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					   Mid Continent Research for Education and Learning
       (McREL) Standards and Benchmarks for:

Leadership Education I: Citizenship, Character, and Air Force Tradition
                                  and

         Leadership Education IV: Principles of Management




                                   1
                             Table of Contents
Title                                                              Page
A Guide to the Matrix Format …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Behavioral Studies……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Civics………………………………………………………………………………………………………...................... 11

Health…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

Language Arts……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55

Life Skills…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………              72
       Life Work………………………………………………………………………………………………………....         72
       Self-Regulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………        79
       Thinking and Reasoning…………………………………………………………………………………………..   85
       Working with Others………………………………………………………………………………………………       92

Physical Education………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 97




                                      2
                                                     A Guide to the Matrix Format

A matrix has been developed to note where and when the texts cover the standards and benchmarks. This four-column matrix is presented as
follows:

  STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS                        CURRICULUM REFERENCE                    ADDITIONAL SUPPORT                    COMMENTS


The Standards and Benchmarks Column listed the McREL standards and benchmarks as they appear in the MCREL WebPages.

The Curriculum Reference Column notes the key occurrences in the texts (the major textbooks assigned in each area, but also student
workbooks and instructor guides, when applicable) when the standard/benchmarks are discussed and/or covered. With each occurrence, the
specific page numbers are listed after the abbreviated title of the book in which this occurrence was found.

The Additional Support Column lists all additional textual support references used to develop this benchmark This column only list other
references that are listed as being explicitly stated in the document.

Finally, the Comments Column, allows the curriculum reviewers to note any points they want other researchers to note.

When an area in the matrix is shown with the letters N/A, this refers to Not Applicable in this particular section. Either a curriculum reference
could not be found in the texts used in the curriculum, or an additional supporting reference could not be found which had been explicitly stated in
another document, or the curriculum reviewer did not have any additional comments to make about this area of the study.




                                                                         3
                                            BEHAVIORAL STUDIES: STUDY OVERVIEW


The specific texts reviewed for this report included the following: Leadership Education I: Citizenship, Character, and Air Force Tradition
and Leadership Education IV: Principles of Management. The first text, Leadership Education I: Citizenship, Character, and Air Force
Tradition, provides a history of the Air Force’s Junior ROTC program as well as a detailed description of the organization’s structure,
rules, and regulations. This text also addresses personal behavior and responsibility, health and fitness, and citizenship in the United
States. The text, Leadership Education IV: Principles of Management, provides a detailed analysis of management principles and
techniques aimed at training students to be good leaders either in the Air Force or in civilian life. These texts, which represent only a
portion of the curriculum for the AFJROTC program, were reviewed to determine their compliance with the Mid-continent Research for
Education and Learning (McREL) content standards for the grades 9-12 curriculum, available online at:
http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/. The detailed results of that curriculum review follow.




                                                                     4
                                  STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR BEHAVIORAL STUDIES

 STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS                           CURRICULUM REFERENCE             ADDITIONAL SUPPORT                  COMMENTS

Standard 1. Understands that group and
cultural influences contribute to human
development, identity, and behavior
1. Understands that cultural beliefs strongly     LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 3   Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Response to the cultural
influence the values and behavior of the                                             Science Literacy, p. 156       beliefs implied, but not
people who grow up in the culture, often                                                                            explicitly covered
without their being fully aware of it, and that
people have different responses to these
influences
2. Understands that punishment for                LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5   Project 2061: Benchmarks for   “Unacceptable social
"unacceptable" social behavior depends                                               Science Literacy, p. 156       behavior” discussed
partly on beliefs about the purposes of                                                                             without extensive
punishment and about its effectiveness                                                                              coverage of theory or
(which is difficult to test scientifically                                                                          views on punishment.
because circumstances vary greatly and
because legal and ethical barriers interfere)
3. Understands that social distinctions are a                                        Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Text focus is almost
part of every culture, but they take many                                            Science Literacy, p. 156       exclusively on U.S.
different forms (e.g., rigid classes based                                                                          culture
solely on parentage, gradations based on the
acquisition of skill, wealth, and/or education)
4. Understands that people often take                                                Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Vague references
differences (e.g., in speech, dress, behavior,                                       Science Literacy, p. 156
physical features) to be signs of social class
5. Understands that the difficulty of moving                                         Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Discussion of moving
from one social class to another varies greatly                                      Science Literacy, p. 156       between classes in U.S.,
with time, place, and economic                                                                                      but not about specific
circumstances                                                                                                       difficulties




                                                                          5
6. Understands that heredity, culture, and           LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5    Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Discussion of relative
personal experience interact in shaping                                                  Science Literacy, p. 156       importance of the
human behavior, and that the relative                                                                                   various influences is not
importance of these influences is not clear in                                                                          explicitly covered
most circumstances
7. Understands that family, gender, ethnicity,       LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5    NCSS: Curriculum Standards     Implied throughout the
nationality, institutional affiliations,                                                 for Social Studies, p. 37      texts listed; reviewed
socioeconomic status, and other group and                                                                               texts focus on attitudes
cultural influences contribute to the shaping                                                                           and personality, rather
of a person's identity                                                                                                  than on behavior and
                                                                                                                        identity

Standard 2: Understands various
meanings of social group, general
implications of group membership, and
different ways that groups function
1. Understands that while a group may act,           LE I, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5   Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Implied but not
hold beliefs, and/or present itself as a                                                 Science Literacy, p. 160       explicitly stated in the
cohesive whole, individual members may                                                                                  text
hold widely varying beliefs, so the behavior
of a group may not be predictable from an
understanding of each of its members
2. Understands that social organizations may         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5    Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Only reference found:
serve business, political, or social purposes                                            Science Literacy, p. 160       USAF excluding women
beyond those for which they officially exist,                                                                           from flying combat
including unstated ones such as excluding                                                                               missions
certain categories of people from activities
3. Understands how the diverse elements that         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5    NCSS: Curriculum Standards     Only reference presented
contribute to the development and                                                        for Social Studies, p. 33      in historical context –
transmission of culture (e.g., language,                                                                                does not adequately
literature, the arts, traditions, beliefs, values,                                                                      address benchmark
behavior patterns) function as an integrated
whole




                                                                              6
4. Understands that groups have patterns for       LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5, and   NCSS: Curriculum Standards     Vague references; Gang
preserving and transmitting culture even as        Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lesson 5             for Social Studies, p. 33      identification behavior
they adapt to environmental and/or social
change
5. Understands that social groups may have         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5        NCSS: Curriculum Standards     N/A
patterns of behavior, values, beliefs, and                                                 for Social Studies, p. 33
attitudes that can help or hinder cross-cultural
understanding

Standard 3: Understands that interactions
among learning, inheritance, and physical
development affect human behavior
1. Understands that differences in the             LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5        Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Implied reference: focus
behavior of individuals arise from the                                                     Science Literacy, p. 142       on personality
interaction of heredity and experience                                                                                    development rather than
                                                                                                                          behavior
2. Understands that even instinctive behavior      N/A                                     Project 2061: Benchmarks for   N/A
may not develop well if a person is exposed                                                Science Literacy, p. 142
to abnormal conditions
3. Understands that expectations, moods, and       N/A                                     Project 2061: Benchmarks for   N/A
prior experiences of human beings can affect                                               Science Literacy, p. 142
how they interpret new perceptions or ideas
4. Understands that people might ignore            N/A                                     Project 2061: Benchmarks for   No extensive discussion
evidence that challenges their beliefs and                                                 Science Literacy, p. 142       of confirmation bias
more readily accept evidence that supports                                                                                appeared in the reviewed
them                                                                                                                      texts
5. Understands that the context in which           N/A                                     N/A                            N/A
something is learned may limit the contexts
in which the learning can be used
6. Knows that human thinking involves the          N/A                                     N/A                            N/A
interaction of ideas, and ideas about ideas
7. Knows that people can produce many              N/A                                     N/A                            N/A
associations internally without receiving




                                                                           7
information from their senses

Standard 4: Understands conflict,
cooperation, and interdependence among
individuals, groups, and institutions
1. Understands that conflict between people     LEIV, pp.73, 78       Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Coverage of group
or groups may arise from competition over                             Science Literacy, p. 173       dynamics
ideas, resources, power, and/or status
2. Understands that social change, or the       N/A                   N/A                            N/A
prospect of it, promotes conflict because
social, economic, and political changes
usually benefit some groups more than others
(which is also true of the status quo)
3. Understands that conflicts are especially    N/A                   Project 2061: Benchmarks for   Benchmark covered
difficult to resolve in situations in which                           Science Literacy, p. 173       briefly in the context of
there are few choices and little room for                                                            group conflict
compromise
4. Understands that some informal ways of       N/A                   N/A                            N/A
responding to conflict (e.g., pamphlets,
demonstrations, cartoons) may reduce
tensions and lead to compromise but may be
inflammatory and make agreement more
difficult to reach
5. Understands that conflict within a group     N/A                   N/A                            N/A
may be reduced by conflict between it and
other groups
6. Understands that inter-group conflict does   N/A                   N/A                            N/A
not necessarily end when one segment of
society gets a decision in its favor because
the "losers" then may work even harder to
reverse, modify, or circumvent the change
7. Understands that even when the majority      N/A                   N/A                            N/A
of people in a society agree on a social




                                                                  8
decision, the minority who disagree must be
protected from oppression, just as the
majority may need protection against unfair
retaliation from the minority
8. Understands how various institutions (e.g.,   N/A                                N/A                            N/A
social, religious, political) develop and
change over time (i.e., what is taught in
school and school policies toward student
behavior have changed over the years in
response to family and community
pressures), and how they further both
continuity and change in societies
9. Understands how changes in social and         N/A                                N/A                            N/A
political institutions (e.g., church, school,
political party) both reflect and affect
individuals' career choices, values, and
significant actions
10. Understands that the decisions of one        LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1, Lesson 5   Project 2061: Benchmarks for   N/A
generation both provide and limit the range                                         Science Literacy, p. 163
of possibilities open to the next generation
11. Understands that mass media, migrations,     N/A                                N/A                            N/A
and conquest affect social change by
exposing one culture to another, and that
extensive borrowing among cultures has led
to the virtual disappearance of some cultures
but only modest change in others




                                                                         9
                                       BEHAVIORAL STUDIES: STUDY CONCLUSIONS



This report compared the evaluated the extent to which the Air Force JROTC curriculum is in compliance with the Mid-continent
Research for Education and Learning (McREL) content standards for the grades 9-12 curriculum. The following general comments focus
on that analysis as well as a critique of the McREL standards.

Analysis of McREL Standards and Benchmarks: In the opinion of this reviewer, several benchmarks do not reflect the standards as well
as they might. More specifically, the standards, although very general, are not exhausted by the subsequent benchmarks listed. The
benchmarks could be revised or expanded, and certainly clarified, to reflect more accurately the standards listed for Behavioral Studies.
If, for example, the AFJROTC curriculum had been reviewed based on the standards and not the benchmarks, it would likely have fared
better in the analysis matrix presented above. In summary, both the level of specificity and the degree of complexity of several
benchmarks were detrimental to the results of the curriculum analysis presented in this report.




                                                                   10
                                            CIVICS: STUDY OVERVIEW


The following textbooks were examined for this report:

1)        Leadership Education I: This textbook offers a history of ROTC, the military chain of command, military uniforms and
          insignia, and military protocol. It also includes brief overviews of various governmental systems and structures,
          including totalitarianism, socialism/Communism, and democracy. Covered within discussion of this last topic are
          definitions of the three branches of American government, a short introduction to the American Constitution, and
          material on the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
2)        Leadership Education IV: This textbook discusses principles of management. It includes definitions and histories of the
          discipline, as well as sections on conflict management, negotiation, and mentoring.




                                                           11
                                                  STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR CIVICS

LEI=Life Education I                               LEIV=Life Education IV

 STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS                         CURRICULUM REFERENCE               ADDITIONAL SUPPORT                  COMMENTS
I. What is Government and What
Should it Do?
Standard 1: Understands ideas about civic
life, politics, and government
1.1 Understands how politics enables a group      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
of people with varying opinions and/or            LEIV, pp. 26-28, 67                Civics and Government, p. 90    Theories of management
interests to reach collective decisions,                                                                             can be applied to
influence decisions, and accomplish goals                                                                            government and civil
that they could not reach as individuals (e.g.,                                                                      society
managing the distribution of resources,
allocating benefits and burdens, managing
conflicts)
1.2 Knows formal institutions that have the       LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
authority to make and implement binding           LEIV, pp. 97-109                   Civics and Government, p. 90
decisions (e.g., tribal councils, courts,
monarchies, democratic legislatures)
1.3 Understands the nature of political           LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Definition of team
authority (e.g., characteristics such as          LEIV, pp. 97-109                   Civics and Government, p. 90;   dynamics can be applied
legitimacy, stability, limitations)                                                  Quigley, Civitas, p. 95         to civil society
1.4 Understands the sources of political          LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
authority (e.g., consent of the governed,                                            Civics and Government, p. 90;
birth, knowledge) and its functions (e.g.,                                           Quigley, Civitas, p. 95
create and enforce laws)                          LE IV, NA
1.5 Understands why politics is found             LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Describes
wherever people gather as a group (e.g., it                                          Civics and Government, p. 90    responsibilities of voting
enables groups to reach collective, binding       LEIV, pp. 50-52
decisions that can be enforced)
1.6 Understands major arguments for the           LEI, Unit 4, Chatper 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Definitions of




                                                                         12
necessity of politics and government (e.g.,     LEIV, pp. 43-67                    Civics and Government, p. 90    management can be
people cannot fulfill their potential without                                                                      applied to government
politics and government, people would be
insecure or endangered without government,
people working collectively can accomplish
goals and solve problems they could not
achieve alone)
1.7 Understands some of the major               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
competing ideas about the purposes of           LEIV, pp. 43-67                    Civics and Government, p. 90-
politics and government (e.g., achieving a                                         91
religious vision, glorifying the state,
enhancing economic prosperity, providing
for a nation's security), and knows examples
of past and present governments that serve
these purposes
1.8 Understands how the purposes served by      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
a government affect relationships between       LEIV, pp. 43-67                    Civics and Government, p. 91
the individual and government and between
government and society as a whole (e.g., the
purpose of promoting a religious vision of
what society should be like may require a
government to restrict individual thought and
actions, and place strict controls on the
whole of the society)
Standard 2: Understands the essential
characteristics of limited and unlimited
governments

2.1 Understands what "civil society" is and     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Defines individuality
how it provides opportunities for individuals                                      Civics and Government, p. 93    and “followership”; can
to associate for social, cultural, religious,                                                                      be applied to
economic, and political purposes (e.g.,                                                                            membership in political
family, friendships, membership in                                                                                 coalitions




                                                                       13
organizations, participation in unions and
business enterprises)                           LEIV, NA
2.2 Understands how civil society allows for    LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
individuals or groups to influence                                                 Civics and Government, p. 93
government in ways other than voting and
elections                                       LEIV, NA
2.3 Understands how the individual, social,     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
and economic relationships that make up                                            Civics and Government, p. 93;
civil society have been used to maintain                                           National Standards for Civics
limited government                              LEIV, NA                           and Government, p. 45
2.4 Understands how relationships between       LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
government and civil society in                                                    Civics and Government, p. 93
constitutional democracies differ from those
in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes       LEIV, NA
2.5 Knows essential political freedoms (e.g.,   LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Defines difference
freedom of religion, speech) and economic                                          Civics and Government, p. 93    between rights and
freedoms (e.g., freedom to enter into                                                                              responsibilities
contracts, to choose one's own employment),                                                                        Discusses career choices
and understands competing ideas about the
relationships between the two (e.g., that
political freedom is more important than
economic freedom, that political and
economic freedom are inseparable)               LEIV, NA
2.6 Understands how political and economic      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
freedoms serve to limit governmental power      LEIV, NA                           Civics and Government, p. 94
Standard 3: Understands the sources,            N/A
purposes, and functions of law, and the
importance of the rule of law for the
protection of individual rights and the
common good
3.1 Knows alternative ideas about the           LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 4   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
sources of law (e.g., custom, Supreme Being,                                       Civics and Government, p. 92;
sovereigns, legislatures) and different                                            National Standards for




