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					Review/Additions

 Descriptive Stats/Presentation of Stats




                                   Ch 20    1
What’s On Your Pizza???

•      Costa Rica - Coconut
•      France - Bacon, onion and fresh cream
•      India - Pickled ginger, minced mutton and tofu
•      Australia - Shrimp and pineapple
•      Pakistan - Curry
•      Brazil - Green peas
•      Japan - Squid and mayo jaga



Source: World Features Syndicate

                                                    3-2
Questions Preceding Buying        Percentage of Respondents
Interest Question                 “Very Much Interested” in
                                  Buying New Product
1. No question asked                         2.8
2. Asked only about                         16.7
   advantages
3. Asked only about                          0.0
   disadvantages
4. Asked about both                          5.7
   advantages and disadvantages
Inversely Proportional Stratified Sampling
  Assume that among the 600 consumers in the population, 200 are heavy
 drinkers and 400 are light drinkers.
  If a research values the opinion of the heavy drinkers more than that of the light
  drinkers, more people will have to be sampled from the heavy drinkers group.
  If a sample size of 60 is desired, a 10 percent inversely proportional stratified
 sampling is employed.
 The selection probabilities are computed as follows:




Denominator                                600/200 + 600/400 = 3 + 1.5 = 4.5
Heavy Drinkers proportional
and sample size                            3/ 4.5 = 0.667; 0.667 * 60 = 40

Light drinkers proportional
and sample size                            1.5 / 4.5 = 0.333; 0.333 * 60 = 20
Ch 20   6
Ch 20   7
Perceptual Map of a Beverage
Market
Utilities for Credit Card
Attributes: Conjoint Analysis
Utilities for Credit Card
Attributes (contd.)
  Full-profile and Trade-off
  Approaches




Source: Adapted from Dick Westwood, Tony Lunn, and David Bezaley, „„The Trade-off Model and Its Extensions‟‟

                                                                                                        12
Conjoint Analysis - Example




     1   Foreign   $18,000   28   4-DR
Conjoint Analysis – Regression Output
                                            c
                                Model Summary

                                              Adjusted          Std. Error of
        Model          R       R Square       R Square         the Estimate
        1               .785 b     .616           .488                6.921
           b. Predictors: Door, MPG, Price, Make
           c. Dependent Variable: Rank
                                                 ANOVAc

                                 Sum of
       Model                     Squares         df        Mean Square              F           Sig.
       1         Regression      921.200               4      230.300               4.808         .015 a
                 Residual        574.800              12        47.900
                 Total          1496.000              16
         a. Predictors: Door, MPG, Price, Make
         c. Dependent Variable: Rank

                                             Coefficientsa,b

                               Unstandardized         Standardized
                                Coefficients           Coefficients
          Model                B        Std. Error        Beta              t          Sig.
          1         Make       1.200        3.095               .088         .388        .705
                    Price      4.200        3.095               .307        1.357        .200
                    MPG        5.200        3.095               .380        1.680        .119
                    Door       2.700        3.095               .197         .872        .400
               a. Dependent Variable: Rank
                                            http://www.drvkumar.com/mr9/
               b. Linear Regression through the Origin
          Part-worth Utilities

          1.4                                           4.5
          1.2                                             4
                                                        3.5
              1
                                                         3
Utility




                                              Utility
          0.8                                           2.5
          0.6                                             2
                                                        1.5
          0.4
                                                          1
          0.2                                           0.5
              0                                          0
                  Foreign          Domestic                   18,000           22,000
                            Make                                       Price



                                                         3
          6
                                                        2.5
          5
                                                         2
          4
                                              Utility
Utility




                                                        1.5
          3
                                                         1
          2
                                                        0.5
          1
                                                         0
          0
                                                               4-Dr             2-Dr
                  28                 22
                                                                       Door
                            MPG
Relative Importance of
Attributes

                                   Relative
  Attribute   Part-worth Utility   Importance


     Make            1.2           9%


     Price            4.2          32%


     MPG              5.2          39%


     Door             2.7          20%
     Communicating Research
• Become aware of the primary purposes of a research report;

• Learn how to organize and prepare a research report;

• Learn how to make a personal presentation;

• Understand the effective use and communication of
      •marketing research information;
Structure the Presentation
     Introduction




        Body        Conclusion
The Research Report
 Explain why the research was done -
     What were the motivations for doing the research?
     Was there a “problem” that had to be addressed?

 State the specific research objectives –
      What do you hope to learn?
      What are your research goals?

 Explain how the research was done –
      What type of sampling did you use and why?
      Did you do surveys, focus groups, interviews, etc?

 Present the findings of the research -
     In what form – written slide presentations, oral?
     How can you make the findings practical and
     actionable?

