The Marketing Research Report Pr by fjzhangxiaoquan

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 Descriptive Stats/Presentation of Stats

Ch 20    1

•      Costa Rica - Coconut
•      France - Bacon, onion and fresh cream
•      India - Pickled ginger, minced mutton and tofu
•      Australia - Shrimp and pineapple
•      Pakistan - Curry
•      Brazil - Green peas
•      Japan - Squid and mayo jaga

Source: World Features Syndicate

3-2
Questions Preceding Buying        Percentage of Respondents
Interest Question                 “Very Much Interested” in
Inversely Proportional Stratified Sampling
 Assume that among the 600 consumers in the population, 200 are heavy
drinkers and 400 are light drinkers.
 If a research values the opinion of the heavy drinkers more than that of the light
drinkers, more people will have to be sampled from the heavy drinkers group.
 If a sample size of 60 is desired, a 10 percent inversely proportional stratified
sampling is employed.
The selection probabilities are computed as follows:

Denominator                                600/200 + 600/400 = 3 + 1.5 = 4.5
Heavy Drinkers proportional
and sample size                            3/ 4.5 = 0.667; 0.667 * 60 = 40

Light drinkers proportional
and sample size                            1.5 / 4.5 = 0.333; 0.333 * 60 = 20
Ch 20   6
Ch 20   7
Perceptual Map of a Beverage
Market
Utilities for Credit Card
Attributes: Conjoint Analysis
Utilities for Credit Card
Attributes (contd.)
Approaches

Source: Adapted from Dick Westwood, Tony Lunn, and David Bezaley, „„The Trade-off Model and Its Extensions‟‟

12
Conjoint Analysis - Example

1   Foreign   \$18,000   28   4-DR
Conjoint Analysis – Regression Output
c
Model Summary

Model          R       R Square       R Square         the Estimate
1               .785 b     .616           .488                6.921
b. Predictors: Door, MPG, Price, Make
c. Dependent Variable: Rank
ANOVAc

Sum of
Model                     Squares         df        Mean Square              F           Sig.
1         Regression      921.200               4      230.300               4.808         .015 a
Residual        574.800              12        47.900
Total          1496.000              16
a. Predictors: Door, MPG, Price, Make
c. Dependent Variable: Rank

Coefficientsa,b

Unstandardized         Standardized
Coefficients           Coefficients
Model                B        Std. Error        Beta              t          Sig.
1         Make       1.200        3.095               .088         .388        .705
Price      4.200        3.095               .307        1.357        .200
MPG        5.200        3.095               .380        1.680        .119
Door       2.700        3.095               .197         .872        .400
a. Dependent Variable: Rank
http://www.drvkumar.com/mr9/
b. Linear Regression through the Origin
Part-worth Utilities

1.4                                           4.5
1.2                                             4
3.5
1
3
Utility

Utility
0.8                                           2.5
0.6                                             2
1.5
0.4
1
0.2                                           0.5
0                                          0
Foreign          Domestic                   18,000           22,000
Make                                       Price

3
6
2.5
5
2
4
Utility
Utility

1.5
3
1
2
0.5
1
0
0
4-Dr             2-Dr
28                 22
Door
MPG
Relative Importance of
Attributes

Relative
Attribute   Part-worth Utility   Importance

Make            1.2           9%

Price            4.2          32%

MPG              5.2          39%

Door             2.7          20%
Communicating Research
• Become aware of the primary purposes of a research report;

• Learn how to organize and prepare a research report;

• Learn how to make a personal presentation;

• Understand the effective use and communication of
•marketing research information;
Structure the Presentation
Introduction

Body        Conclusion
The Research Report
Explain why the research was done -
What were the motivations for doing the research?

State the specific research objectives –
What do you hope to learn?

Explain how the research was done –
What type of sampling did you use and why?
Did you do surveys, focus groups, interviews, etc?

Present the findings of the research -
In what form – written slide presentations, oral?
How can you make the findings practical and
actionable?