                                                                       14
varieties of law (e.g., divine law, natural law,                                      Business Education, p. 22;
common law, statute law, international law)        LEIV, NA                           Quigley, Civitas, p. 335-39
3.2 Knows alternative ideas about the              LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
purposes and functions of law (e.g.,               Lessons 2 & 4                      Civics and Government, p. 92;
regulating relationships among people and                                             Quigley, Civitas, p. 330-31
between people and their government;
providing order, predictability, security, and
established procedures for the management
of conflict; regulating social and economic
relationships in civil society)
                                                   LEIV, NA

Standard 4: Understands the concept of a           N/A
constitution, the various purposes that
constitutions serve, and the conditions
that contribute to the establishment and
maintenance of constitutional government
4.1 Distinguishes between governments              Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3        N/A                             N/A
with a constitution and constitutional
(limited) government                               LEIV, N/A
4.2 Understands how constitutions set forth        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            CCE: National Standards for     Defines separation of
the structure of government, give the              Lessons 3 and 4                    Civics and Government, p. 95;   powers in U.S.
government power, and establish the                                                   National Standards for          government
relationship between the people and their                                             Business Education, p. 22;
government                                                                            Quigley, Civitas, p. 169
                                                   LEIV, NA
4.3 Understands how constitutions may limit        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
government's power in order to protect                                                Civics and Government, p. 95;
individual rights and promote the common                                              Quigley, Civitas, p. 169
good                                               LEIV, NA
4.4 Understands how constitutions, in the          LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A                             N/A
past as well as in the present, have been
disregarded or used to promote the interests




                                                                             15
of a particular group, class, faction, or a
government (e.g., slavery, exclusion of
women from the body politic, prohibition of
competing political parties)                      LEIV, NA
4.5 Understands how constitutions can be          LE I, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A                            N/A
vehicles for change and for resolving social
issues (e.g., use of the Fourteenth
Amendment to the United States
Constitution in the civil rights movement of
the 1950s and 1960s; establishment of the         LEIV, NA
Japanese Constitution after World War II,
which provided women the right to vote)
4.6 Understands how constitutions may be          LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3    N/A                            N/A
used to preserve core values and principles
of a political system or society (e.g.,
prohibition of religious tests for public
office, protection of private property by the
United States Constitution)                       LEIV, N/A
4.7 Knows the social, economic, and               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3    N/A                            N/A
political conditions that foster constitutional
government                                        LEIV, N/A
4.8 Understands reasons why some nations          N/A                                 N/A                            N/A
have been successful in establishing
constitutional government (e.g., post-World
War II Germany, Japan) whereas others have
not (e.g., Nigeria, Kenya, Argentina under
Peron)
4.9 Knows responsibilities individual             LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2    CCE: National Standards for    Defines basic
citizens and people serving in government                                             Civics and Government, p. 95   responsibilities
should assume to insure the preservation and
improvement of constitutional government
Standard 5: Understands the major
characteristics of systems of shared




                                                                          16
powers and of parliamentary systems
5.1 Understands the major characteristics of      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            CCE: National Standards for     N/A
systems of shared powers (e.g., in the United     Lessons 3 and 6                    Civics and Government, p. 97;
States and Brazil the executive, legislative,                                        NAEP: National Civics
and judicial branches each have primary                                              Consensus Project, p. 49;
responsibility for certain functions and share                                       Quigley, Civitas, p. 15
some of the powers and functions of the
other branches)                                   LEIV, NA
5.2 Understands the major characteristics of      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   N/A                             N/A
parliamentary systems (e.g., in the United
Kingdom and Israel authority is held by
Parliament and the party or parties that form
the majority select the prime minister)           LEIV, NA
5.3 Understands the relative advantages and       LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
disadvantages of the various ways power is                                           Civics and Government, p. 97;
distributed, shared, and limited in systems of                                       NAEP: National Civics
shared powers and parliamentary systems                                              Consensus Project, p. 49
(e.g., in terms of effectiveness, prevention of
the abuse of power, responsiveness to
popular will, stability, ability to serve the
purposes of constitutional government)            LEIV, NA
Standard 6: Understands the advantages
and disadvantages of federal, confederal,
and unitary systems of government
6.1 Understands how power is distributed,         LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     Definition of leadership
shared, and limited in confederal, federal,       LEIV, pp. 2-26                     Civics and Government, p. 98    styles can be applied to
and unitary systems of government (e.g., in                                                                          civil society
terms of effectiveness, prevention of the
abuse of power, responsiveness to popular
will, stability)
6.2 Knows the advantages and disadvantages        LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     N/A
of confederal, federal, and unitary systems in    LEIV, pp. 2-26                     Civics and Government, p. 98;
fulfilling the purposes of constitutional                                            NAEP: National Civics




                                                                            17
government                                                                            Consensus Project, p. 49
Standard 7: Understands alternative
forms of representation and how they
serve the purposes of constitutional
government
7.1 Understands the major arguments for and        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for    Offers basic definitions
against representative government as                                                  Civics and Government, p. 98
distinguished from direct popular rule
7.2 Knows common bases upon which                  N/A                                N/A                            N/A
representation is or has been established
(e.g., geographic areas; citizenship; social
class or caste; age, sex, or property; religion,
race, and ethnicity)
7.3 Understands differing bases of electoral       LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6             N/A                            N/A
systems (e.g., winner-take-all systems,            Lessons 3 and 5
proportional systems)                              LEIV, N/A
7.4 Understands differing theories of              N/A
representation (e.g., obligation of a
representative to promote the interests of a
particular constituency vs. obligation to
promote the interests of the society as a
whole)
II. What are the Basic Values and
Principals of American Democracy
Standard 8: Understands the central ideas
of American constitutional government
and how this form of government has
shaped the character of American society
8.1 Knows major historical events that led to      LE I, Unit 4, Chapter 6,           N/A                            N/A
the creation of limited government in the          Lessons 3 & 4
United States (e.g., Magna Carta (1215),
common law, and the Bill of Rights (1689)
in England; colonial experience, Declaration




                                                                              18
of Independence (1776), Articles of
Confederation (1781), state constitutions and
charters, United States Constitution (1787),
Bill of Rights (1791) in the United States)       LEIV, NA
8.2 Knows how the creation of American            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,             CCE: National Standards for    Offers basic definitions
constitutional government was influenced by       Lessons 2 & 3                       Civics and Government, p. 99
the central ideas of the natural rights
philosophy (e.g., all persons have the right to
life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of
happiness; the major purpose of government
is to protect those rights)                       LEIV, NA
8.3 Knows the major ideas about republican        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2    N/A                            N/A
government that influenced the development
of the United States Constitution (e.g., the
concept of representative government, the
importance of civic virtue or concern for the
common good)                                      LEIV, NA
8.4 Understands the concept of popular            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2    N/A                            N/A
sovereignty as a central idea of American
constitutional government (e.g., the people
as the ultimate source of the power to create,
alter, or abolish governments)                    LEIV, NA
8.5 Understands the necessity for a written       LE I, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            N/A                            N/A
Constitution to set forth the organization of     Lessons 3 & 5
government and to grant and distribute its
powers (e.g., among different branches of the
national government, between the national
government and the states, between the
people and the government)                        LEIV, NA
8.6 Understands how various provisions of         LE I, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A                            N/A
the Constitution and principles of the
constitutional system help to insure an
effective government that will not exceed its




                                                                             19
limits
8.7 Understands how the design of the             LEI, Unit4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3    N/A                              N/A
institutions of government and the federal
system works to channel and limit
governmental power in order to serve the
purposes of American constitutional
government                                        LEIV, NA
8.8 Understands how the belief in limited         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A                              N/A
government and the values and principles of
the Constitution have influenced American
society (e.g., the Constitution has
encouraged Americans to engage in
commercial and other productive activities)       LEIV, NA
8.9 Knows ways in which Americans have            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A                              N/A
attempted to make the values and principles
of the Constitution a reality                     LEIV, N/A
8.10 Knows how the distinctive                    LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   N/A                              N/A
characteristics of American society are
similar to and different from the                 LEIV, N/A
characteristics of other societies
Standard 9: Understands the importance
of Americans sharing and supporting
certain values, beliefs, and principles of
American constitutional democracy
9.1 Understands how the institutions of           LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            CCE: National Standards for      Offers basic definitions
government reflect fundamental values and         Lessons 2 & 6                      Civics and Government, p.        Definition of
principles (e.g., justice, equality, the                                             108; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 380   “followership” can be
common good, popular sovereignty, checks          LEIV, pp. 35-43                                                     applied to civil society
and balances)
9.2 Understands the interdependence among         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for      Definition of group
certain values and principles (e.g., individual                                      Civics and Government, p. 108    participation can be
liberty and diversity)                            LEIV, pp. 35-43                                                     applied to civil society
9.3 Understands the significance of               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for      Definition of




                                                                            20
fundamental values and principles for the                                         Civics and Government, p.        management principles
individual and society                         LEIV, pp. 35-43                    108; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 380   can be applied to civil
                                                                                                                   society
Standard 10: Understands the roles of
voluntarism and organized groups in
American social and political life
10.1 Knows how the Puritan ethic               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   N/A                              N/A
encouraged American voluntarism                LEIV, N/A
10.2 Knows how voluntary associations and      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for      Defines civil value of
other organized groups have been involved                                         Civics and Government, p. 102    higher education
in functions usually associated with
government (e.g., social welfare, education)   LEIV, N/A
10.3 Knows the extent of voluntarism in        NA                                 CCE: National Standards for      N/A
American society compared to other                                                Civics and Government, p. 102
countries
10.4 Understands the relationship between      NA                                 N/A                              N/A
American voluntarism and Americans' ideas
about limited government
10.5 Understands issues that arise regarding   NA                                 CCE: National Standards for      N/A
what responsibilities belong to individuals                                       Civics and Government, p.
and groups and the private sector, what                                           102; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 16-
responsibilities belong to the government,                                        17
and how these responsibilities should be
shared by the private sector and the
government
10.6 Knows the historical and contemporary     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   N/A                              N/A
role of various organized groups in local,
state, and national politics (e.g., unions;
professional organizations; religious,
charitable, service, and civic groups)         LEIV, N/A
Standard 11: Understands the role of
diversity in American life and the
importance of shared values, political




                                                                      21
beliefs, and civic beliefs in an increasingly
diverse American society
11.1 Knows how the racial, religious,            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for      N/A
socioeconomic, regional, ethnic, and                                                Civics and Government, p.
linguistic diversity of American society has                                        103; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 25-
influenced American politics through time        LEIV, NA                           27
11.2 Knows different viewpoints regarding        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for      N/A
the role and value of diversity in American                                         Civics and Government, p.
life                                             LEIV, pp. 67-85                    103; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 25-
                                                                                    27
11.3 Knows examples of conflicts stemming        LEIV, pp. 67-85                    CCE: National Standards for
from diversity, and understands how some                                            Civics and Government, p.
conflicts have been managed and why some                                            103; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 27-
of them have not yet been successfully                                              231
resolved
11.4 Knows why constitutional values and         LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for      Offers basic definitions
principles must be adhered to when               LEIV, pp. 67-85                    Civics and Government, p. 103
managing conflicts over diversity
11.5 Knows beliefs that are common to            NA                                 CCE: National Standards for      N/A
American political culture (e.g., belief in                                         Civics and Government, p.
equality of opportunity; mistrust of power, as                                      104; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 131
well as high expectations of what elected
officials and government should do; the need
to admit to faults or shortcomings in the
society; the belief that social, economic, or
political problems can be alleviated through
collective effort)
11.6 Knows how shared ideas and values of        N/A                                N/A                              N/A
American political culture are reflected in
various sources and documents (e.g., the Bill
of Rights, The Federalist and Anti-federalist
writings, Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen
Points," Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "Letter




                                                                        22
from the Birmingham Jail," landmark
decisions of the Supreme Court of the United
States)
Standard 12: Understands the
relationships among liberalism,
republicanism, and American
constitutional democracy
12.1 Understands that the central idea of          NA                             CCE: National Standards for     N/A
liberalism is the belief that the individual has                                  Civics and Government, p.
rights that exist independently of government                                     106; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 12
and that ought to be protected by and against
government
12.2 Knows the general history of liberalism       N/A                            N/A                             N/A
(e.g., ideas of liberalism that emerged in the
seventeenth century and developed during
the eighteenth-century Enlightenment;
relationship between liberalism and the
Protestant Reformation and the rise of
market economies and free enterprise)
12.3 Knows the difference between the use          N/A                            N/A                             N/A
of the term "liberal" in referring to the
American form of government and the use of
the terms "liberal" and "conservative" in
referring to positions on the spectrum of
American politics
12.4 Understands that the term "democracy"         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,        CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
is derived from the Greek word for "rule by        Lessons 3, 4, & 6              Civics and Government, p. 106
the people," and that the central focus of
democracy is the idea that the people are the
source of authority for government
12.5 Knows the difference between the use          N/A                            N/A                             N/A
of the term "democratic" to refer to the
American form of government and the use of




                                                                             23
the term to refer to the Democratic Party in
the United States
12.6 Understands how the basic premises of        N/A                                N/A   N/A
liberalism and democracy are joined in the
Declaration of Independence, where they are
stated as "self-evident Truths" (e.g., "all men
are created equal," authority is derived from
consent of the governed, people have the
right to alter or abolish government when it
fails to fulfill its purposes)
12.7 Understands that a "republic" is a state     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            N/A   N/A
in which the citizenry as a whole is              Lessons 3 & 6
considered sovereign but which is governed
by elected representatives rather than directly
by the people as in direct democracy              LEIV, NA
12.8 Knows the major ideas of republicanism       N/A                                N/A   N/A
(e.g., government of a republic seeks the
public or common good rather than the good
of a particular group or class of society;
"civic virtue" of citizens is essential, in
which citizens put the public or common
good above their private interests)
12.9 Knows how ideas of classical                 LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 3   N/A   N/A
republicanism are reflected in the United
States Constitution (e.g., the guarantee to the
states of a "republican form of government"
in Article IV, Section 4; provisions for the
election of representatives to the Congress in
Article I, Section 2 and the Seventeenth
Amendment)                                        LEIV, N/A
12.10 Knows how the use of the term               N/A                                N/A   N/A
"republican" to refer to the American form of
government differs from the use of the term




                                                                            24
to refer to the Republican Party in the United
States
12.11 Understands reasons why classical          N/A                                N/A                             N/A
republicanism and liberalism are potentially
in conflict (e.g., on the primary purpose of
government as the promotion of the public
good or as the promotion of the protection of
individual rights)
12.12 Knows various viewpoints regarding         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
the importance of civic virtue for American                                         Civics and Government, p.
democracy today                                                                     107; Quigley, Civitas, pp. 12
                                                 LEIV, NA
Standard 13: Understands the character
of American political and social conflict
and factors that tend to prevent or lower
its intensity
13.1 Understands issues that involve             LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     N/A
conflicts among fundamental values and                                              Civics and Government, p.
principles such as the conflict between          LEIV, pp. 96-112                   108; NAEP: National Civics
liberty and authority                                                               Consensus Project, p. 48;
                                                                                    Quigley, Civitas, pp. 416-419
13.2 Knows why people may agree on values        LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of group
or principles in the abstract but disagree                                          Civics and Government, p. 109   dynamics can be applied
when they are applied to specific issues such    LEIV, pp. 67-85                                                    to civil society
as the right to life and capital punishment
                                                                                                                    Discussion of conflict
                                                                                                                    management can be
                                                                                                                    applied to civil society
13.3 Knows how the rights of organized           N/A                                N/A                             N/A
labor and the role of government in
regulating business have created political
conflict
13.4 Knows how the concept of a loyal            N/A                                N/A                             N/A




                                                                        25
opposition and recourse to the legal system
to manage conflicts have helped to lessen the
divisiveness of political conflict in the
United States
13.5 Knows how universal public education           NA                                 CCE: National Standards for   Defines value of higher
and the existence of a popular culture that                                            Civics and Government, p.     education
crosses class boundaries have tended to                                                104; NAEP: National Civics
reduce the intensity of political conflict (e.g.,                                      Consensus Project, p. 48
by creating common ground among diverse
groups)
Standard 14: Understands issues
concerning the disparities between ideals
and reality in American political and
social life
14.1 Understands the importance of                  N/A                                N/A                           N/A
established ideals in political life and why
Americans should insist that current
practices constantly be compared with these
ideals
14.2 Knows discrepancies between                    N/A                                N/A                           N/A
American ideals and the realities of
American social and political life (e.g., the
ideal of equal opportunity and the reality of
unfair discrimination)
14.3 Knows historical and contemporary              LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 4   CCE: National Standards for   Offers basic definition
efforts to reduce discrepancies between                                                Civics and Government, p.
ideals and reality in American public life                                             109; NAEP: National Civics
(e.g., union movements, government                                                     Consensus Project, p. 49
programs such as Head Start, civil rights
legislation and enforcement)
III. How Does the Government
Established by the Constitution Embody
the Purposes, Values, and Principles of




