s website of environmental
http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/Glossary/glos.html - Sam Houston State University’s
Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Quality Glossary (2002 Version) website. Includes
references and links to other glossaries and sources.
http://h2osparc.wq.ncsu.edu/info/glossary.html- North Carolina State University’s
http://www.wqa.org/glossary.cfm - Water Quality Association’s water quality glossary
http://www.damagevaluation.com/glossary.htm - The Cost Benefit Group & Damage
Valuation Associates’ website of the Environmental Damage Valuation & Cost Benefit
News. This glossary includes terms that are useful for benefit-cost determinations and
http://www.epa.gov/trs/index.htm - The website of EPA’s Terminology Reference
System (TRS) that was created to be a single resource of environmental terminology by
compiling collections of terms from EPA and other sources.
Appendix 2: Minimum Risk Levels for Chemicals
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html - The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry’s website for MRLs. The site and list of chemicals is updated periodically.
Appendix 3: What To Do If a Company Only Produces a Small Amount of Hazardous
The U.S. federal program is described at http://www.epa.gov/fedsite/hazwaste/sqg.html,
EPA’s website. Also, EPA’s Enviro$en$e is repository for pollution prevention,
compliance assurance, and environmental enforcement. One link in this site is
http://es.epa.gov/new/business/sbdc/sbdc135.htm, which summarizes the Wisconsin
Program. Numerous state and local agencies maintain websites for small quantity
generators. For example, see:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/hazardous/pages/sqg.htm - The State of
Florida’s chemical small quantity website.
http://www.dnr.state.mo.us/alpd/swmp/infect1.htm - The State of Missouri’s infectious
waste small quantity website.
http://www.cfrpc.org/prsqg.html - Central Florida Regional Planning Council’s website.
http://www.kitsapgov.com/sw/sqg.htm - Kitsap County, Washington’s website.
Appendix 4: Health and Safety Protocols
Numerous sources are available to complement the field safety information in Appendix
4. For example, Duke University’s website (http://www.safety.duke.edu/ ) contains links
to online manuals for laboratory safety, radiation safety, environmental health and safety,
occupational hygiene and safety, fire safety, and numerous safety management resources.
The general safety manual is found at
The rmis.com Resource Library (http://www.rmFamily.com/) is an excellent resource for
a large variety of online safety files, including online manuals. The library contains more
than 70 databases of chemical profiles, material safety data sheets, and information on
chemicals, including physical properties, structures, spectrographic displays, health and
environmental data, and safety guidelines. Specific guidance regarding asbestos and lead
control programs and cytotoxic drugs are also oline. There are links to the chemical
hazard label systems for U.S. Department of Transportation and regulatory lists issued by
OSHA, ATSDR/EPA’s Priority List of Hazardous Substances, California Proposition 65,
and many others. It also has links to pesticide safety requirements, chemical
compatibilities, and exposure limits for air contaminants.
Appendix 5: Chemical equilibria
The information in this syllabus is useful for engineering and science students as a
reminder of the first principles underpinning chemical reactions. In fact, it may be the
source materials for one of the early lectures, since it provides the basis for energetics,
mass balances and reactions, particularly as they involve both physical chemistry (e.g.,
abiotic degradation) and biochemistry (e.g. microbial degradation and toxicology).
Engineering the Risks of Hazardous Wastes
Daniel A. Vallero, Ph.D.
This is both an excellent text for senior and graduate courses in hazardous wastes, and a
valuable resource to the practicing engineer, who is increasingly called upon to reduce or
eliminate the potential and actual risks posed by hundreds of thousands of chemicals
being manufactured today. Professional engineers and researchers can use this book to
complement the environmental engineering handbooks and manuals on their
bookshelves. In a single source, the book provides clear and straightforward explanations
and case studies along with ample illustrations to cover the highly complex areas of
hazardous waste engineering and risk-based decision-making. Dr. Jeffrey Peirce, a
colleague of Dr. Vallero at Duke’s Pratt School of Engineering, contributes excellent and
understandable explanations of how, when and where the engineer can intervene to
prevent and to control hazardous wastes.
Rather than simply providing page after page of descriptive material, this book pulls
together key risk concepts to make for a highly readable and informative explanation of
environmental science and engineering. Engineering the Risks of Hazardous Waste is an
indispensable companion to chemical and engineering references, and is a useful resource
to both engineering professors and environmental professionals. It incorporates concise
definitions and explanations of key environmental concepts, making it an invaluable
resource for others who have a keen interest in hazardous wastes and the risks that they
About the author
Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in the transport, chemical
transformation and environmental fate of hazardous pollutants. His professional
experience in both the Executive and Legislative Branches of the Federal Government
and at universities spans three decades. This has included hazardous waste engineering
and management, teaching and regulatory advice related to human health risk and
ecological issues ranging from global climate change to the release of hazardous products
of incomplete combustion from waste incinerators to the assessment of the risks from
exposures to environmental endocrine disruptors.
From September of 2001 to April of 2002, Dr. Vallero led a team of engineers and
scientists in measuring the contamination of the air around the World Trade Center.
Portions of this work have been published in the journal, Environmental Health
His article, “Teachable moments and the tyranny of the syllabus: The September eleventh
case,” appears in the April 2003 edition of the Journal of Professional Issues in
He presently holds faculty positions at both Duke University and North Carolina Central
University. At, Duke he directs the Program in Science, Technology and Human Values
(http://www.duke.edu/web/STHV/) and holds a faculty position in the Duke’s Pratt
School of Engineering (http://www.cee.duke.edu/faculty/profiles.html). As an Associate
Professor in NCCU’s Environmental Science Program
(http://www.nccu.edu/artsci/envirsci/index.html), Dr. Vallero has begun bold new
research on chemical exposures and risks from an environmental justice perspective. His
recent publications in the Journal of Environmental Engineering, Hydrological Science
and Technology, and Environmental Science and Technology address the movement of
hormone-altering agents among environmental compartments, the partitioning of semi-
volatile compounds from aerosols to gases, the isomerization of persistent organic
compounds in the environment, the flux of pesticides from soil to the atmosphere, and the
development of new methods for collecting and analyzing hazardous pollutants. Dr.
Vallero’s research has enhanced the ability of engineers and scientists to assess potential
exposures and risks to people and the environment.
Dr. Vallero holds a Ph.D. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Duke University,
a Masters in Environmental Health Sciences (Civil and Environmental Engineering) from
the University of Kansas, a Masters in City and Regional Planning from Southern Illinois
University, and a Bachelors Degree in the Earth Sciences and Psychology from SIU.