Provide conclusions and recommendations -
Conclusions for “descriptive” research
Recommendations for “analytic” research
The Importance of the
Marketing Research Report
 The client bases his or her decision making on
the contents of the report.
 The marketing research report is the product
that represents the efforts of the marketing
research team, and it may be the only part of
the project that the client will see.
 The time and effort expended in the research
process are wasted if the report does not
communicate effectively.
Organizing the Written Report

 Marketing research reports are tailored to
specific audiences and purposes, and you must
consider both in all phases of the research
process, including planning the report.
 Must consider questions such as:
 Who is the audience?
 What are your audience’s interests, values,
concerns?
The Research Report

Title Page:
Include the submitter’s information’

Letter of Transmittal:
Letter giving ownership of the research.

Executive Summary:
A page or two highlighting the key findings.

Background:
Relevant historical information that set the stage for the
research

Methodology:
Detail how you conducted the research
The Research Report

Findings:
Dovetail the findings with research objectives and tie in
secondary data into the primary findings. Combination of a
descriptive and analytic approach is generally best

Limitations:
Discuss problems faced and how they were handled.

Conclusions:
Summarize the key headlines of the research findings.

Recommendations (when appropriate):
Give management action items based on the research.

Appendices:
Relevant supporting documents, tables, data, etc.
Organizing the Written
Report

 The letter of transmittal is used to release or
deliver the document to an organization for
which you are not a regular employee.
 The memo of transmittal is used to deliver
the document within your own organization.
Organizing the Written
Report
Organizing the Written
Report
Organizing the Written
Report
Introduction

 The introduction may contain:
 A statement of the background situation
 The statement of the problem
 A summary description of how the
research process was initiated.
Introduction

 It should contain a statement of the general
purpose of the report and also the specific
objectives for the research.
 Research objectives may be listed here or in a
separate section.
Organizing the Written
Report
 Method describes in detail how the research
was conducted, who (or what) the subjects
were, and what methods were used to
achieve the objectives
 Methodology refers to the science of
determining appropriate methods to
conduct research.
 Method refers to the tools used in a scientific
investigation.
 Use method, not methodology!
Organizing the Written
Report
 Results present the findings of the research.
 Limitations may focus on, but not limited to,
time, money, personnel, and size of
population.
Organizing the Written
Report
 Conclusions are the outcomes and decisions
you have reached based on your research
results.
 Recommendations are suggestions for how
to proceed based on the conclusions.
 The end matter contains information that
the reader may need to refer to for further
reading but that is not essential to reporting
the data.
Following Guidelines and
Principles for the Written
Report

 Headings indicate the topic of each section.
 Subheadings should divide that information
into segments.
 Visuals are tables, figures, charts, diagrams,
graphs, and other graphic aids.

Ch 20         33

 TITLE
 Fifth-Level Heading – part of the sentence

 See MRI 20.3, p. 611
Style

 Stylistic devices can make the difference in
as you intended it.
 Examples:
 A good paragraph has one main idea… See
MRI 20.4 on p. 612.
 Capitalize on white space.
Be Specific and Visual

Project important numbers clearly
Marketing Mix    Qty        Rate     Cost            Sales Revenue        \$174480

Brochure                                             COGS                  26172

25000
Sales Revenue
\$0.14 \$3500.00
\$174480
POS Display                                          Gross Profit         148308
108   Costs
8.10    874.80      \$ 26172
Flyer/Insert                                         Selling &             20000
Marketing costs
22000       0.20   4400.00
Direct Mail                                        Net Marketing          128308
\$14830
Contribution
Profit                    8
10922       0.63   6840.13
Promo                                                Operating Expenses      0
3000        1.27   3810.00
Total                                                Net Profit           128308
61030              19424.93
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
 Tables identify exact values; allow reader
to compare numerical data.
Reporting the Results
Some Formatting Tips:
Monthly Score by City

400                                                                          Use bulleted charts when appropriate;
Use text to discuss / elaborate on
350                                                                         bullets;
76
300                                                                          Use a minimum of text to convey
45
84                                                message;
63   75
250                                                                          Don't use too many different graphic
35                           57
65             87        54    34                  76
25
types;
200                       54
65             65        Multiple graphics on a page can tell a
44   67                   46
34
53
55               55            story;
56
150   32
54
56
57                        34             43
Don‟t use over-hyped text;
54                   87      54                              Appearance - be professional and
44                       76                   34        87
100        34        65                                  76                 consistent.
Boise, ID
76                                       65
54                                                      Washington, DC
33                                63     56
50                             34    54                                 Austin, TX
87
65                                  56   65   54   Chapel Hill, NC
45   44        43   34            34     34
23                                 Santa Fe, NM
0