                                                                           26
American Democracy?
Standard 15: Understands how the United
States Constitution grants and distributes
power and responsibilities to national and
state government and how it seeks to
prevent the abuse of power
15. 1 Understands how the overall design         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 4   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definition
and specific features of the Constitution                                           Civics and Government, p. 110
prevent the abuse of power by aggregating        LEIV, NA
power at the national, state, and local levels
to allow government to be responsive;
dispersing power among different levels of
government to protect individual rights,
promote the common good, and encourage
citizen participation; and using a system of
checks and balances (e.g., separated
institutions with shared powers, provisions
for veto and impeachment, federalism,
judicial review, the Bill of Rights)
15.2 Knows why the framers adopted a             Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 5        N/A                             N/A
federal system in which power and
responsibility are divided and shared            LEIV, NA
between a national government and state
governments
15.3 Understands ways in which federalism        N/A                                N/A                             N/A
is designed to protect individual rights to
life, liberty, and property and how it has at
times made it possible for states to deny the
rights of certain groups, (e.g. states' rights
and slavery, denial of suffrage to women and
minority groups)
15.4 Understands both the historical and         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
contemporary roles of national and state         Lessons 3, 4, & 5                  Civics and Government, p. 111




                                                                           27
governments in the federal system and the
importance of the Tenth Amendment                LEIV, NA
15.5 Understands the purposes, organization,     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,        CCE: National Standards for     N/A
and functions of the legislative, executive,     Lessons 5 & 6                  Civics and Government, p.
and judicial branches and the independent                                       112; National Standards for
regulatory agencies (e.g., agencies such as                                     Business Education, p. 22;
the Federal Reserve, Food and Drug               LEIV, NA                       Quigley, Civitas, p. 380
Administration, Federal Communications
Commission)


15.6 Understands the extent to which each        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,        CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
branch of the government reflects the            Lessons 3, 5, & 6              Civics and Government, p. 112
people's sovereignty (e.g., Congress
legislates on behalf of the people, the
president represents the nation as a whole,
the Supreme Court interprets the
Constitution on behalf of the people)
15.7 Understands how specific features and       LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,        CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
the overall design of the Constitution results   Lessons 3 & 5                  Civics and Government, p. 112
in tensions among the three branches (e.g.,
the power of the purse, the power of
impeachment, advice and consent, veto
power, judicial review), and comprehends
the argument that the tensions resulting from
separation of powers, checks and balances,
and judicial review tend to slow down the
process of making and enforcing laws, thus
insuring better outcomes
15.8 Knows current issues concerning             N/A                            N/A                             N/A
representation (e.g., term limitations,
legislative districting, geographical and
group representation)




                                                                           28
15.9 Understands how and why beliefs about       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
the purposes and functions of the national
government have changed over time
Standard 16: Understands the major
responsibilities of the national government
for domestic and foreign policy, and
understands how government is financed
through taxation
16.1 Understands how specific foreign            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   N/A                             N/A
policies such as national security and trade
policy affect the everyday lives of American     LEIV, NA
citizens and their communities
16.2 Understands competing arguments             N/A                                N/A                             N/A
concerning the role of government in major
areas of domestic and foreign policy (e.g.,
health care, education, child care, regulation
of business and industry, foreign aid,
intervention abroad)
16.3 Understands the tensions that results       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
from citizens' desire for government services
and benefits and their unwillingness to pay
taxes for them
16.4 Knows the history of taxation in the        NA                                 CCE: National Standards for     Discusses
United States                                                                       Civics and Government, p. 113   responsibilities of
                                                                                                                    paying taxes
16.5 Understands the equity of various kinds     LEI Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2    CCE: National Standards for     N/A
of taxes                                                                            Civics and Government, p.
                                                                                    113; National Standards for
                                                 LEIV, NA                           Business Education, p. 73
Standard 17: Understands issues
concerning the relationship between state
and local governments and the national
government and issues pertaining to




                                                                        29
representation at all three levels of
government
17.1 Knows the limits the United States          LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 4   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
Constitution places on the powers of the                                            Civics and Government, p. 114
states (e.g., prohibitions against impairing     LEIV, NA
interstate commerce, restrictions imposed by
the Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of
Rights through the process of incorporation)
and the limits the Constitution places on the
powers of the national government over state
governments (e.g., the national government
cannot abolish a state, the Tenth Amendment
to the Constitution reserves certain powers to
the states)

17.2 Understands that the two kinds of           N/A                                N/A                             N/A
power most commonly associated with state
governments are reserved powers, which are
powers not delegated to the national
government or prohibited to states by the
United States Constitution (e.g., legislation
regarding public safety, marriage, and
divorce; education; the conduct of elections;
chartering regional and local governments;
licensing drivers, businesses, and
professions) and concurrent powers, which
are powers jointly held with the national
government (e.g., legislating taxation,
regulating trade and industry, borrowing
money, maintaining courts, protecting the
environment)
17.3 Understands criteria for evaluating how     N/A                                N/A                             N/A
the relationship between state and local




                                                                        30
governments and the national government
has changed over time
17.4 Understands criteria for evaluating the       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
argument that state and local governments
provide significant opportunities for
experimentation and innovation
17.5 Understands criteria for evaluating the       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
relationship between his/her state and local
governments
17.6 Understands how the policies of state         N/A                                N/A                             N/A
and local governments provide citizens with
ways to monitor and influence the actions of
members of government and hold them
responsible for their actions (e.g.,
requirements of fair and public notice of
meetings, meetings of government agencies
must be open to the public, public trials,
provision of opportunities for citizens to be
heard)
Standard 18: Understands the role and
importance of law in the American
constitutional system and issues regarding
the judicial protection of individual rights
18.1 Understands how the rule of law makes         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
possible a system of ordered liberty that                                             Civics and Government, p.
protects the basic rights of citizens                                                 116; Quigley, Civitas, p. 15,
                                                                                      379
18.2 Knows historical and contemporary             N/A                                N/A                             N/A
practices that illustrate the central place of
the rule of law (e.g., submitting bills to legal
counsel to insure congressional compliance
with constitutional limitations, higher court
review of lower court compliance with the




                                                                          31
law, executive branch compliance with laws
enacted by Congress)
18.3 Knows historical and contemporary             N/A                                N/A                             N/A
events and practices that illustrate the
absence or breakdown of the rule of law
(e.g., events such as vigilantism in the early
West, Ku Klux Klan attacks, urban riots,
corruption in government and business,
police corruption, organized crime; practices
such as illegal searches and seizures, bribery,
interfering with the right to vote, perjury)
18.4 Knows historical and contemporary             LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   N/A                             N/A
illustrations of the idea of equal protection of
the laws for all persons (e.g., the Fourteenth     LEIV, NA
Amendment, Americans with Disabilities
Act, equal opportunity legislation)
18.5 Understands how the individual's rights       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
to life, liberty, and property are protected by
the trial and appellate levels of the judicial
process and by the principal varieties of law
(e.g., constitutional, criminal, and civil law)
18.6 Understands the effects of Americans          N/A                                CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of group
relying on the legal system to solve social,                                          Civics and Government, p. 116   dynamics can be applied
economic, and political problems rather than                                                                          to civil society
using other means, such as private
negotiations, mediation, and participation in
the political process
18.7 Understands the importance of an              N/A                                N/A                             N/A
independent judiciary in a constitutional
democracy
18.8 Knows historical and contemporary             N/A                                N/A                             N/A
instances in which judicial protections have
not been extended to all persons and




                                                                          32
instances in which judicial protections have
been extended to those deprived of them in
the past
18.9 Understands why due process rights in       N/A        N/A                             N/A
administrative and legislative procedures are
essential for protecting individual rights and
maintaining limited government
18.10 Knows how state and federal courts'        N/A        N/A                             N/A
power of judicial reflects the American idea
of constitutional government (i.e., limited
government) and understands the merits of
arguments for and against judicial review
Standard 19: Understands what is meant
by “the public agenda,” how it is set, and
how it is influenced by public opinion and
the media
19. 1 Understands how political institutions     N/A        N/A                             N/A
and political parties shape the public agenda
19.2 Understands why issues important to         N/A        N/A                             N/A
some groups and the nation do not become
part of the public agenda
19.3 Understands the concept of public           NA         CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of group
opinion, and knows alternative views of the                 Civics and Government, p.       dynamics can be applied
proper role of public opinion in a democracy.               118; Quigley, Civitas, p. 569   to civil society

19.4 Understands how public opinion is           N/A        N/A                             N/A
measured, used in public debate, and how it
can be influenced by the government and the
media
19.5 Understands the influence that public       N/A        N/A                             N/A
opinion has on public policy and the
behavior of public officials
19.6 Understands the ways in which               N/A        N/A                             N/A




                                                       33
television, radio, the press, newsletters, and
emerging means of communication influence
American politics; and understands the
extent to which various traditional forms of
political persuasion have been replaced by
electronic media
19.7 Understands the ways in which               N/A                                N/A                             N/A
television, radio, the press, newsletters, and
emerging means of communication influence
American politics; and understands the
extent to which various traditional forms of
political persuasion have been replaced by
electronic media
Standard 20: Understands the roles of
political parties, campaigns, elections, and
associations and groups in American
politics
20.1 Knows the origins and development of        N/A                                N/A                             N/A
the two party system in the United States,
and understands the role of third parties
20.2 Understands how and why American            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   CCE: National Standards for     **
political parties differ from ideological                                           Civics and Government, p. 119
parties in other countries
20.3 Knows the major characteristics of          N/A                                N/A                             N/A
American political parties, how they vary by
locality, how they reflect the dispersion of
power, and how they provide citizens with
numerous opportunities for participation
20.4 Understands how political parties are       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
involved in channeling public opinion,
allowing people to act jointly, nominating
candidates, conducting campaigns, and
training future leaders; and understands why




                                                                        34
political parties in the United States are
weaker today than they have been at times in
the past
20.5 Knows the characteristics of initiatives    N/A                                     N/A                              N/A
and referendums
20.6 Understands the significance of             N/A                                     N/A                              N/A
campaigns and elections in the American
political system, and knows current
criticisms of campaigns and proposals for
their reform
20.7 Knows historical and contemporary           N/A                                     N/A                              N/A
examples of associations and groups
performing functions otherwise performed
by the government such as social welfare and
education
20.8 Understands the extent to which             NA                                      CCE: National Standards for      Discussion of team
associations and groups enhance citizen                                                  Civics and Government, p.        dynamics can be applied
participation in American political life                                                 119; Quigley, Civitas, p. 420    to civil society
Standard 21: Understands the formation
and implementation of public policy
21.1 Knows a public policy issue at the local,   LEI, Public Policy defined in Unit 4,   N/A                              N/A
state, or national level well enough to          Chapter 6, Lesson 2
identify the major groups interested in that
issue and explain their respective positions     LEIV, NA
21.2 Understands the processes by which          LEI, Public Policy defined in Unit 4,   CCE: National Standards for      N/A
public policy concerning a local, state, or      Chapter 6, Lesson 2                     Civics and Government, p.
national issue is formed and carried out                                                 120; Quigley, Civitas, p. 638-
                                                 LEIV, NA                                639
21.3 Knows the points at which citizens can      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2        CCE: National Standards for      Discussion of
monitor or influence the process of public                                               Civics and Government, p.        negotiation processes
policy formation                                 LEIV, pp. 155-68                        120; NAEP: Civics Consensus      can be applied to civil
                                                                                         Project, p. 49; Quigley,         society
                                                                                         Civitas, p. 638-639




                                                                         35
21.4 Understands why agreement may be              LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of
difficult or impossible on issues such as                                             Civics and Government, p. 120   negotiation processes
abortion because of conflicts about values,        LEIV, pp. 155-68                                                   can be applied to civil
principles, and interests                                                                                             society
IV. What is the Relationship of the United
States to Other nations and to World
Affairs?
Standard 22: Understands how the world
is organized politically into nation-states,
how nation-states interact with one
another, and issues surrounding U.S.
foreign policy
22.1 Understands the significance of               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,            N/A                             N/A
principal foreign policies and events in the       Lessons 4 & 6
United States' relations with the world (e.g.,
Monroe Doctrine, World Wars I and II,              LEIV, NA
formation of the United Nations, Marshall
Plan, NATO, Korean and Vietnam Wars, end
of the Cold War)
22.2 Understands how and why the United            LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
States assumed the role of world leader after                                         Civics and Government, p. 123
World War II and what its current leadership       LEIV, NA
role is in the world
22.3 Understands the major foreign policy          N/A                                N/A                             N/A
positions that have characterized the United
States' relations with the world (e.g., isolated
nation, imperial power, and world leader)
22.4 Knows how the powers over foreign             N/A                                N/A                             N/A
affairs that the Constitution gives to the
president, Congress, and the federal judiciary
have been used over time; and understands
the tension between constitutional provisions
and the requirements of foreign policy (e.g.,




                                                                             36
the power of Congress to declare war and the
need of the president to make expeditious
decisions in times of international
emergency, the power of the president to
make treaties and the need for the Senate to
approve them)
22.5 Understands the process by which              N/A        N/A                             N/A
United States foreign policy is made,
including the roles of federal agencies,
domestic interest groups, the media, and the
public; and knows the ways in which
Americans can influence foreign policy
22.6 Understands the process by which              N/A        N/A                             N/A
United States foreign policy is made,
including the roles of federal agencies,
domestic interest groups, the media, and the
public; and knows the ways in which
Americans can influence foreign policy
22.7 Understands the idea of the national          N/A        N/A                             N/A
interest and how it is used as a criterion for
shaping American foreign policy
22.8 Understands the influence of American         N/A        N/A                             N/A
constitutional values and principles on
American foreign policy (e.g., a commitment
to the self-determination of nations), and
understands the tensions that might arise
among American values, principles, and
interests as the nation deals with the practical
requirements of international politics (e.g., a
commitment to human rights and the
requirements of national security)
22.9 Understands the current role of the           NA         CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of leadership
United States in peacemaking and                              Civics and Government, p. 123   can be applied to civil




                                                         37
peacekeeping                                                                                         society
22.10 Understands the purposes and               N/A                 N/A                             N/A
functions of major governmental
international organizations such as the
Organization of American States and major
non-governmental international
organizations such as the Roman Catholic
Church and multinational corporations
22.11 Understands the role of the United         N/A                 N/A                             N/A
States in establishing and maintaining
principal international organizations (e.g.,
UN, UNICEF, GATT, NATO, OAS, World
Bank, International Monetary Fund)
22.12 Knows some important bilateral and         N/A                 N/A                             N/A
multilateral agreements to which the United
States is signatory (e.g., NAFTA, Helsinki
Accord, Antarctic Treaty, Most Favored
Nation Agreements)
Standard 23: Understands the impact of
significant political and nonpolitical
developments on the United States and
other nations
23.1 Understands the influence that              N/A                 N/A                             N/A
American ideas about rights have had abroad
and how other peoples' ideas about rights
have influenced Americans
23.2 Understands the effects that significant    LEI, pp. 132        CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definition
world political developments have on the                             Civics and Government, p. 125
United States (e.g., the French, Russian, and
Chinese Revolutions; rise of nationalism;
World Wars I and II; decline of colonialism;
terrorism; multiplication of nation-states and
the proliferation of conflict within them; the




                                                                38
emergence of regional organizations such as
the European Union)
23.3 Understands the effects that significant    LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   N/A                             N/A
American political developments have on
other nations (e.g., immigration policies;
opposition to communism; promotion of
human rights; foreign trade; economic,
military, and humanitarian aid)
23.4 Understands why transnational loyalties     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 6   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
such as those to ethnic, religious, tribal, or                                      Civics and Government, p. 125
linguistic groups sometimes supersede
allegiance to a nation-state (e.g., Communist
International, Islam, Christianity)
23.5 Understands historical and                  N/A                                N/A                             N/A
contemporary responses of the American
government to demographic and
environmental changes that affect the United
States
23.6 Knows some of the principal economic,       N/A                                N/A                             N/A
technological, and cultural effects the United
States has had on the world (assembly line
manufacturing, research and development in
computer technology, popular music,
fashion, film, television)
23.7 Understands the principal effects that      N/A                                N/A                             N/A
economic conditions, technological
developments, and cultural developments in
other nations have had on American society
and the lives of American citizens (e.g.,
economic conditions such as multinational
corporations, migration of labor;
technological developments such as fax
machines, personal computers, television;