 Provide conclusions and recommendations -
      Conclusions for “descriptive” research
      Recommendations for “analytic” research
The Importance of the
Marketing Research Report
 The client bases his or her decision making on
  the contents of the report.
 The marketing research report is the product
  that represents the efforts of the marketing
  research team, and it may be the only part of
  the project that the client will see.
 The time and effort expended in the research
  process are wasted if the report does not
  communicate effectively.
Organizing the Written Report

   Marketing research reports are tailored to
    specific audiences and purposes, and you must
    consider both in all phases of the research
    process, including planning the report.
   Must consider questions such as:
     What is your purpose?
     Who is the audience?
     What are your audience’s interests, values,
      concerns?
The Research Report

   Title Page:
       Include the submitter’s information’

   Letter of Transmittal:
        Letter giving ownership of the research.

   Table of Contents

   Executive Summary:
        A page or two highlighting the key findings.

   Background:
        Relevant historical information that set the stage for the
       research

   Methodology:
        Detail how you conducted the research
The Research Report

  Findings:
       Dovetail the findings with research objectives and tie in
      secondary data into the primary findings. Combination of a
      descriptive and analytic approach is generally best

  Limitations:
      Discuss problems faced and how they were handled.

  Conclusions:
      Summarize the key headlines of the research findings.

  Recommendations (when appropriate):
      Give management action items based on the research.

  Appendices:
      Relevant supporting documents, tables, data, etc.
Organizing the Written
Report

 The letter of transmittal is used to release or
  deliver the document to an organization for
  which you are not a regular employee.
 The memo of transmittal is used to deliver
  the document within your own organization.
Organizing the Written
Report
Organizing the Written
Report
Organizing the Written
Report
Introduction

 The introduction may contain:
   A statement of the background situation
    leading to the problem
   The statement of the problem
   A summary description of how the
    research process was initiated.
Introduction

 It should contain a statement of the general
  purpose of the report and also the specific
  objectives for the research.
 Research objectives may be listed here or in a
  separate section.
Organizing the Written
Report
  Method describes in detail how the research
   was conducted, who (or what) the subjects
   were, and what methods were used to
   achieve the objectives
  Methodology refers to the science of
   determining appropriate methods to
   conduct research.
  Method refers to the tools used in a scientific
   investigation.
  Use method, not methodology!
Organizing the Written
Report
 Results present the findings of the research.
 Limitations may focus on, but not limited to,
  time, money, personnel, and size of
  population.
Organizing the Written
Report
  Conclusions are the outcomes and decisions
   you have reached based on your research
   results.
  Recommendations are suggestions for how
   to proceed based on the conclusions.
  The end matter contains information that
   the reader may need to refer to for further
   reading but that is not essential to reporting
   the data.
   Following Guidelines and
   Principles for the Written
   Report

 Headings indicate the topic of each section.
 Subheadings should divide that information
  into segments.
 Visuals are tables, figures, charts, diagrams,
  graphs, and other graphic aids.


                                     Ch 20         33
Use Subheadings!

                     TITLE
            FIRST-LEVEL HEADING
             Second-Level Heading
  Third-Level Heading
  Fourth-Level Heading.
  Fifth-Level Heading – part of the sentence


  See MRI 20.3, p. 611
Style

 Stylistic devices can make the difference in
  whether or not your reader gets the message
  as you intended it.
   Examples:
     A good paragraph has one main idea… See
      MRI 20.4 on p. 612.
     Capitalize on white space.
                  Be Specific and Visual

                Project important numbers clearly
Marketing Mix    Qty        Rate     Cost            Sales Revenue        $174480



Brochure                                             COGS                  26172


                25000
                       Sales Revenue
                           $0.14 $3500.00
                                                $174480
POS Display                                          Gross Profit         148308
                 108   Costs
                           8.10    874.80      $ 26172
Flyer/Insert                                         Selling &             20000
                                                     Marketing costs
                22000       0.20   4400.00
Direct Mail                                        Net Marketing          128308
                                              $14830
                                                   Contribution
                       Profit                    8
                10922       0.63   6840.13
Promo                                                Operating Expenses      0
                3000        1.27   3810.00
Total                                                Net Profit           128308
                61030              19424.93
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
  Tables identify exact values; allow reader
   to compare numerical data.
                     Reporting the Results
                                                                            Some Formatting Tips:
                                Monthly Score by City


