Document Sample
					           Job Safety & Health Quarterly

                 JSHQ                 FEATURES
                                        Anthrax Alert          12
                                                                                  Volume 13 Number 2
                                                                                  Winter 2002

    OSHA offers tips to protect workers against anthrax.                                               20

                                      For the Record           14
  OSHA’s new recordkeeping rules took effect January 1.

                Customers Give OSHA High Marks                 16
A recent Gallup survey gives the agency the “thumbs up.”

                      Workplace Safety on the Rise             17
               A Bureau of Labor Statistics report shows
                      a drop in injury and illness rates.

             OSHA’s World Trade Center Response                18
                The agency launches new partnerships
                    while continuing 24-7 operations.

                                Caring for Caregivers          25
             A health-care foundation is teaching workers
                    how to protect themselves on the job.

                        Health-Care Workers at Risk            30
                     OSHA is working to protect workers
                    in health-care facilities from violence.

                                    Angling in Alaska          32 16
          OSHA’s Anchorage Area Office is reaching out
                to workers in this high-hazard industry.

                                       PPE Saves Lives         34
       Personal protective equipment is more convenient,
                    comfortable, and effective than ever.                DEPARTMENTS
                                                                     2   Assistant Secretary’s Message
             Turning the Kaleidoscope at ConAgra               38
     ConAgra Refrigerated Foods has created a new view               3   Q&A
                        of workplace safety and health.              5   What’s Happening?
                                                                    45   Federal Register
                      Going the Distance for Training          46
                  OSHA uses distance learning to deliver            49   OSHA Training
              safety and health training to more students.          51   Toolbox

                                                                                      Winter 2002           1
    Assistant Secretary’ Message
                                           worker safety are in our               with ourselves and our stakeholders
                                           jurisdiction. We will step up to the   we must “say what we do and do
                                           plate and help this nation prepare     what we say.” This is the first part
                                           for these workplace threats.           of meeting that expectation.
                                              Although terrorism in our              The wisdom, strength, and
                                           workplaces must be addressed,          reputation of the agency rests on
                                           we cannot lose sight of our            the entire OSHA family. Re-
                                           mission—our purpose in life. We        cognizing that, we will be taking a
                                           have a responsibility to ensure, so    coordinated, collegial approach to
                                           far as possible, every working         our mission of assuring safe and
                                           man and women a safe work-             healthful workplaces. As we move
                                           ing environment.                       forward together, I’ll be chairing
                                              That means we can’t let up on       the OSHA Executive Board of our
                                           our enforcement where enforce-         senior executives in Washington
                                           ment is the most effective way to      and at the regional level as well as
                                           have a safe environment. Strong,       state program representatives.
                                           fair, and effective enforcement        Together, about once a month,
                                           must remain a fundamental              we’ll sort through the major policy,

       he past several months have         activity for OSHA. Toward that         operational, and procedural issues
       been a time of great chal-          end, the agency plans to conduct       facing the agency.
       lenge for OSHA. But we              more inspections in Fiscal Year           In addition to our overall
have met every test. I have been           2002 than in 2001 or 2000.             strategies, we need to pay special
deeply gratified by the dedication            We also must be innovative in       attention to those groups that
of our staff and their willingness         our training, education, and           clearly need more help. We know
to work so hard on so many fronts          outreach programs so our               that more than 10 million
to serve our nation’s employers            stakeholders can comply with           Americans speak little or no
and employees.                             requirements that ensure safe          English. Many are in the work-
   We received good news in                environments. Our extensive            force. We’ve gathered a group to
December when the Bureau of                campaign on OSHA’s new record-         focus on outreach to Hispanic
Labor Statistics announced that            keeping rule was very successful.      workers. We’ll be looking for ways
workplace injury and illness rates         More than 10,000 viewed our            to work with a variety of groups to
declined again for the eighth              satellite training broadcast or have   improve safety among immigrant
straight year. That’s a trend we           accessed the on-demand version of      workers. We also will put more
want to sustain.                           the training on the website.           enforcement focus on industries
   OSHA has also taken on a                   We’ve distributed brochures,        where non-English speaking
leadership role in responding to           fact sheets, copies of the record-     workers are at greatest risk, such
terrorism in America. More than            keeping forms, FAQs, PowerPoint        as construction.
800 OSHA staff, state employees,           training programs, and more.              As head of OSHA, I’m excited
and VPP representatives have been          We’re continuing to provide            about the future and finding ways
part of our round-the-clock                personal assistance to employers       to increase OSHA’s impact. We
assistance to those involved in            who have specific questions            met some tough challenges last
recovery and cleanup at the World          through our local offices and          year. We’ve demonstrated our
Trade Center disaster site. Others         regional recordkeeping coordina-       capability and our commitment.
in the agency have spent countless         tors. And we must continue to be       I’m looking forward to working
hours addressing bioterrorism              creative in our partnerships and       with everyone in the agency on the
threats, particularly anthrax,             voluntary programs to establish        opportunities that lie ahead.
working with the U.S. Postal               “win-win” relationships with those
Service and the Senate and                 responsible for establishing a
developing the anthrax matrix on           safe workplace.
our website to guide employers                Looking ahead, we’ve also taken
throughout the country. We now             a realistic look at standard
will be involved in preparing the          setting—what we can honestly
nation for possible future attacks         accomplish in the next 12              John L. Henshaw
and playing a very active role in          months—and set our regulatory          Assistant Secretary of Labor
homeland security. Workplaces and          agenda accordingly. To be honest       for Occupational Safety and Health