                                                                        39
cultural developments such as religious
movements, resurgence of ethnic
consciousness)
V. What are the Roles of the Citizen in
American Democracy?
Standard 24: Understands the meaning of
citizenship in the United States, and
knows the requirements for citizenship
and naturalization
24.1 Understands the distinction between        LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
citizens and non citizens (aliens) and the      LEIV, NA                           Civics and Government, p. 127
process by which aliens may become citizens
24.2 Understands how naturalization in          LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
America compares with naturalization in         LEIV, NA                           Civics and Government, p. 127
other countries
24.3 Knows the criteria used for admission      LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definitions
to citizenship in the United States such as                                        Civics and Government, p. 127
five years of residence in U.S.; ability to
read, write, and speak English; proof of good   LEIV, NA
moral character; knowledge of the history of
the United States; knowledge of and support
for the values and principles of American
constitutional government
Standard 25: Understands issues
regarding personal, political, and
economic rights
25.1 Understands the importance to              LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definition
individuals and to society of personal rights                                      Civics and Government, p.       Definition of
such as freedom of thought and conscience,                                         128-129; Quigley, Civitas, p.   individuality can be
privacy and personal autonomy, and the right                                       18                              applied to civil society
to due process of law and equal protection of
the law
25.2 Understands contemporary issues that       N/A                                N/A                             N/A




                                                                       40
involve political rights such as access to
classified information and changing the
boundaries of congressional and state
legislative districts
25.3 Understands the argument that                NA         CCE: National Standards for      Definition of
economic responsibilities follow from                        Civics and Government, p.        individuality can be
economic rights                                              130; National Standards for      applied to civil society
                                                             Business Education, p. 73, 74;
                                                             Quigley, Civitas, p. 18-19
25.4 Understands contemporary issues that         N/A        N/A                              N/A
involve economic rights such as consumer
product safety, taxation, affirmative action,
eminent domain, zoning, copyright, patents
25.5 Knows major documentary sources of           N/A        N/A                              N/A
personal, political, and economic rights such
as the Northwest Ordinance, state
constitutions and bills of rights, court
decisions, and common law
25.6 Understands how personal, political,         N/A        N/A                              N/A
and economic rights are secured by
constitutional government and by such
means as the rule of law, checks and
balances, an independent judiciary, and a
vigilant citizenry
Standard 26: Understands issues
regarding the proper scope and limits of
rights and the relationships among
personal, political, and economic rights
26.1 Knows how to distinguish among               NA         CCE: National Standards for      Discussion of the
personal, political, and economic rights (e.g.,              Civics and Government, p.        individual can be
the right to live where one chooses as                       128-129                          applied to civil society
distinct from the right to use money to buy
personal property as distinct from the right to




                                                        41
register to vote)
26.2 Understands different positions on a        NA                                 CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of the
contemporary conflict between rights such as                                        Civics and Government, p. 131   individual can be
one person's right to free speech versus                                                                            applied to civil society
another person's right to be heard
26.3 Knows examples of situations in which       LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     N/A
personal, political, or economic rights are in   LEIV, pp. 67-85                    Civics and Government, p. 130
conflict
26.4 Understands the argument that poverty,      N/A                                N/A                             N/A
unemployment, and urban decay serve to
limit both political and economic rights
26.5 Understands the argument that personal,     N/A                                N/A                             N/A
political, and economic rights reinforce each
other
26.6 Understands the relationship between        N/A                                N/A                             N/A
political rights and the economic right to
acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of
property
26.7 Understands the relationship of political   N/A                                CCE: National Standards for     N/A
rights to economic rights such as the right to                                      Civics and Government, p. 130
choose one's work, to change employment,
and to join a labor union and other lawful
associations
Standard 27: Understands how certain
character traits enhance citizens’ ability to
fulfill personal and civic responsibilities
27.1 Understands the distinction between         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
personal and civic responsibilities and the                                         Civics and Government, p. 131
tensions that may arise between them             LEIV, NA

27.2 Understands how individuals and             NA                                 CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of financial
society benefit from the fulfillment of                                             Civics and Government, p. 131   planning, taxation, and
personal responsibilities such as supporting                                                                        career choices can be




                                                                        42
one's family and caring for, nurturing, and                                                                          applied to civil society
educating one's children
27.3 Understands the importance of each           LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic definition
citizen reflecting on, criticizing, and                                              Civics and Government, p.       Discussion of leadership
reaffirming basic constitutional principles       LEIV, NA                           132; Quigley, Civitas, p. 13    can be applied to civil
                                                                                                                     society
27.4 Understands the importance for               LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Discussion of mentoring
individuals and society of fulfilling civic       LEIV, pp. 168-180                  Civics and Government, p.       can be applied to civil
responsibilities such as assuming leadership                                         132; NAEP: Civics Consensus     society
when appropriate, registering to vote, and                                           Project, p. 48
voting knowledgeably on candidates and
issues
27.5 Understands whether and when moral           NA                                 CCE: National Standards for     N/A
obligations or constitutional principles                                             Civics and Government, p.
require one to refuse to assume certain civic                                        132; Quigley, Civitas, p. 13,
responsibilities                                                                     611
27.6 Understands the importance of                LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     N/A
dispositions that lead citizens to become                                            Civics and Government, p.
independent members of society such as self-      LEIV, pp. 181-90                   133; NAEP: Civics Consensus
discipline, self-governance, and individual                                          Project, p. 48; National
responsibility (i.e., fulfilling the moral and                                       Standards for Business
legal obligations of membership in society)                                          Education, p. 22; Quigley,
                                                                                     Civitas, p. 13
27.7 Understands the importance of                Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2        CCE: National Standards for     N/A
dispositions that foster respect for individual                                      Civics and Government, p.
worth and human dignity such as                   LEIV, pp. 249-60                   133; NAEP: Civics Consensus
compassion and respect for the rights and                                            Project, p. 48; National
choices of individuals                                                               Standards for Business
                                                                                     Education, p. 22; Quigley,
                                                                                     Civitas, p. 13
27.8 Understands the importance of                NA                                 CCE: National Standards for     N/A
dispositions that incline citizens toward                                            Civics and Government, p.
public affairs such as civic mindedness and                                          133; NAEP: Civics Consensus




                                                                         43
patriotism (i.e., loyalty to the principles                                           Project, p. 48; Quigley,
underlying American constitutional                                                    Civitas, p. 13
democracy as distinguished from jingoism
and chauvinism)
Standard 28: Understands how
participation in civic and political life can
help citizens attain individual and public
goals
28.1 Understands how individual                    LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
participation in the political process relates                                        Civics and Government, p. 135
to the realization of the fundamental values       LEIV, NA
of American constitutional democracy
28.2 Understands what distinguishes                LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
participation in government and political life                                        Civics and Government, p. 136
from nonpolitical participation in civil           LEIV, NA
society and private life (e.g., participating in
a campaign to change laws regulating
nursing homes as opposed to volunteering to
work in a nursing home), and understands
the importance of both forms of participation
to American constitutional democracy
28.3 Knows the many ways citizens can              N/A                                N/A                             N/A
participate in the political process at local,
state, and national levels, and understands
the usefulness of other forms of political
participation in influencing public policy
(e.g., attending political and governmental
meetings, demonstrating, contacting public
officials, writing letters, boycotting,
community organizing, petitioning,
picketing)
28.4 Knows historical and contemporary             LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Discussions of racism
examples of citizen movements seeking to                                              Civics and Government, p. 136   and sexism pertinent




                                                                          44
expand liberty, to insure the equal rights of    LEIV, NA
all citizens, and/or to realize other values
fundamental to American constitutional
democracy (e.g., the suffrage and civil rights
movements)
28.5 Understands the importance of voting as     LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
a form of political participation                                                   Civics and Government, p.       Offers practical
                                                                                    136; Quigley, Civitas, p. 47    information on how to
                                                                                                                    register to vote
Standard 29: Understands the importance
of political leadership, public service, and
a knowledgeable citizenry in American
constitutional democracy
29.1 Knows various ways students can             LEI, NA                            CCE: National Standards for     Discusses prejudice
exercise leadership in public affairs, and                                          Civics and Government, p. 136
knows opportunities for citizens to engage in    LEIV, pp. 96-112
careers in public service
29.2 Understands why becoming                    LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6, Lesson 2   CCE: National Standards for     Offers basic discussion
knowledgeable about public affairs and the                                          Civics and Government, p.       Discussions of
values and principles of American                                                   137; Quigley, Civitas, p. 43    individual rights,
constitutional democracy, and                                                                                       prejudice, and sexism
communicating that knowledge to others are                                                                          can be applied to civil
important forms of participation, and                                                                               society
understands the argument that constitutional
democracy requires the participation of an
attentive, knowledgeable, and competent
citizenry
29.3 Understands how awareness of the            NA                                 N/A                             N/A
nature of American constitutional change
gives citizens the ability to reaffirm or
change fundamental constitutional values




                                                                        45
                                                     CIVICS: STUDY CONCLUSIONS


         Given the numerous Not Applicable (N/A) entries listed here in the Curriculum Reference column, it might at first glance seem that these
textbooks have little relevance to the McREL standards and benchmarks for Civics. There is an obvious reason for this: neither of the textbooks
here purports to be an introduction to or history of Civics. Despite the fact that these books are not centrally concerned with the discipline of
Civics, however, each contains at least some portion of information that can be said to meet the standards, if only, in some cases, in a comparative
or applicative way. That is, the topics examined in these books can easily be related to the realm of Civics as instructors draw parallels between
issues covered by the books and this discipline or as instructors apply the theories and concepts defined within to problems and issues in the
discipline. In this way, although the textbooks can in no way be said to offer a thorough and definitive examination of the discipline, they do at
least provide a basis for encouraging student awareness of the history and development of American civil society.
         In general, those standards that have the most N/As tend to be the most specific. The McREL standards are at once extensive and
particular; they cover definitions of various types of governments as well as broad, theoretical issues (i.e. negotiating consensus in a democracy)
and central historical events in American history that contributed to the development of American civics. When measured by the more historically
minded standards, the textbooks examined here do not fare too wellonly Leadership Education I offers a specific section on civics, and its
definitions of governmental systems and the separation of powers in America are rudimentary. The curriculum is more relevant to the more
abstract standards. Standard 13.5, for instance, addresses the importance of public education to creating a sense of group identity that helps
diminish conflict between various factions. Similarly, Standard 1.6 discusses the essential aim of government and politics, which is to organize
society. Although Leadership Education IV is a management textbook, the principles it defines can be applied to government as easily as
business; as such, the use of specific classroom examples of political management would make this standard more immediately relevant to the
textbook material.
         In conclusion, the curriculum examined here is not first and foremost concerned with Civics; therefore, many of the McREL standards are
not relevant to the material in the textbooks. There is, however, the opportunity to make the material relevant. Each textbook contains at least a
section or two that can be applied to this discipline in order to enlarge student appreciation of the history and development of Civics.




                                                                        46
                                                       HEALTH: STUDY OVERVIEW

         The subject matter addressed in LEI: Citizenship, Character, and Air Force Tradition, is divided into four units. Unit One “deals with the
history, purpose, mission of AFJROTC, military traditions…,” the uniform, grooming standards, and Air Force customs and courtesies. Unit Two
“deals with … personal behavior and responsibility,” ethics, stress management, study habits, suicide and suicide prevention, and gangs. Unit
Three deals with citizenship, “different forms of government throughout the world,” and “duties and characteristics of a good democratic citizen.”
Unit Four deals with personal health topics such as exercise, good nutrition, the effects of drugs, alcohol, and smoking; and first aid. There are
three appendices with suggested readings on teen/youth suicide, gangs and youth violence, and smoking, drug, and alcohol abuse.
         The subject matter addressed in LEIV is a “guide to understanding the fundamentals of management, managing yourself, and others,” and
is divided into four units. Unit One discusses management techniques including principles and functions of management. Unit Two deals with
management decisions by discussing conflict management, personal coping mechanisms for conflicts in values; skills, roles, and performance of
management; and delegation. Unit Three discusses the management functions of problem solving, decision making, negotiation, and mentoring.
Unit Four presents how to managing one’s self and others by managing self-development, time, information, and others.
         LEIV Student Workbook contains definition, matching, true/false, listing and describing, , crossword puzzles, word find puzzles, fill-in-
the-blank, and multiple choice exercises dealing with the same topics as those found in LEIV.
         LEIV Instructors Guide contains “exercises in problem-solving, behaviors of leaders, negotiation, decision making, creative thinking
following instructions, and management.”




                                                                        47
                                           STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR HEALTH

STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS                         CURRICULUM REFERENCE              ADDITIONAL SUPPORT                    COMMENTS
          Health
Standard 1: Knows the availability and
effective use of health services, products,
and information
1. Knows factors that influence personal         LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education         N/A
selection of health care resources, products,                                      Standards, p. 18;
and services                                                                       Health Framework for
                                                                                   California Public Schools, p.
                                                                                   149
2. Knows how to determine whether various        LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education         Weak; health
resources from home, school, and the                                               Standards, p. 18;                 information given, but
community present valid health information,                                        Michigan Essential                no direction on
products, and services.                                                            Goals/Objectives for Health, p.   evaluating resources
                                                                                   26
3. Knows local, state, federal, and private      LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   Michigan Essential                N/A
agencies that protect and/or inform the                                            Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
consumer.                                                                          25
4. Understands the cost and accessibility of a   Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1       National Health Education         N/A
variety of health-care services.                                                   Standards, p. 18;
                                                                                   Health Framework for
                                                                                   California Public Schools, pp.
                                                                                   148-149
5. Knows situations that require professional    LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education         N/A
health services in the areas of prevention,                                        Standards, p. 18;
treatment, and rehabilitation.                                                     Michigan Essential
                                                                                   Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                   11




                                                                        48
Standard 2: Knows environmental and
external factors that affect individual and
community health
l. Knows how the health of individuals can     LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education        N/A
be influenced by the community.                                                  Standards, pp. 17, 20;
                                                                                 Health Framework for
                                                                                 California Public Schools, p.
                                                                                 138
2. Knows how individuals can improve or        LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education        N/A
maintain community health (e.g., becoming                                        Standards, p. 19;
active in environmental and economic issues                                      Health Framework for
that affect health, assisting in the                                             California Public Schools, pp.
development of public health policies and                                        138-139
laws, exercising voting privileges).
3. Understands how the environment             LEI Unit 3, Chapter 5, Lesson 2   National Health Education        This page deals with
influences the health of the community.                                          Standards, p. 17;                passive smoking; unable
                                                                                 Health Framework for             to find anything about
                                                                                 California Public Schools, p.    the environment and
                                                                                 139                              health of the community
4. Understands how the prevention and          LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1   National Health Education        No mention was made
control of health problems are influenced by                                     Standards, pp. 1, 20;            of research or medical
research and medical advances                                                                                     advances; only
                                                                                                                  discussed prevention
                                                                                                                  and control of health
                                                                                                                  problems
5. Knows how public health policies and      LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 1     National Health Education        Air Force regulations
government regulations impact health-related                                     Standards, p. 17;                only ones mentioned
issues.                                                                          Health Framework for
                                                                                 California Public Schools, p.
                                                                                 138; Michigan Essential
                                                                                 Goals/Objectives for Health,
                                                                                 pp. 25, 30
6. Understands how cultural diversity          N/A                               N/A                              N/A




                                                                      49
enriches and challenges health behaviors.