400                                                                          Use bulleted charts when appropriate;
                                                                             Use text to discuss / elaborate on
350                                                                         bullets;
                                                                             Follow proper writing standards;
                     76
300                                                                          Use a minimum of text to convey
                                                         45
                          84                                                message;
                                                              63   75
250                                                                          Don't use too many different graphic
                35                           57
      65             87        54    34                  76
                                                              25
                                                                            types;
200                       54
                                                    65             65        Multiple graphics on a page can tell a
           44   67                   46
      34
                               53
                                             55               55            story;
                                                         56
150   32
           54
                     56
                          57                        34             43
                                                                             Don‟t use over-hyped text;
                54                   87      54                              Appearance - be professional and
      44                       76                   34        87
100        34        65                                  76                 consistent.
                                                                        Boise, ID
                          76                                       65
                54                                                      Washington, DC
           33                                63     56
50                             34    54                                 Austin, TX
      87
                     65                                  56   65   54   Chapel Hill, NC
           45   44        43   34            34     34
                                     23                                 Santa Fe, NM
 0


                                                                                                Sample Bar
                                                                                                  Chart
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
 Charts:
 Pie charts: circle divided into
  sections; compare a specific part of
  the whole to whole




                                    42
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
  Charts:
    Bar charts: graphically show concepts
    such as frequency distribution
Reporting the Results
Reporting the Results
Reporting the Results
                      The Presentation
When Presenting, One Might Use:

A presentation outline;
Visuals - charts on easels, PowerPoint, etc.;
Copies of the final report;
Web options;
Executive summary;                                          Click to See
Researcher contact information.                           Research Reports


One Might Want to Convey:

What the data are telling you;
The impact of the data on managerial decision making;    Click to See Keys to
What course of action is recommended;                   Good Public Speaking
What future studies might be needed;
What was missing from this study;
How the researcher might be aided in future research.
               The Presentation
Tailored to the Audience - Understand Their:
      Frame of reference;
      Attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and prejudices;
      Educational background;
      Time constraints;
      Position with the organization;
      Interest in hearing the results.


Understanding the Barriers to Effective Communication:
         Assess the listeners “way of listening”;
         Be responsive to questions in a positive way;
         Don‟t be defensive to criticism;
         Take some time to “size up” the listener's personality type.
             The Presentation
Persuasion - Using the Research Findings to Reinforce
Conclusions:


Questions the researcher should keep in mind:


       What do the data really mean?
       What impact do they have?
       How can the data be conveyed simply?
       How can one make the data valuable and applicable?
       What have we learned from the data?
       What do we need to do given the information we now have?
       How can future studies of this nature be enhanced?
       What can make information such as this more useful?
                The Presentation
Key Factors in the Use of Marketing Research:
    The perceived creditability and usefulness of the report to the users;
    The degree of client and researcher interaction;
    The organizational climate for research;
    The personality and job tenure of key users.



The Role of Trust:
   Key components of trust between the researcher and the decision
   makers:
    A function of interpersonal relationship and skill;
    Perceived and actual integrity of the researcher;
    Delivering what is promised;
    Being accessible to management / receivers of the research;
    Perceived willingness of the researcher to reduce user uncertainty;
    Confidentiality, expertise, professionalism, and follow-up.
   Accurate and Ethical Visuals
 Ethical visual: one that is totally objective in terms of how
  information is to be presented in the research report
Ethical Visuals

 An ethical visual is one that is totally
  objective in terms of how information is
  presented in the research report.
   Double- and triple-check all labels,
    numbers, and visual shapes.
   Exercise caution if you use three-
    dimensional figures.
   Make sure all parts of the scales are
    presented.
    “Selling” the Value of Research




   Increase sales and improve customer satisfaction;
   Better position the company competitively;
   Make investors happy;
   Improve company effectiveness and efficiency;
   Help the company control costs;
   Help the company identify opportunities;
   Lead to tangible quality and performance measures;
   Enable the company to stay ahead of customers’ needs and wants.
         Descriptive Statistics Exercise
Description of activity:
Divide into 3 teams

First 5 minutes: Explain why the mean is an inappropriate
measure of central tendency in each of the following cases:
1. Gender of a respondent (male or female)
2. Marital status (single, married, divorced, separated,
   widowed, or other)
3. A taste test in which subjects indicate their first, second, and
   third choices of Miller Lite, Bud Light, and Coors Silver
   Bullet.
How should these be handled?

• Select spokesperson to share the group’s discussion with the
rest of the class in 4 minutes or less.
  Coding Process for Open Ended Questions


1. List responses
• Often if not a huge sample, each unique response is isolated
   and then put on a board and a process called affinity
   diagramming begins

2. Consolidate responses
 Here responses that are very similar are consolidated into
   one
 Requires subjective judgment and client input frequently

3. Set codes
 A numeric code is assigned to each of the categories on the
final consolidated list of responses

				
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