2     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
          What are the general fit is inadequate. Quantitative fit           the law is on your side. You have a
 Q        guidelines on how to wear testing assesses fit by numerically
          respirators properly?        measuring leakage. This can be
                                                                             legal right to call attention to en-
                                                                             vironmental problems and unsafe
                                       determined using special equip-       conditions without fear of losing
          The correct use of this ment to measure the difference in          your job, being denied a promo-
 A        equipment is critical to concentration of aerosols in the
          any respiratory protection test atmosphere with those inside
                                                                             tion, or suffering some other form
                                                                             of discrimination. Proving dis-
program. Although there are many the respirator, or by using con-            crimination can be difficult, but if
different kinds of respirators, all of trolled negative pressure to mea-     you have faced retaliation for call-
them must be worn properly to pro- sure the volumetric leakage rate.         ing attention to unsafe or un-
tect the wearer from contaminated                                            healthful working conditions,
air leaking around the seal. Gen-               I work on an assembly line   OSHA may be able to help. If you
erally, correct wearing of respira-
tors involves how well they fit. A
                                       Q        in a manufacturing plant
                                                and occasionally report
                                                                             believe you have been demoted,
                                                                             moved to a less desirable job or
“one-size-fits-all” approach does safety hazards to my supervisor.           shift, or fired because you acted to
not work.                              Some of my coworkers tell me that     protect yourself or others from haz-
   To protect the wearer, respira- I could get fired or bumped to the        ards, contact OSHA within 30
tors must be appropriately snug and graveyard shift for doing this. Are      days—even if you are pursing other
reasonably comfortable. Physical they right?                                 options such as a union grievance.
characteristics such as bone struc-                                          OSHA will investigate your com-
ture, facial hair, and false teeth all          You and many other em-       plaint. If the investigation shows
affect the fit and efficiency of res-
pirators—as does the wearing of
                                       A        ployees like you play an
                                                important role in keeping
                                                                             discrimination, in some cases
                                                                             OSHA can take your employer to
prescription eyeglasses. With this America’s workplaces safe. Al-            court at no expense to you to re-
in mind, employers need to provide though your efforts might not be          store your job, pay, and benefits.
a variety of sizes and models so popular with some supervisors, oth-
employees can select a respirator ers will welcome your initiative and               With temperatures in my
that has a tight seal and comfort- encourage you to help them pro-
able fit. In addition to explaining tect their workers. Regardless of
                                                                             Q       area dipping to 10˚F and
                                                                                     20˚F, I’m concerned about
the limitations of respirators, em- which kind of supervisor you have,       protecting my construction crews
ployers must instruct workers on                                             while they work outside. What pre-
how to wear, adjust, and use                                                 cautions can I take?
them as well as how to determine

proper fit.                                 You have a legal                          Prolonged exposure to
   Before using a respirator with a
positive- or negative-pressure                  right to call                A        freezing temperatures can
                                                                                      result in health problems
tight-fitting facepiece, employees              attention to                 as serious as trench foot, frostbite,
must pass an appropriate qualita- .                                          and hypothermia. In addition to
tive or quantitative fit test with the       environmental                   low temperatures, other environ-
same make, model, style, and size              problems and                  mental conditions that cause cold-
respirator they plan to use. Wear-                                           related stress are high or cool
ers must also perform a user seal          unsafe conditions                 winds, dampness, and cold water.
check each time they wear such               without fear of                 Age, physical condition, activity
equipment to ensure a good seal.                                             level, and other factors play a role
   Qualitative fit testing involves          losing your job,                as well.
the introduction of a gas, vapor, or          being denied a                    Encouraging your workers to
aerosol test agent into an area                                              wear proper personal protective
around the head of the respirator
                                              promotion, or                  clothing is perhaps the most impor-
user to determine whether the                 suffering some                 tant protection you can offer. Ide-
wearer can detect the test agent               other form of                 ally, they should wear at least three
through odor, taste, or nasal irrita-                                        layers of clothing: an outer layer to
tion. If the agent is detected, the          discrimination.                 break the wind and allow some