Standard 3: Understands the relationship
of family health to individual health.
1. Understands methods to facilitate the          N/A                                 Health Framework for             N/A
transition from the role of a child to the role                                       California Public Schools, p.
of an independent adult in the family.                                                135
2. Knows the effects of teenage pregnancy         N/A                                 N/A                              N/A
on teenagers, their children, their parents,
and society.
3. Understands the responsibilities inherent      N/A                                 N/A                              N/A
in dating relationships, marriage and
parenthood

Standard 4: Knows how to maintain
mental and emotional health.
1. Knows skills used to communicate               LE I, Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lesson 3   N/A                              N/A
effectively with family, friends, and others,
and the effects of open and honest
communication.
2. Knows strategies for coping with and           LEI , Unit 2, Chapter 2,            National Health Education        N/A
overcoming feelings of rejection, social          Lessons 2 and 4                     Standards, pp. 19, 21;
isolation, and other forms of stress.                                                 Health Framework for
                                                                                      California Public Schools, pp.
                                                                                      124-125
3. Understands the role of denial as a            LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lesson 4    Health Framework for             N/A
negative influence on mental and emotional                                            California Public Schools, p.
health, and ways to overcome denial and                                               125
seek assistance when needed.

Standard 5: Knows essential concepts and
practices concerning injury prevention
and safety.




                                                                             50
1.Knows injury prevention strategies for         LEI Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lessons 2, 4,   National Health Education         N/A
community health.                                & 5; LEIV Chapter 2-1                  Standards, p. 19
2. Knows possible causes of conflicts in         LEIV Chapter 2-2                       National Health Education         N/A
schools, families, and communities.                                                     Standards, p. 21
3. Knows strategies for solving interpersonal    LEIV    Chapter 3-3;                   National Health Education         N/A
conflicts without harming self or others.                                               Standards, p. 21; Health
                                                                                        Framework for California
                                                                                        Public Schools, p. 129
4. Knows how refusal negotiation, and            LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lesson 3       National Health Education         N/A
collaboration skills can be used to avoid        LEIV Chapter 3-3;                      Standards, p. 21; Health
potentially harmful situations.                                                         Framework for California
                                                                                        Public Schools, p. 129

Standard 6: Understands essential
concepts about nutrition and diet.
1. Understands how nutrient and energy           LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 2        Health Framework for              N/A
needs vary in relation to gender, activity                                              California Public Schools, p.
level, and stage of life cycle.                                                         122; Michigan Essential
                                                                                        Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                        14
2. Understands the reliability and validity of   LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 2        Health Framework for              N/A
various sources of food and nutrition                                                   California Public Schools, pp.
information.                                                                            149-150; Michigan Essential
                                                                                        Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                        15
3. Understands the role of food additives        LEI Unit 3, Chapter 3, Lesson 2        Michigan Essential                N/A
and their relationship to health.                                                       Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                        15

Standard 7: Knows how to maintain and
promote personal health.
1. Knows how personal behaviors relate to        LEI Unit 3, Chapter 4,                 National Health Education         N/A
health and well-being and how these              Lessons 1 & 2                          Standards, pp. 17, 19, 22;




                                                                          51
behaviors can be modified if necessary to                                     Health Framework for
promote achievement of health goals                                           California Public Schools, pp.
throughout life.                                                              122-123
2. Understands the short- and long-term         LEI Unit 3, Chapter 4,        National Health Education         N/A
consequences of safe, risky, and harmful        Lessons 1 & 2                 Standards, p. 3
behaviors.
3. Understands how personal health needs        N/A                           N/A                               N/A
change during the life cycle.
4. Understands the impact of personal health    LEI Unit 3, Chapter 4,        National Health Education         N/A
behaviors on the functioning of body            Lessons 1 & 2                 Standards, p. 17
systems.

Standard 8: Knows essential concepts
about the prevention and control of
disease
1. Understands how the immune system            N/A                           N/A                               N/A
functions to prevent or combat disease.
2. Understands the importance of regular        N/A                           N/A                               N/A
examinations in detecting and treating
diseases early.
3. Understands the importance of prenatal       N/A                           N/A                               N/A
and perinatal care to both the mother and the
child.
4. Understands the social, economic, and        LEI Unit 3, Chapter 5,        Health Framework for              Weak
political effects of disease on individuals,    Lessons 1, 2, & 3             California Public Schools, p.
families, and communities.                                                    125; Michigan Essential
                                                                              Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                              11

Standard 9:Understands aspects of
substance use and abuse
1. Knows the short- and long-term effects       LEI Unit 3, Chapter 5,        Health Framework for              General effects
associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco,    Lessons 1, 2, & 3             California Public Schools, pp.    discussed; did not




                                                                         52
and other drugs on reproduction, pregnancy,                                       129-130                           specify effects on
and the health of children.                                                                                         reproduction,
                                                                                                                    pregnancy, and the
                                                                                                                    health of children.
2. Knows how the abuse of alcohol, tobacco,     LEI Unit 3, Chapter 5             Health Framework for              N/A
and other drugs often plays a role in           Lessons 1, 2, & 3                 California Public Schools, p.
dangerous behavior and can have adverse                                           130; Michigan Essential
consequences on the community.                                                    Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                  22; National Science
                                                                                  Education Standards, p. 197
3. Understands that alcohol, tobacco, and       LEI Unit 3, Chapter 5,            Health Framework for              N/A
other drug dependencies are treatable           Lessons 1, 2, & 3                 California Public Schools, p.
diseases/conditions.                                                              131; Michigan Essential
                                                                                  Goals/Objectives for Health, p.
                                                                                  24

Standard 10: Understands the
fundamental concepts of growth and
development.
1. Understands a variety of physical, mental,   LEI Unit 2, Chapter 2, Lesson 4   Health Framework for              N/A
emotional, and social changes that occur                                          California Public Schools, pp.
throughout life, and how these changes differ                                     140-141
among individuals.
2. Understands how physical, mental, social,    N/A                               N/A                               N/A
and cultural factors influence attitudes and
behaviors regarding sexuality.

3. Knows sound health practices in the          N/A                               N/A                               N/A
prenatal period that are important to the
health of the fetus and young child.




                                                                         53
                                                      HEALTH: STUDY CONCLUSIONS

         After completing the Air Force Junior ROTC program, graduates are expected to have an understanding of their own health, that of the
community, and the ability to make choices to positively affect their health. The material presented in the textbooks reviewed effectively presents
information on a knowledge level. Many of the benchmarks for health require that the graduates interpret information in order to make choices,
but the textbooks do not guide the students into analysis or evaluation of the information presented.
         Information presented on personal health issues such as hygiene, diet, exercise, smoking, and drug and alcohol abuse, as well as first aid is
thorough. The graduates should be able to make good choices for their lives based on the information presented in the textbooks reviewed.
Information required for students to be able to evaluate issues such as community health, which includes development of public health policies and
informed voting, are addressed in an implied fashion rather than explicitly. Other benchmarks such as the relationship of family health to
individual health, which includes the transition from the role of child to an independent adult in the family, the effects of teenage pregnancy, and
the responsibilities inherent in dating, marriage, and parenthood are addressed weakly or not at all.
         The volumes reviewed are well written with the information presented in an interesting and easily understandable manner. The wide
variety of types of activities included in the two student workbooks reviewed is challenging but seem at the same time to be enjoyable. The one
Instructor Guide reviewed includes problem-solving activities that require the students to be able to interpret information and to make conclusions
based on that information. Even though the activities in this Instructor Guide dealt exclusively with principles of management, the thinking and
decision making processes used in these exercises would apply to the thinking and decision making processes involved in health related issues.
This reviewer recommends that in future editions more emphasis be given to developing skills specific to evaluating information and decision
making in health issues.




                                                                         54
                                                    LANGUAGE ARTS: STUDY OVERVIEW

The Leadership Education IV textbook and student workbook were examined. The textbook is arranged into four units. Each unit is subdivided
into four or more chapters. The workbook contains a series of exercises. The first exercise is a “Define, Describe, or Identify” item. This exercise
is followed by several sets of objective exercises (i.e., multiple-choice, true/false, matching, fill in the blank), list or describe sections, and puzzles.
Additionally, some sections contain forms for students to complete and/or group activities.

Leadership Education IV presents information about management techniques, management decisions, management functions, and managing self
and others. Following an overview of management history and an examination of main approaches to management practice, the textbook provides
information on techniques and skills involved in making management decisions; problem solving, decision-making, negotiating, and mentoring;
and managing self-development, time, information, and other people. The Workbook contains exercises and puzzles that summarize, synthesize
and reinforce the textbook material.




                                                                            55
                                    STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR LANGUAGE ARTS


STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS                         CURRICULUM REFERENCE       ADDITIONAL SUPPORT     COMMENTS
          Writing
Standard 1: Uses the general skills and
strategies of the writing process.
1. Prewriting: Uses a variety of prewriting      LEIV pp 129-140            N/A                  N/A
strategies (e.g., develops a focus, plans a      LEIV Workbook pp 69-74
sequence of ideas, uses structured overviews,
uses speed writing, creates diagrams).
2. Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of      N/A                        N/A                  N/A
strategies to draft and revise written work
(e.g., highlights individual voice; rethinks
content, organization, and style; checks
accuracy and depth of information; redrafts
for readability and needs of readers; reviews
writing to ensure that content and linguistic
structures are consistent with purpose).
3. Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of     LEIV pp 219-234            N/A                  N/A
strategies to edit and publish written work      LEIV Workbook pp 119-127
(e.g., uses a checklist to guide proofreading;
edits for grammar, punctuation,
capitalization, and spelling at a
developmentally appropriate level; refines
selected pieces to publish for general and
specific audiences; uses available
technology, such a publishing software or
graphics programs, to publish written work).
4. Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g.,      NA                         N/A                  N/A
accumulates a body of written work to
determine strengths and weaknesses as a
writer, makes suggestions to improve




                                                                     56
writing, responds productively to reviews of
own work).
5. Uses strategies to address writing to          NA         N/A   N/A
different audiences (e.g., includes
explanations and definitions according to the
audience’s background, age, or knowledge of
the topic, adjusts formality of style,
considers interests of potential readers).
6. Uses strategies to adapt writing for           NA         N/A   N/A
different purposes (e.g., to explain, inform,
analyze, entertain, reflect, persuade).
7. Writes expository compositions (e.g.,          NA         N/A   The course objectives
synthesizes and organizes information from                         focus more on
first- and second-hand sources, including                          leadership styles and
books, magazines, computer data banks, and                         presentation of factual
the community; uses a variety of techniques                        information than on the
to develop the main idea [names, describes,                        composing process and
or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts;                    drafting of
examines the history of a subject; cites an                        compositions.
anecdote to provide an example; illustrates
through a scenario; provides interesting facts
about the subject]; distinguishes relative
importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses
appropriate technical terms and notations).
8. Writes fictional, biographical,                N/A        N/A   The course objectives
autobiographical, and observational narrative                      focus more on
compositions (e.g., narrates a sequence of                         leadership styles and
events; evaluates the significance of the                          presentation of factual
incident; provides a specific setting for                          information than on the
scenes and incidents; provides supporting                          composing process and
descriptive detail [specific names for people,                     drafting of
objects, and places; visual details of scenes,                     compositions.
objects, and places; descriptions of sounds,




                                                        57
smells, specific actions, movements, and
gestures; the interior monologue or feelings
of the characters]; paces the actions to
accommodate time or moods changes;
creates a unifying theme or tone; uses
literary devices to enhance style or tone).
9. Writes persuasive compositions that         N/A        N/A   The course objectives
address problems/solutions or causes/effects                    focus more on
(e.g., articulates a position through a thesis                  leadership styles and
statement; anticipates and addresses counter                    presentation of factual
arguments; backs up assertions using specific                   information than on the
rhetorical devices [appeals to logic, appeals                   composing process and
to emotion, uses personal anecdotes];                           drafting of
develops arguments using a variety of                           compositions.
methods such as examples and details,
commonly accepted beliefs, expert opinion,
cause-and-effect reasoning, comparison-
contrast reasoning).
10. Writes descriptive compositions (e.g.,     N/A        N/A   The course objectives
uses concrete details to provide a perspective                  focus more on
on the subject being described; uses                            leadership styles and
supporting detail [concrete images, shifting                    presentation of factual
perspectives and vantage points, sensory                        information than on the
detail, and factual descriptions of                             composing process and
appearance]).                                                   drafting of
                                                                compositions.
11. Writes reflective compositions (e.g.,      N/A        N/A   The course objectives
uses personal experience as a basis of                          focus more on
reflection on some aspect of life, draws                        leadership styles and
abstract comparisons between specific                           presentation of factual
incidents and abstract concepts, maintains a                    information than on the
balance between describing incidents and                        composing process and
relating them to more general abstract ideas                    drafting of




                                                     58
that illustrate personal beliefs, moves from                                       compositions.
specific examples to generalizations about
life).
12. Writes in response to literature (e.g.,       N/A                        N/A   The course objectives
suggests an interpretation; recognizes                                             focus on leadership
possible ambiguities, nuances, and                                                 styles and presentation
complexities in a text; interprets passages of                                     of factual information
a novel in terms of their significance to the                                      rather than reading,
novel as a whole; focuses on the theme of a                                        studying, and
literary work; explains concepts found in                                          responding to literature.
literary works; examines literature from
several critical perspectives; understands
author's stylistic devices and effects created;
analyzes use of imagery and language).
13. Uses appropriate strategies (e.g.,            LEIV pp 181-262            N/A   N/A
organizational pattern, format, language,         LEIV Workbook pp 100-148
tone) to write personal and business
correspondence (e.g., informal letters,
memos, job applications letters, resumes).


Standard 3: Uses grammatical and                  N/A                        N/A   All course content
mechanical conventions in written                                                  recognizes the
compositions.                                                                      importance of
                                                                                   grammatical
                                                                                   correctness; however,
                                                                                   comprehensive
                                                                                   review/instruction in
                                                                                   standard written English
                                                                                   is beyond the scope of
                                                                                   these materials.
1. Uses complex and compound-complex              N/A                        N/A   N/A
sentences in written compositions.




                                                                      59
2. Uses pronouns in written compositions          N/A        N/A   N/A
(e.g., reflexive, indefinite, interrogative,
compound personal).
3. Uses nouns in written compositions (e.g.,      N/A        N/A   N/A
collective nouns, compound nouns, noun
clauses, noun phrases).
4. Uses verbs in written compositions (e.g.,      N/A        N/A   N/A
present perfect, past perfect, and future
perfect verb tenses; progressive verb forms,
compound verbs).
5. Uses adjective in written compositions         N/A        N/A   N/A
(e.g., adjective clauses, adjective phrases;
relocates adjectives following nouns they
modify).
6. Uses adverbs in written compositions           N/A        N/A   N/A
(e.g., adverb clauses, adverb phrases).
7. Uses conjunctions in written                   N/A        N/A   N/A
compositions (e.g., correlative and
subordinate conjunctions, conjunctive
adverbs).
8. Uses conventions of spelling in written        N/A        N/A   N/A
compositions (e.g., spells high frequency,
commonly misspelled words from
appropriate grade-level list; uses a dictionary
and other resources to spell words).
9. Uses conventions of capitalization in          N/A        N/A   N/A
written compositions (e.g., within divided
quotations; for historical periods and events,
geological eras, religious terms, scientific
terms).
10. Uses conventions of punctuation in            N/A        N/A   N/A
written compositions (e.g., uses commas
with nonrestrictive clauses and contrasting




                                                        60
expressions, uses quotation marks with
ending punctuation, uses colons before
extended quotations, uses hyphens for
compound adjectives, uses semicolons
between independent clauses, uses dashes to
break continuity of thought).
11. Uses commonly confused terms in               N/A                        N/A   N/A
written compositions (e.g., affect and effect).
12. Uses standard format in written               N/A                        N/A   N/A
compositions (e.g., includes footnotes, uses
italics [for works of art, for foreign words
and phrases]. Uses bold or underlined
headings).