Sample Bar
Chart
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
 Charts:
 Pie charts: circle divided into
sections; compare a specific part of
the whole to whole

42
Using Visuals:
Tables and Figures
 Charts:
 Bar charts: graphically show concepts
such as frequency distribution
Reporting the Results
Reporting the Results
Reporting the Results
The Presentation
When Presenting, One Might Use:

A presentation outline;
Visuals - charts on easels, PowerPoint, etc.;
Copies of the final report;
Web options;
Executive summary;                                          Click to See
Researcher contact information.                           Research Reports

One Might Want to Convey:

What the data are telling you;
The impact of the data on managerial decision making;    Click to See Keys to
What course of action is recommended;                   Good Public Speaking
What future studies might be needed;
What was missing from this study;
How the researcher might be aided in future research.
The Presentation
Tailored to the Audience - Understand Their:
 Frame of reference;
 Attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and prejudices;
 Educational background;
 Time constraints;
 Position with the organization;
 Interest in hearing the results.

Understanding the Barriers to Effective Communication:
   Assess the listeners “way of listening”;
   Be responsive to questions in a positive way;
   Don‟t be defensive to criticism;
   Take some time to “size up” the listener's personality type.
The Presentation
Persuasion - Using the Research Findings to Reinforce
Conclusions:

Questions the researcher should keep in mind:

   What do the data really mean?
   What impact do they have?
   How can the data be conveyed simply?
   How can one make the data valuable and applicable?
   What have we learned from the data?
   What do we need to do given the information we now have?
   How can future studies of this nature be enhanced?
   What can make information such as this more useful?
The Presentation
Key Factors in the Use of Marketing Research:
 The perceived creditability and usefulness of the report to the users;
 The degree of client and researcher interaction;
 The organizational climate for research;
 The personality and job tenure of key users.

The Role of Trust:
Key components of trust between the researcher and the decision
makers:
 A function of interpersonal relationship and skill;
 Perceived and actual integrity of the researcher;
 Delivering what is promised;
 Being accessible to management / receivers of the research;
 Perceived willingness of the researcher to reduce user uncertainty;
 Confidentiality, expertise, professionalism, and follow-up.
Accurate and Ethical Visuals
 Ethical visual: one that is totally objective in terms of how
information is to be presented in the research report
Ethical Visuals

 An ethical visual is one that is totally
objective in terms of how information is
presented in the research report.
 Double- and triple-check all labels,
numbers, and visual shapes.
 Exercise caution if you use three-
dimensional figures.
 Make sure all parts of the scales are
presented.
“Selling” the Value of Research

   Increase sales and improve customer satisfaction;
   Better position the company competitively;
   Make investors happy;
   Improve company effectiveness and efficiency;
   Help the company control costs;
   Help the company identify opportunities;
   Lead to tangible quality and performance measures;
   Enable the company to stay ahead of customers’ needs and wants.
Descriptive Statistics Exercise
Description of activity:
Divide into 3 teams

First 5 minutes: Explain why the mean is an inappropriate
measure of central tendency in each of the following cases:
1. Gender of a respondent (male or female)
2. Marital status (single, married, divorced, separated,
widowed, or other)
3. A taste test in which subjects indicate their first, second, and
third choices of Miller Lite, Bud Light, and Coors Silver
Bullet.
How should these be handled?

• Select spokesperson to share the group’s discussion with the
rest of the class in 4 minutes or less.
Coding Process for Open Ended Questions

1. List responses
• Often if not a huge sample, each unique response is isolated
and then put on a board and a process called affinity
diagramming begins

2. Consolidate responses
 Here responses that are very similar are consolidated into
one
 Requires subjective judgment and client input frequently

3. Set codes
 A numeric code is assigned to each of the categories on the
final consolidated list of responses

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