Standard 4: Gathers and uses
information for research purposes.
1. Uses appropriate research methodology          LEIV pp 1-262              N/A   N/A
(e.g., formulates questions and refines topics,   LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
develops a plan for research; organizes what
is known about a topic; uses appropriate
research methods, such as questionnaires,
experiments, field studies; collect
information to narrow and develop a topic
and support a thesis).
2. Uses a variety of print and electronic         LEIV pp 1-262              N/A   N/A
sources to gather information for research        LEIV pp 37-38, 217-234
topics (e.g., news sources such as magazines,     LEIV Workbook pp 119-127
radio, television, newspapers; government
publications; microfiche; telephone
information services; databases; field
studies; speeches; technical documents;
periodicals; Internet).
3. Uses a variety of primary sources to           N/A                        N/A   N/A




                                                                      61
gather information for research topics.
4. Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the    LEIV pp 43-52, 85-95, 235-241      N/A   N/A
validity and reliability of primary and          LEIV Workbook pp 21, 43-50, 128-
secondary source information (e.g., the          135
motives, credibility, and perspectives of the
author; date of publication; use of logic,
propaganda, bias, and language;
comprehensiveness of evidence).
5. Synthesizes information from multiple         LEIV pp 1-262                      N/A   N/A
research studies to draw conclusions that go
beyond those found in any of the individual
studies.
6. Uses systematic strategies (e.g., anecdotal   LEIV pp 217-234                    N/A   N/A
scripting, annotated bibliographies, graphics,   LEIV Workbook pp 119-127
conceptual maps, learning logs, notes,
outlines) to organize and record information.
7. Writes research papers (e.g., includes a      N/A                                N/A   All course content
thesis statement; synthesizes information                                                 recognizes the
into a logical sequence; paraphrases ideas                                                importance of the
and connects them to other sources and                                                    research process;
related topics; identifies complexities and                                               however, writing a
discrepancies in information; addresses                                                   formal research paper is
different perspectives; organizes and                                                     beyond the scope of
converts information into different forms                                                 these courses.
such as charts, graphs, and drawings;
integrates quotations and citations into flow
of paper; adapts researched material for
presentation to different audiences and for
different purposes).
8. Uses standard format and methodology          N/A                                N/A   N/A
for documenting reference sources (e.g.,
credits quotes and paraphrased ideas;
understands the meaning and consequences




                                                                      62
of plagiarism; distinguishes own ideas from
others; uses a style sheet method for citing
sources, such as the Modern Language
Association, American Psychological
Association, or Chicago Manual of Style;
includes a bibliography of reverence
material).

                 Reading
Standard 5: Uses the general skills and
strategies of the reading process.
1. Uses context to understand figurative,      LEIV pp 41-42        N/A   N/A
idiomatic, and technical meanings of terms.
2. Extends general and specialized reading     N/A                  N/A   N/A
vocabulary (e.g., interprets the meaning of
codes, symbols, abbreviations, and
acronyms; uses Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon
roots and affixes to infer meaning;
understands subject-area terminology;
understands word relationships, such as
analogies or synonyms and antonyms; uses
cognates; understands allusions to
mythology and other literature; understands
connotative and denotative meanings).
3. Uses a range of automatic monitoring and    N/A                  N/A   N/A
self-correction methods (e.g., rereading,
slowing down, sub-vocalizing, consulting
resources, questioning).
4. Understands writing techniques used to      N/A                  N/A   N/A
influence the reader and accomplish an
author’s purpose (e.g., organizational
patterns, such as cause-and-effect or
chronological order; imagery,




                                                               63
personification, figures of speech, sounds in
poetry; literary and technical language;
formal and informal language; point of view;
characterization; irony; narrator).
5. Understands influences on a reader’s            LEIV pp 1-262            N/A   N/A
response to a text (e.g., personal experiences     LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
and values; perspective shaped by age,
gender, class, or nationality).
6. Understands the philosophical                   LEIV pp 1-262            N/A   N/A
assumptions and basic beliefs underlying an        LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
author’s work (e.g., point of view, attitude,
and values conveyed by specific language;
clarity and consistency of political
assumptions).

Standard 7: Uses reading skills and
strategies to understand and interpret a
variety of informational texts.
1. Uses reading skills and strategies to           LEIV pp 1-262            N/A   N/A
understand a variety of informational texts        LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
(e.g., textbooks, biographical sketches,
letters, diaries, directions, procedures,
magazines, essays, primary source historical
documents, editorials, news stories,
periodicals, catalogs, job-related materials,
schedules, speeches, memoranda, public
documents, maps).
2. Knows the defining characteristics of a         N/A                      N/A   N/A
variety of informational texts (e.g.,
textbooks, biographical sketches, letters,
diaries, directions, procedures, magazines,
essays, primary source historical documents,
editorials, news stories, periodicals, catalogs,




                                                                       64
job-related materials, schedules, speeches,
memoranda, public documents, maps).
3. Scans a passage to determine whether it        N/A                                 N/A   N/A
contains relevant information.
4. Summarizes and paraphrases complex,            LEIV pp 1-262                       N/A   N/A
implicit hierarchic structures in                 LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
informational tests, including the
relationships among the concepts and details
in those structures.
5. Analyzes techniques (e.g., language,           LEIV pp 1-262                       N/A   N/A
organization, tone, context) used to convey       LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
viewpoints or impressions (e.g., sarcasm,
criticism, praise, affection).
6. Uses discussions with peers as a way of        LEIV pp 25, 41-42, 81, 83-84, 92,   N/A   N/A
understanding information.                        94-95, 139-140,185, 186.
7. Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the     LEIV pp 1-262                       N/A   N/A
clarity and accuracy of information (e.g.,        LEIV Workbook pp 1-148
author’s bias, use of persuasive strategies,
consistency, clarity of purpose, effectiveness
of organizational pattern, logic of arguments,
reasoning, expertise of author, propaganda
techniques, authenticity, appeal to friendly or
hostile audience, faulty modes of
persuasion).
8. Uses text features and elements to support     LEIV pp 41-42                       N/A   N/A
inferences and generalizations about              LEIV pp 217-234
information (e.g., vocabulary, structure,         LEIV Workbook pp 119-127
evidence, expository structure, format, use of
language, arguments used).

         Listening and Speaking
Standard 8: Uses listening and speaking
strategies for different purposes.




                                                                         65
1. Uses criteria to evaluate own and others’    N/A                               N/A   LEII pp 2-9 provides
effectiveness in group discussions and                                                  succinct explanation of
formal presentation (e.g., accuracy,                                                    communication of the
relevance, and organization of information;                                             communication process
clarity of delivery; relationships among
purpose, audience, and content; types of
arguments used; effectiveness of own
contributions).
2. Asks questions as a way to broaden and       LEIV p 25, 41-42, 80-84, 94-95    N/A   N/A
enrich classroom discussions.
3. Uses a variety of strategies to enhance      LEIV pp 80-84, 235-262            N/A   N/A
listening comprehension (e.g., focuses          LEIV Workbook pp 128-148
attention on message, monitors message for
clarity and understanding, asks relevant
questions, provides verbal and nonverbal
feedback, notes cues such as a change of
pace or particular words that indicate a new
point is about to be made; uses abbreviation
system to record information quickly; selects
and organizes essential information).
4. Adjusts message wording and delivery to      LEIV pp 41-42, 80-84, 154-178,    N/A   N/A
particular audiences and for particular         235-262
purposes (e.g., to defend a position, to        LEIV Workbook pp 83-99, 128-148
entertain, to inform, to persuade).
5. Makes formal presentations to the class      N/A                               N/A   N/A
(e.g., included definitions for clarity;
supports main ideas using anecdotes,
examples, statistics, analogies, and other
evidence; uses visual aides or technology,
such as transparencies, slides, electronic
media; cites information sources).
6. Makes multimedia presentation using          N/A                               N/A   Instructors would
text, images, and sound (e.g., selects the                                              provide information




                                                                      66
appropriate medium, such as television                                            about multimedia
broadcast, videos, web pages, films,                                              presentations and make
newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMS,                                                   assignments in this area
Internet, computer-media-generated images;                                        when appropriate.
edits and monitors for quality; organizes,
writes, and designs media messages for
specific purposes).
7. Uses a variety of verbal and nonverbal        LE IV pp 160-165           N/A   N/A
techniques of presentations (e.g., modulation
of voice; varied inflection; tempo;
enunciation; physical gestures; rhetorical
questions; word choice, including figurative
language, standard English, informal usage,
technical language) and demonstrates poise
and self-control while presenting.
8. Responds to questions and feedback            LE IV pp 240-241           N/A   N/A
about own presentations (e.g., clarifies and
defends ideas, expands on a topic, uses
logical arguments, modifies organization,
evaluates effectiveness, sets goals for future
presentations).
9. Understands influences on language use        LEIV pp 80-84, 235-262     N/A   N/A
(e.g., political beliefs, positions of social    LEIV Workbook pp 128-148
power, culture).
10. Understands how style and content of         LEIV pp 235-262            N/A   N/A
spoken language varies in different contexts     LEIV Workbook pp 128-148
(e.g., style of different radio news programs,
everyday language compared to language in
television soap operas, tones of news
bulletins on serious and youth-oriented
stations) and how this influences
interpretation of these texts.
11. Understands reasons for own reactions        N/A                        N/A   N/A




                                                                     67
to spoken texts (e.g., emotional appeals).

                  Viewing
Standard 9: Uses viewing skills and
strategies to understand and interpret
visual media.
1. Uses a range of strategies to interpret       N/A        N/A   N/A
visual media (e.g., draws conclusions, makes
generalizations, synthesizes materials
viewed, refers to images or information in
visual media to support point of view,
deconstructs media to determine the main
idea).
2. Uses a variety of criteria (e.g., clarity,    N/A        N/A   N/A
accuracy, effectiveness, bias, relevance of
facts) to evaluate informational media (e.g.,
web sites, documentaries, news programs).
3. Understands the conventions of visual         N/A        N/A   N/A
media genres (e.g., a talk show contains an
opening monologue, humorous discussion
between host and a sidekick, a guest
interview, interaction with the audience, and
special performances; news programs
present the events of the day as stories with
setting, character, conflict, and resolution).
4. Understands that the rules and                N/A        N/A   N/A
expectations about genres can be
manipulated for particular effects or
purposes (e.g., combining or altering
conventions of different genres, such as
presenting news as entertainment; blurring of
genres, such as drama-documentaries).
5. Uses strategies to analyze stereotypes in     N/A        N/A   N/A




                                                       68
visual media (e.g., recognizes stereotypes
that serve the interests of some groups in
society at the expense of others; identifies
techniques used in visual media that
perpetuate stereotypes).
6. Understands the connection between            N/A                N/A   N/A
context and values projected by visual media
(e.g., the implication in television science
programs that science is progressive and
helps solve problems; influence of changing
societal values on media products; political
context such as conflicts between loyalty and
betrayal in High Noon, made in America
during the McCarthy period; cultural values
suggested by omissions from visual media,
such as soap operas featuring only well-off
people).
7. Understanding how images and sound            N/A                N/A   N/A
convey messages in visual media (e.g.,
special effects, camera angles, symbols,
color, line, texture, shape, headlines,
photographs, reactions shots, sequencing of
images, sound effects music, dialogue,
narrative, lighting).
8. Understands effects of style and language     LE IV p.213        N/A   N/A
choice in visual media (e.g., use of long-
shots to signify both real and metaphoric
isolation; rapid editing in a television
commercial; juxtaposition of text and color
in a billboard; words in headlines intended to
attract attention).
9. Understands how literary forms can be         N/A                N/A   N/A
represented in visual narratives (e.g.,




                                                               69
allegory, parable, analogy, satire, narrative
style, characterization, irony).
10. Understands a variety of techniques used     N/A                     N/A   N/A
in advertising (e.g., portrayals of happy
families and exotic places; celebrity
endorsement; use of humor; emphasis on
value and reliability; sex appeal; science and
statistics; appeal to fears and insecurities).
11. Understands how editing shapes               N/A                     N/A   N/A
meaning in visual medial (e.g., omission of
alternative perspective; filtered or implied
viewpoints; emphasis of specific ideas,
images, or information in order to serve
particular interests; the careful construction
of seemingly straightforward texts).
12. Understands the effects of visual medial     LE IV pp 212-213        N/A   N/A
on audiences with different backgrounds
(e.g., age, nationality, gender, class, belief
system).




                                                                    70
                                                     LANGUAGE ARTS: STUDY OVERVIEW

The Mid-continent Research for Education and Language (McREL) standards/benchmarks for language arts are clear and comprehensive and
provide a common set of expectations for the following types of instruction: writing, reading, listening and speaking, viewing, and media.
Knowledge/skill statements and explanation of terminology are included in each benchmark, thus enabling a curriculum reviewer to determine if
examined materials apply to a particular benchmark.

This review examined three of the four Level IV (Grade 9-12) writing standards (33 benchmarks total); two of the three Level IV (Grade 9-12)
reading standards (14 benchmarks total), the Level IV (Grade 9-12) listening and speaking standard (11 benchmarks), and the Level IV (Grade 9-
12) standard for viewing (12 benchmarks). The omitted standards apply to areas not included in the U.S. Air Force Junior ROTC curriculum.
Some of the standards examined include benchmarks that are more appropriate for a language arts centered and/or a literature-based curriculum; it
is appropriate that the subjects of these benchmarks are not included as part of the U.S. Air Force Junior ROTC curriculum.

One strength of the language arts books examined is not addressed by the McREL standards but should be noted: the textbooks and student
workbooks have similar organizational patterns. Each textbook is arranged into four units, and each unit is subdivided into four or more chapters.
Each unit begins with an overview page that states the unit title and lists each chapter with its title. Every chapter closes with a “Checkpoint”
section that lists vocabulary and principles and provides individual and/or group questions and exercises. Each student workbook has a Table of
Contents page that lists the unit and chapter titles. The first exercise in each chapter is “Define, Describe, or Identify.” Several sets of objective
exercises (i.e., multiple-choice, true/false, matching, fill in the blank), list or describe sections, puzzles, forms, and/or group activities follow this
initial exercise.




                                                                            71
                                         STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR LIFE SKILLS
                                                       (I. LIFE WORK)

       STANDARDS AND                           CURRICULUM                      ADDITIONAL        COMMENTS
        BENCHMARKS                              REFERENCE                       SUPPORT
          Life Work
Standard 1: Makes effective use of
basic tools
1. Uses work space effectively.          N/A                             N/A                    N/A
2. Learns the proper use of new          N/A                             N/A                    N/A
instruments by following instructions
in a manual or by taking instructions
from an experienced user.
3. Uses power tools safely to shape,     N/A                             N/A                    N/A
smooth, and join wood, plastic, and
soft metal.

Standard 2: Uses various
information sources, including
those of a technical nature, to
accomplish specific tasks.
1. Interprets information from and       LEIV, pp. 1-260                 Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
detects inconsistencies in a data                                        Basics, 90
matrix
2. Follows basic linear paths in         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
organizational charts.                   Lesson 1                        Basics, 90-91
                                         LEIV, pp. 104, 249, 257, 258
3. Identifies major sections in          LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
schematic diagrams.                      Lesson 1; Unit 3, chapter 3,    Basics, 90
                                         Lesson 2
                                         LEIV, pp. 1, 66, 128, 180
4. Uses the linear path of a flowchart   LEI, Unit 1, Chapter, 1         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
to provide visual and textual            Lesson 1                        Basics, 90-91




                                                                        72
directions to a procedure.               LEIV, p.258

5. Interprets symbols in a flowchart     LEI, Unit 1, Chapter, 1    Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
to indicate flow of direction, test      Lesson 1                   Basics, 90-91
points, components, and                  LEIV, pp. 257-258
diagrammatic decision points.
6. Obtains factor specification          LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
information from various sources         Lesson 2                   Basics, 90-91
(e.g., two-column chart, intersection    LEIV, p.105
of row by column in a table or chart).
7. Uses a table or chart to identify a   LEI, Unit 3 Chapter 4      Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
malfunction in a mechanism.              Lesson 1 & Lesson 3        Basics, 90-91
8. Interprets drawings (e.g., cross      LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
sections) for assembly or                Lesson 3                   Basics, 90-91
disassembly.

Standard 3: Manages money
effectively.
1. Prepares and follows a budget.        N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
                                                                   Basics, 281-283
2. Makes forecasts regarding future      N/A                        SCANS: Report for America   N/A
income and expenses.                                                2000, xvii
3. Uses sound buying principles for      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
purchasing goods and services.                                      Basics, 281-283
4. Understands credit and uses it        N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
effectively.                                                        Basics, 281-283

Standard 4: Pursues specific jobs.
1. Determines key contacts within a      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
prospective employer’s organization.                                Basics, 281
2. Determines specific procedures for    N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
applying for a specific job.                                        Basics, 281
3. Identifies important benefits and     N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace        N/A




                                                                   73
procedures of prospective employers             Basics, 281
(salary, deductions, vacation).
4. Identifies a prospective employer’s   N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
products and services.                          Basics, 281-283
5. Identifies the procedures involved    N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
in applying for a job at a company’s            Basics, 281-283
personnel office.
6. Fills out a job application.          N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                Basics, 281-283
7. Prepares letters of inquiry or        N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
application.                                    Basics, 281-283
8. Identifies and engages in             N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
necessary steps to prepare for a job            Basics, 281-283
interview.

Standard 5: Makes general
preparation for entering the work
force.
1. Understands basic market trends.      N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                Basics, 281
2. Determines the types of               N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
preparation and training needed for             Basics, 281
entry-level jobs.
3. Understands occupational              N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
apprenticeships and other training              Basics, 281
opportunities.
4. Understands available educational     N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
opportunities (e.g., college, junior            Basics, 281
college)
5. Understands availability of           N/A    N/A                    N/A
childcare.
6. Understands significant life          N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
decisions and their effect on the               Basics, 284




                                               74
present.
7. Analyzes a current job and its         N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
future possibilities.                            Basics, 284
8. Develops and employment profile.       N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                 Basics, 284
9. Uses multiple resources to obtain      N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
information about prospective jobs               Basics, 281
(e.g., classified, word of mouth, free
services provided by state).
10. Determines how private                N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
employment agencies operate on a fee             Basics, 281-283
basis to help people find jobs.
11. Prepares for common types of          N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
employment tests.                                Basics, 281-283
12. Applies for a social security card,   N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
work permit, license.                            Basics, 281-283
13. Prepares a resume summarizing         N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
experience, education, and job                   Basics, 281-283
training.
14. Establishes an explicit career        N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
action plan.                                     Basics, 284-285
15. Makes an accurate appraisal of        N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
prior work experience, career goals,             Basics, 281-283
personal character, job references,
and personal aptitudes.
16. Understands the nature and            N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
function of worker’s compensation                Basics, 281-283
and unemployment insurance.
17. Evaluates the chances of getting a    N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
job now and in the future in fields of           Basics, 281-283
work that are of interest.
18. Makes an accurate appraisal of        N/A    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
available work options.                          Basics, 284-285




                                                75
19. Makes an accurate appraisal of      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
basic insurance needs.                                             Basics, 281-283

Standard 6: Makes effective use of
basic life skills.
1. Uses a telephone effectively.        N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                                   Basics, 281
2. Uses public transportation           N/A                        N/A                    N/A
effectively.
3. Understands the rules and            N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
regulations of the Internal Revenue                                Basics, 281
Service.
4. Understands the availability of      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
health care and childcare services.                                Basics, 281
5. Understands the basic nature of      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
contracts.                                                         Basics, 281
6. Understands the basic process of     N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
renting an apartment.                                              Basics, 281
7. Understands basic banking            N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
services (e.g., checking accounts,                                 Basics, 281
savings accounts).
8. Understands the basic process of     N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
buying and maintaining a car.                                      Basics, 281-283
9. Knows how to correctly enter         N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
information into basic forms.                                      Basics, 90


Standard 7: Displays reliability and
a basic work ethic.
1. Completes tasks on time.             LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                        Lesson 2                   Basics, 281

2. Chooses ethical courses of action.   LEI, Unit 1 Chapter 1,     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A




                                                                  76
                                        Lesson 5                   Basics, 281
3. Establishes an acceptable            N/A                        N/A                    N/A
attendance record.
4. Uses appropriate language in work    N/A                        N/A                    N/A
situations.
5. Maintains a sense of congeniality    N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
at work.                                                           Basics, 281
6. Maintains an effective work          N/A                        N/A                    N/A
station.
7. Is attentive to requests and         N/A                        N/A                    N/A
preferences of supervisors.
8. Requests clarification when          N/A                        N/A                    N/A
needed.
9. Accurately identifies important      N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
goals and priorities of employer.                                  Basics, 375
10. Practices appropriate hygiene and   LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
dress and work.                         Lesson 2                   Basics, 375

11. Carries out assigned tasks.         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1     N/A                    N/A
                                        Lesson 3 (pp. 45, 46)
12. Does not bring personal problems    N/A                        N/A                    N/A
into work.
13. Prepares, plans, and organizes      LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1     N/A                    N/A
job responsibilities.                   Lesson 3 (pp. 45, 46)
14. Recognizes and respects             LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
authority.                              Lesson 5                   Basics, 281-283
15. Accepts guidance and                LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1     N/A                    N/A
constructive criticism.                 Lesson 3, 4, & 5
16. Demonstrates loyalty to the         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
organization.                           Lesson 1                   Basics, 281-283

Standard 8: Operates effectively
within organizations.




                                                                  77
1. Understands the organizations         LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
basic goals and values.                  Lessons 1 & 5              Basics, 375
2. Understands the extend to which       LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
organizational values are compatible     Lessons 2 & 5              Basics, 375
with personal values.
3. Develops an action plan that          LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
identifies how personal skills can be    Lesson 5                   Basics, 375
used to increase organizational
effectiveness.
4. Develops and carries out strategies   LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
to make personal skills and abilities    Lesson 3                   Basics, 375
more visible to an organization.




                                                                   78
                                        STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR LIFE SKILLS
                                                  (II. SELF-REGULATION)

       STANDARDS AND                         CURRICULUM                        ADDITIONAL             COMMENTS
        BENCHMARKS                            REFERENCE                         SUPPORT
         Self-Regulation

Standard 1: Sets and manages
goals.
1. Sets explicit long-term goals..      LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,          N/A                         N/A
                                        Lesson 3, & Unit 3 Chapter 4,
                                        Lessons 1 & 2
2. Identifies and ranks relevant        LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,          SCANS: Report for America   N/A
options in terms of accomplishing a     Lesson 3, & Unit 3 Chapter 4,    2000, xvii
goal..                                  Lessons 1 & 2
3. Prefers and follows a schedule for   LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,          SCANS: Report for America   N/A
carrying out options .                  Lesson 2 (p. 105)                2000, xvii
4. Uses appropriate language in work    LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
situations.                             Lesson 3 (p. 45)                 Basics, 231
5. Establishes personal milestones.     LEI, Unit 3, chapter 4,          N/A                         N/A
                                        Lesson 1
6. Identifies resources necessary to    LEI Unit 2, Chapter 2            N/A                         N/A
complete a goal.                        Lesson 3 & Unit 3 Chapter 4
                                        Lessons 1 & 2
7. Displays a sense of personal         LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,          N/A                         N/A
direction and purpose.                  Lessons 1 & 2
8. Maintains an awareness of            LEI, Unit 3, chapter 4,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
proximity to goal.                      Lessons 1 & 2                    Basics, 64
9. Makes a cumulative evaluation of     LEI, Unit 2 Chapter 2,           Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
goal.                                   Lesson 3 & Unit 3, Chapter 4,    Basics, 182-184
                                        Lessons 1 & 2




                                                                        79
10. Understands the differences         LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    N/A                    N/A
between various types of goals.         Lessons 1 & 3
11. Sets routine goals for improving    LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
daily life.                             Lessons 1 & 2              Basics, 241
12. Identifies explicit criteria for    N/A                        N/A                    N/A
evaluating goals.
13. Makes contingency plans.            LEI, Unit 3 Chapter 5,     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                        Lesson 2 (p. 240)          Basics, 284-285
14. Recognizes and respects             LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,    N/A                    N/A
authority.                              Lesson 3
15. Accepts guidance and                N/A                        N/A                    N/A
constructive criticism.
16. Demonstrates loyalty to the         LEI, Unit 4, Chapter 6,    N/A                    N/A
organization.                           Lesson 1

Standard 2: Performs self-
appraisal.
1. Distributes work according to        N/A                        N/A                    N/A
perceived strengths.
2. Identifies personal styles.          N/A                        N/A                    N/A
3. Identifies personal strengths and    N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace
weaknesses.                                                        Basics, 231
4. Utilizes techniques for overcoming   N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
weaknesses.                                                        Basics, 231
5. Identifies basic values..            N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                                   Basics, 231
6. Performs analysis of                 N/A                        N/A                    N/A
employability.
7. Understands preferred working        N/A                        N/A                    N/A
environments.
8. Understands career goals.            N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                                   Basics, 284
9. Identifies a compensating strength   N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A




                                                                  80
for each weakness.                                                   Basics, 231
10. Develops an inventory of wants        N/A                        N/A                    N/A
versus needs.
11. Determines explicit behaviors that    N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
are used and should be adopted to                                    Basics, 231
obtain wants and/or needs.
12. Identifies personal motivational      N/A                        N/A                    N/A
patterns.
13. Keeps a log documenting personal      N/A                        N/A                    N/A
involvement.
14. Summarizes personal educational       N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
background.                                                          Basics, 284-285
15. Summarizes personal work              N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
experience.                                                          Basics, 284-285
16. Identifies key accomplishments        N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
and successes in life.                                               Basics, 284-285
17. Identifies peak experiences and       N/A                        N/A                    N/A
significant life experiences.
18. Identifies desired future             N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
accomplishments.                                                     Basics, 284-285
19. Identifies preferred lifestyles.      N/A                        N/A                    N/A

Standard 3: Considers risks.
1. Weighs risks in making decisions       LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    N/A                    N/A
and solving problems.                     Lesson 3
                                          LEIV, Chapter 3-1

2. Uses common knowledge to avoid         LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
hazard or injury.                         Lesson 3                   Basics, 90-91
3. Applies preventative measures          LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
prior to a task to minimize security or   Lesson 3                   Basics, 90-91
safety problems.
4. Selects an appropriate course of       LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A




                                                                    81
action in an emergency.                  Lesson 3                         Basics, 90-91
5. Identifies emergency and safety       LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
procedures before undertaking            Lesson 3                         Basics, 281-283
hazardous procedures.
6. Thinks clearly under stress.          LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
                                         Lesson 2 & Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Basics, 349
                                         Lesson 3
7. Analyzes a current job and its        N/A                              N/A                         N/A
future possibilities.
8. Develops and employment profile.      N/A                              N/A                         N/A

Standard 4: Demonstrates
perseverance.
1. Demonstrates perseverance relative    LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          SCANS: Report for America   N/A
to personal goals.                       Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,     2000, xvii
                                         Lesson 1


2. Demonstrates a sense of purpose.      LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          N/A                         N/A
                                         Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,
                                         Lesson 1
3. Maintains a high level of energy      LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
over a prolonged period of time when     Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,     Basics, 202
engaged in tasks.                        Lesson 1
4. Persists in the face of difficulty.   LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
                                         Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,     Basics, 202
                                         Lesson 1
5. Concentrates mental and physical      LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,          Carnevale: Workplace        N/A
energies                                 Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,     Basics, 151-154
                                         Lesson 1

Standard 5: Maintains a healthy
self-concept.




                                                                         82
1. Has basic belief in ability to        LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,         N/A                    N/A
succeed                                  Lesson 2 & Unit 3 Chapter 4,
                                         Lesson 1
2. Uses techniques to remind self of     LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
strengths.                               Lesson 2 (p. 102)               Basics, 231
3. Uses techniques to offset the         LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
negative effects of mistakes.            Lesson 5 (p. 227)               Basics, 231
4. Avoids overreacting to criticism.     N/A                             Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                                                         Basics, 231
5. Uses affirmations to improve sense    LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
of self.                                 Lesson 2                        Basics, 231
6. Analyzes self-statements for their    N/A                             Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
positive and negative effects.                                           Basics, 231
7. Examines “shoulds” to determine       LEIV, p.255                     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
their negative and positive effects.                                     Basics, 231
8. Revises “shoulds” to reflect the      LEIV, p.255                     Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
reality of personal needs.                                               Basics, 231
9. Understands that everyone makes       LEIV, pp. 236-247               Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
mistakes.                                                                Basics, 231
10. Understands that mistakes are a                                      Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
natural consequence of living and of     LEIV, pp. 236-247               Basics, 231
limited resources.
11. Takes criticism in a dispassionate   LEIV, pp. 236-247               Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
manner                                                                   Basics, 231
12. Analyzes criticisms to determine     LEIV, pp. 236-247               Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
their accuracy and identifies useful                                     Basics, 231
lessons learned.
13. Uses high self-esteem body           LEI, Unit 1, Chapter 1,         Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
language.                                Lesson 2                        Basics, 231
                                         LEIV, pp. 165, 255

Standard 6: Restrains impulsivity.
1. Keeps responses open as long as       LEI, Unit 3 Chapter 3,          Carnevale: Workplace   N/A




                                                                        83
possible.                            Lesson 3                   Basics, 202
                                     LEIV, p.162
2. Remains passive while assessing   LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 3,    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
situation.                           Lesson 3                   Basics, 151-154
                                     LEIV, pp. 118, 237
3. Suspends judgment.                LEI, Unit 3, Chapter, 3    Carnevale: Workplace   N/A
                                     Lesson 3                   Basics, 202
                                     LEIV, pp. 134, 237-242




                                                               84
                                          STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR LIFE SKILLS
                                                (III. THINKING AND REASONING)

      STANDARDS AND                             CURRICULUM          ADDITIONAL              COMMENTS
       BENCHMARKS                                REFERENCE           SUPPORT
    Thinking and Reasoning

Standard 1: Understands and
applies the basic principles of
presenting an argument.
1. Understands that when people try       LEIV, pp. 67-80     NCSS: Curriculum Standards   N/A
to prove a point. They may at times                           for Social Studies 148
select only the information that
supports it and ignore the information
that contradicts it.
2. Identifies techniques used to slant    N/A                 N/A                          N/A
information in subtle ways.
3. Identifies the logic of arguments      N/A                 N/A                          N/A
that are based on quantitative ways.
4. Identifies or seeks out the critical   N/A                 N/A                          N/A
assumptions behind a line of
reasoning and uses that to judge the
validity of an argument.
5. Understands that to be convincing,     N/A                 N/A                          N/A
an argument must have both true
statements and valid connections
among them.
6. Uses tables, charts, and graphs in     N/A                 N/A                          N/A
constructing arguments.
7. Evaluates the overall effectiveness    N/A                 N/A                          N/A
of complex arguments.




                                                             85
Standard 2: Understands and
applies basic principles of logic and
reasoning.
1. Understands the differences            N/A    N/A   N/A
between the formal and informal uses
(e.g. in everyday situations) of the
logical connectors: “if . . .then,”
“not,” “and,” “or.”
2. Analyzes the deductive validity of     N/A    N/A   N/A
arguments based on implicit or
explicit assumptions.
3. Understands the difference             N/A    N/A   N/A
between formal and informal uses
(e.g. in everyday situations) of the
terms “sufficient” and “necessary.”.
4. Understands the formal meaning         N/A    N/A   N/A
of the logical quantifiers: “some.”
“none,” and “all.”
5. Understands that formal logic is       N/A    N/A   N/A
mostly about connections between
statements and that these connections
can be considered without attention to
whether the statements themselves are
true or not.
6. Understands that people                N/A    N/A   N/A
sometimes reach false conclusions
either by applying faulty logic to true
statements or by applying valid logic
to false statements.
7. Understands that a reason may be       N/A    N/A   N/A
sufficient to get a result but may not
be the only way to get the result (i.e.
may not be necessary), or a reason




                                                86
may be necessary to obtain a result
but not sufficient (i.e. other things are
also required; some reasons may be
both necessary and sufficient).
8. Understands that logic can be used       N/A    N/A   N/A
to test how well any general rule
works.
9. Understands that proving a general       N/A    N/A   N/A
rule to be false can be done by finding
just one exception; this is much easier
than proving a general rule to be true
for all possible cases.
10. Understands that logic may be of        N/A    N/A   N/A
limited help in finding solutions to
problems if the general rules upon
which conclusions are based do not
always hold true; most often, we have
to deal with probabilities rather than
certainties.
11. Understands that once a person          N/A    N/A   N/A
believes a general rule, he or she may
be more likely to notice things that
agree with that rule and not notice
things that do not; to avoid this
“confirmatory bias,” scientific studies
sometimes use observers who do not
know what the results are supposed
to be.
12. Understands that very complex           N/A    N/A   N/A
logical arguments can be formulated
from a number of simpler logical
arguments.
13. Identifies counter examples to          N/A    N/A   N/A




                                                  87
conclusions that have been
developed..

Standard 3: Effectively uses
mental processes that are based on
identifying similarities and
differences.
1. Uses a comparison table to            LEIV, pp. 59, 203, 209    N/A   N/A
compare multiple items or multiple
abstract characteristics.
2. Identifies abstract patterns of       N/A                       N/A   N/A
similarities and differences between
information on the same topic but
from different sources.
3. Identifies abstract relationships     N/A                       N/A   N/A
between seemingly unrelated items.
4. Identifies the qualitative and        N/A                       N/A   N/A
quantitative traits (other than
frequency and obvious importance)
that can be used to order and classify
items.
                                         N/A                       N/A   N/A
Standard 4: Understands and
applies basic principles of
hypothesis testing and scientific
inquiry.
1. Identifies and critiques studies in   N/A                       N/A   N/A
which data, explanations, or
conclusions are presented as the only
ones worth considering.
2. Test hypotheses statistically.        N/A                       N/A   N/A
3. Presents alternative explanations     N/A                       N/A   N/A
and conclusions to one’s own




                                                                  88
experiments and those of others.
4. Critiques procedures, explanations,   N/A                  N/A                         N/A
and conclusions in one’s own
experiments and those of others..
5. Gathers and analyzes field data       N/A                  N/A                         N/A
using spatial sampling(e.g. place a
transparent grid of squares on maps to
count whether two characteristics
such as corn production and hogs that
are hypothesized to be spatially
related coexist with grid cells).

Standard 5: Applies basic trouble-
shooting and problem-solving
techniques.
1. Applies trouble-shooting strategies   N/A                  CNAEA: National Standards   N/A
to complex real-world situations.                             for Arts Education 70
2. Understands that trouble-shooting     N/A                  N/A                         N/A
almost anything may require many-
step branching logic.
3. Trouble-shoots common                 N/A                  N/A                         N/A
mechanical and electrical systems,
checking for possible causes of
malfunction, and decides on that basis
whether to make a change or get
advice from an expert before
proceeding.
4. Isolates a problem component in a     LEIV, pp. 129-138    Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
schematic diagram and traces it to the                        90-91
cause of the problem.
5. Engages in problem finding and        LEIV, pp. 129-138    CNAEA: National Standards   N/A
framing for personal situations and                           for Arts Education 70
situations in the community.




                                                             89
6. Represents a problem accurately in      LEIV, pp. 129-138          Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
terms of resources, constraints, and                                  182, 329
objectives.
7. Provides summation of the               LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    NRC: National Science       N/A
effectiveness of problem-solving           Lesson 4                   Education Standards, 192
techniques.                                LEIV, pp. 129-138          Carnevale: Workplace Basics
                                                                      182
8. Reframes problems when                  LEIV, pp. 129-138          Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
alternative solutions are exhausted.                                  182, 202
9. Examines different options for          N/A                        N/A                         N/A
solving problems of historical
importance and determines why
specific courses of action were taken.
10. Evaluates the feasibility of           LEIV, pp. 129-138          GESP: National Geography        N/A
various solutions to problems;                                        Standards 55
recommends and defends a solution.                                    NCHS: National Standards
                                                                      for History: Basic Edition 70

Standard 6: Applies decision-
making techniques.
1. Analyzes decisions that were major      LEIV, pp. 2-23             NCHS: National Standards        N/A
turning points in history and describes                               for History: Basic Edition 70
how things would have been different
if other alternatives had been selected.
2. analyzes current or pending             N/A                        N/A                             N/A
decisions that can affect national or
international policy and identifies the
consequences of each alternative.
3. Uses a decision-making grid or          LEIV, p.49                 N/A                             N/A
matrix to make or study decisions
involving a relatively large number of
alternatives and criteria advocate.
4. Uses a balance sheet to evaluate the    N/A                        N/A                             N/A




                                                                     90
costs and benefits of various
alternatives within a decision.
5. Evaluates major factors that                        N/A   N/A
influence personal decisions.     LEIV, pp. 141-153




                                                      91
                                          STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR LIFE SKILLS
                                                 (IV. WORKING WITH OTHERS)

      STANDARDS AND                             CURRICULUM         ADDITIONAL                COMMENTS
       BENCHMARKS                                REFERENCE          SUPPORT
      Working with Others

Standard 1: Contributes to the
overall effort of a group.
1. Challenges practices in a group        LEIV, pp. 67-79     SCANS: Report for America     N/A
that are not working.                                         2000 xvii
2. Demonstrates respect for others in     N/A                 N/A                           N/A
the group.
3. Identifies and uses the strengths of   N/A                 Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
others.                                                       307
4. Takes initiative when needed.          N/A                 Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                              307
5. Identifies and deals with the          LEIV, pp. 70-79     Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
causes of conflict in a group.                                307
6. Helps the group establish goals.       LEIV, pp. 76-80     Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                              397
7. Engages in active listening.           LEIV, p.81          Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                              307-308
8. Takes the initiative in interacting    N/A                 Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
with others.                                                  307-308
9. Evaluates the overall progress of.     N/A                 N/A                           N/A
A group toward a goal.
10. Keeps requests simple.                N/A                 Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                              231
11. Contributes to the development        LEIV, pp. 67-82     NCSS: Curriculum Standards    N/A




                                                             92
of a supportive climate in groups.                          for Social Studies 149

Standard 2: Uses conflict-
resolution techniques.
1. Communicates ideas in a manner        N/A                SCANS: Report for America     N/A
that does not irritate others.                              2000 xvii
2. Resolves conflicts of interest.       N/A                N/A                           N/A
3. Identifies goals and values           LEIV, p.69         Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
important to opponents.                                     349
4. Understands the impact of             LEIV, p.75         Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
criticism on psychological state,                           231
emotional state, habitual behavior,
and beliefs.
5. Understands that three ineffective    LEIV, pp. 69-82    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
responses to criticism are: (1) Being                       231
aggressive, (2) being passive, and )3)
being both.
6. Understands that three effective      LEIV, pp. 69-82    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
responses to criticism are: (1)                             231
acknowledgement, (2) token
agreement with a critic, and (3)
probing clarifications..
7. Determines the causes of conflicts.   LEIV, pp. 68-71    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                            329
8. Does not blame.                       N/A                Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                                            231
9. Identifies an explicit strategy to    LEIV, pp. 75-78    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
deal with conflict.                                         329
10. Determines the seriousness of        LEIV, pp. 69-82    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
conflicts.                                                  349
11. Identifies mutually agreeable        LEIV, pp. 67-82    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
times for important conversations                           231
with opponents.




                                                           93
12. Identifies individual versus group                              Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
or organizational interests in           LEIV, p.78                 349
conflicts.
13. Establishes guidelines and rules     LEIV, pp. 159-164          Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
for negotiating.                                                    349
14. Determines the mini-max position     N/A                        N/A                           N/A
of those in a conflict.

Standard 3: Works well with
diverse individuals and in diverse
situations.
1. Works well with the opposite          N/A                        SCANS: Report for America     N/A
gender.                                                             2000 xvii
2. Works well with different ethnic      LEII, pp. 119-123          N/A                           N/A
groups.
3. Works well with those of different    LEII, pp. 119-123          N/A                           N/A
religious orientations.
4. Works to satisfy the needs of         N/A                        N/A                           N/A
customers.

Standard 4: Displays effective
interpersonal communicative skills.
1. Displays empathy with others.         LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
                                         Lesson 3 (pp. 120-125)     307-308
                                         LEIV, p.164
2. Displays friendliness with others.    LEIV, pp. 155-165          N/A                           N/A
3. Displays politeness with others.      LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    N/A                           N/A
                                         Lesson 3 (pp. 120-125)
                                         LEIV, pp. 155-165
4. Seeks information non-defensively.    N/A                        N/A                         N/A
5. Provides feedback in a constructive   N/A                        Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
manner.                                                             64, 151-154
6. Uses nonverbal communication          LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,    N/A                         N/A




                                                                   94
such as eye contact, body position,      Lesson 3 (pp. 120-125)
voice tone, effectively.                 LEIV, pp. 165, 255
7. Does not react to a speaker’s         LEIV, pp. 155-167           N/A                           N/A
inflammatory deliverance.
8. Identifies with speaker while         LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
maintaining objectivity.                                             151
9. Uses emotions appropriately in        LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
personal dialogues.                                                  151
10. Makes use of confrontation when      LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
appropriate.                                                         307
11. Makes eye contact when               LEI, Unit 2, Chapter 2,     Carnevale: Workplace Basics   N/A
speaking.                                Lesson 3 (p.122)            134-136
                                         LEIV, pp. 155-167
12. Reacts to ideas rather than to the   LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
person presenting the ideas.                                         134-136
13. Adjusts tone and content of          LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
information to accommodate the likes                                 134-136
of others.
14. Communicates in a clear manner       LEI, Unite 2, Chapter 2,                                  N/A
during conversations.                    Lesson 3 (pp. 120-125)
                                         LEIV, pp. 155-167
15. Acknowledges the strengths of        LEIV, pp. 155-167           Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
others.                                                              307-308

Standard 5: Demonstrates
leadership skills.
1. Occasionally serves as a leader in    N/A                         NCSS: Curriculum             N/A
groups.                                                              Standards for Social Studies
                                                                     149
2. Occasionally serves as a follower     N/A                         NCSS: Curriculum             N/A
in groups.                                                           Standards for Social Studies
                                                                     149
3. Enlists others in working toward a    LEIV, pp. 49-51             Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A




                                                                    95
shared vision.                              397
4. Plans small wins.                 N/A

5. Celebrates accomplishments.       N/A    Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
                                            397
6. Recognizes the contributions of   N/A    Carnevale: Workplace Basics N/A
others.                                     397




                                           96
                                                       Physical Education: Study Overview

The specific texts reviewed for this section of the report included the text, Leadership Education I: Citizenship, Character and Air Force
Tradition, provides a history of the Air Force’s Junior ROTC program as well as a detailed description of the organization’s structure, rules, and
regulations. This text also addresses personal behavior and responsibility, health and fitness, and citizenship in the United States. The fourth
Leadership Education text, Leadership Education IV: Principles of Management, provides a detailed analysis of management principles and
techniques aimed at training students to be good leaders either in the Air Force or in civilian life. These texts, which represent only a portion of the
curriculum for the AFJROTC program, were reviewed to determine their compliance with the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning
(McREL) content standards for the grades 9-12 curriculum, available online at: http://www.mcrel.org/standards-benchmarks/. The detailed results
of that curriculum review follow.




                                                                          97
                                   STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION

       STANDARDS AND                             CURRICULUM                 ADDITIONAL    COMMENTS
        BENCHMARKS                                REFERENCE                  SUPPORT
       Physical Education
Standard 1: Uses a variety of basic
and advanced movement forms.
1. Uses advanced sport-specific skills     LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A                N/A
in selected physical activities (e.g.,     Lesson 1
aquatics, dance, outdoor pursuits
individual, dual, and team sports and
activities).
2. Uses skills in complex rather than      LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A                N/A
modified versions of physical              Lesson 1
activities (e.g., more players or
participants, rules, and strategies).

Standard 2: Uses movement
concepts and principles in the
development of motor skills.
1. Understands biomechanical               LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A                N/A
concepts that govern different types       Lesson 1
of movement (e.g., gymnastics skills).
2. Understands how sports                  N/A                        N/A                Curriculum not
psychology affects the performance                                                       specifically
of physical activities (e.g., the effect                                                 designed to meet
of anxiety on performance).                                                              these objectives
                                                                                         using these texts.
3. Understands the physiological           N/A                        N/A                Curriculum not
principles governing fitness                                                             specifically
maintenance and improvement (e.g.,                                                       designed to meet
overload principle, law of specificity).                                                 these objectives
                                                                                         using these texts.




                                                                     98
4. Uses offensive and defensive           N/A    N/A   Curriculum not
strategies and appropriate rules for                   specifically
sports and other physical activities.                  designed to meet
                                                       these objectives
                                                       using these texts.

Standard 3: Understands the
benefits and costs associated with
participation in physical activity.
1. Understands factors that impact        N/A   N/A    Curriculum not
the ability to participate in physical                 specifically
activity (e.g., type of activity, cost,                designed to meet
available facilities, equipment                        these objectives
required, personnel involved).                         using these texts.
2. Understands how various factors        N/A    N/A   Curriculum not
(e.g., age, gender, race, ethnicity,                   specifically
socioeconomic status, and culture)                     designed to meet
affect physical activity preferences                   these objectives
and participation..                                    using these texts.
3. Understands the potentially            N/A    N/A   Curriculum not
dangerous consequences and                             specifically
outcomes of participation in physical                  designed to meet
activity (e.g., physical injury,                       these objectives
potential conflicts with others).                      using these texts.

Standard 4: Understands how to
monitor and maintain a health-
enhancing level of physical fitness.
1. Knows personal status of cardio        N/A    N/A   Curriculum not
respiratory endurance.                                 specifically
                                                       designed to meet
                                                       these objectives
                                                       using these texts.




                                                99
2. Knows personal status of muscular       N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
strength and endurance of the arms,                                         specifically
shoulders, abdomen, back, and hips..                                        designed to meet
                                                                            these objectives
                                                                            using these texts.
3. Knows personal status of                N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
flexibility of the joints of the arms,                                      specifically
legs, and trunk.                                                            designed to meet
                                                                            these objectives
                                                                            using these texts.
4. Knows personal status of body           N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
composition.                                                                specifically
                                                                            designed to meet
                                                                            these objectives
                                                                            using these texts.
5. Meets health-related fitness            N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
standards for appropriate level of a                                        specifically
physical fitness test (e.g., aerobic                                        designed to meet
capacity, body composition, muscle                                          these objectives
strength, endurance, and flexibility).                                      using these texts.
6. Knows how to monitor and adjust         N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
activity levels to meet personal fitness                                    specifically
levels.                                                                     designed to meet
                                                                            these objectives
                                                                            using these texts.
7. Understands how to maintain an          LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A   N/A
active lifestyle throughout life (e.g.,    Lesson 1
participate regularly in physical
activities that reflect personal
interests).
8. Designs a personal fitness program      N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
that is based on the basic principles of                                    specifically
training and encompasses all                                                designed to meet




                                                                     100
components of fitness (e.g.,                                              these objectives
cardiovascular and respiratory                                            using these texts.
efficiency, muscular strength and
endurance, flexibility, and body
composition).

Standard 5: Understands the social
and personal responsibility
associated with participation in
physical activity.
1. Uses leadership and follower roles,   LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A   N/A
when appropriate, in accomplishing       Lesson 1
group goals in physical activities.
2. Works with others in a sport          LEI, Unit 3, Chapter 4,    N/A   N/A
activity to achieve a common goal        Lesson 1
(e.g., winning a team championship).
3. Understands how participation in      N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
physical activity fosters awareness of                                    specifically
diversity (e.g., cultural, ethnic,                                        designed to meet
gender, physical).                                                        these objectives
                                                                          using these texts.
4. Includes persons of diverse           N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
backgrounds and abilities in physical                                     specifically
activity.                                                                 designed to meet
                                                                          these objectives
                                                                          using these texts.
5. Understands the history and           N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
purposes of international                                                 specifically
competitions (e.g., Olympics, Special                                     designed to meet
Olympics, Pan American Games,                                             these objectives
World Cup Soccer).                                                        using these texts.
6. Understands the role of sport in a    N/A                        N/A   Curriculum not
diverse world (e.g., the influence of                                     specifically




                                                                   101
professional sport in society, the                    designed to meet
usefulness of dance as an expression                  these objectives
of multiculturalism, the effect of age                using these texts.
and gender on sport participation
patterns).
7. Understands the concept of            N/A    N/A   Curriculum not
“sportsmanship” and the importance                    specifically
of responsible behavior while                         designed to meet
participating in physical activities.                 these objectives
                                                      using these texts.




                                               102
                                                    Physical Education: Study Conclusions

Not surprisingly, the books reviewed for this portion of the study were not really appropriate measures as to the effectiveness of the MCREL
standards and benchmarks to the study of Physical Education. While the books are well-written and appropriate for most academic study areas,
they are too theoretical in nature to reach the benchmark objectives presented in the MCREL standards and benchmarks website.

However, physical education is a required course of study in most secondary school systems, and so many of the objectives will be met through
another, less text-based, curricular effort.

This reviewer does not feel that the standards and benchmarks will be appropriately reached using these textbooks, but equally strongly feels that
through the general day-to-day physical education requirements in most high schools, combined with the many Air Force Junior ROTC planned
activities, then most of these benchmarks and standards will be reached.

The fact that these textbooks are not deemed appropriate measures to reach these specific benchmarks and standards is not an indication that
students enrolled in the Air Force Junior ROTC will not reach these and other national standards through other curricular efforts.




                                                                       103

				
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