                                                                                              Winter 2002       3
                                         ventilation, a middle layer of wool             Legionnaires’ disease, also
                                         or synthetic fabric to absorb sweat
                                         and retain insulation in a damp
                                                                                 A       known as Legionellosis or
                                                                                         Legionella, is a bacterial
                                         environment, and an inner layer        disease commonly associated with
                                         of synthetic weave to allow venti-     water-based aerosols. The source of
                                         lation. Special attention should       the disease is Legionella organisms
                                         go to protecting feet, hands, face,    that grow in stagnant water and
                                         and head.                              poorly maintained air-condition-
                                            You can use engineering con-        ing cooling towers, evaporative
                                         trols to reduce the risk of cold-re-   condensers, fluid coolers, humidi-
                                         lated injuries. Use an onsite heat     fiers, whirlpools, and potable wa-
                                         source such as air jets or radiant     ter systems. Legionnaires’ disease
                                         heaters. Shield work areas from        spreads through inhalation of con-
                                         drafty or windy conditions or          taminated water mist, not through
                                         provide a heated shelter for           person-to-person contact. Symp-
                                         workers to warm up in. When tem-       toms resemble the flu and include
                                         peratures drop below 30°F, use         high fever, dry cough, shortness of
                                         thermal insulating material on         breath, chills, and chest pain. The
                                         equipment handles.                     disease can be fatal. The best way
                                            In addition, consider changes in    to reduce workers’ risk of contract-
                                         your work schedules and practices      ing the disease is to routinely test
                                         to help combat the effects of ex-      potential sources for the bacteria’s
                                         ceedingly cold weather. Reduce, as     presence and maintain and clean
                                         much as possible, the number of        cooling towers and evaporative
                                         activities performed outside and       condensers regularly to prevent
                                         schedule those activities for the      Legionella from growing. For more

                                         warmest hours of the day. Establish    information, refer to the Techni-
                                         a buddy system for working out-        cal Links page on OSHA’s website
                                         doors and permit employees to take     at JSHQ
                                         extra breaks as needed to cope with
                                         the cold. Most importantly, edu-
                                         cate your workers about the symp-
                                         toms of cold-related stresses: heavy
                                         shivering, uncomfortable coldness,

                                         severe fatigue, drowsiness, or eu-
                                         phoria. OSHA offers a pocket Cold
                                         Stress Card in both English (OSHA           Legionnaires’
                                         3156) and Spanish (OSHA 3158)              disease spreads
                                         versions. You can order these for
                                         your workers at no charge on the
                                                                                      through the
                                         agency website at,             inhalation of
                                         by calling (202) 693-1888, or by           contaminated
                                         writing: U.S. Department of Labor/
                                         OSHA, OSHA Publications, PO                   water mist,
                                         Box 37535, Washington, DC
                                                                                      not through
                                                 I have seen several recent             contact.
                                          Q      news reports about out-
                                                 breaks of Legionnaires’ dis-
                                         ease in the workplace. What is
                                         causing this, and what is being
                                         done to protect workers?

4   Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
What’ Happening?
OSHA News                          Assistant Secretary of the               Initiatives and
                                   Occupational Safety and Health
                                   Administration.                          Outreach
                                      As Deputy Assistant Secretary,
                                   Visscher oversees the Directorates       OSHA Issues Bloodborne
                                   of Federal State Operations,             Pathogens Directive
                                   Technical Support, Information              OSHA recently issued a new
                                   Technology, Policy, and Standards,       compliance directive for enforcing
                                   and the Offices of Communica-            the bloodborne pathogens standard
                                   tions and Reinvention.                   that was revised in January 2001.
                                      R. Davis Layne continues as           The standard became effective on
                                   Deputy Assistant Secretary over-         April 18, 2001.
                                   seeing OSHA’s regional opera-               The compliance directive
                                   tions as well as the Directorates of     guides OSHA’s safety and health
                                   Compliance, Construction, Ad-            inspection officers in enforcing the
                                   ministrative Programs, and the           standard covering occupational
                                   Office of Equal Employment Op-           exposure to blood and other
                                   portunity Programs.                      potentially infectious materials,
                                      Visscher has long experience          and ensures consistent inspection
                                   with dealing in Labor and OSHA           procedures are followed. It updates
                                   issues. From July 1999 through           an earlier directive issued in 1999
                                   November 2000, he served as a            and incorporates changes man-
                                   Commissioner on the Occupa-              dated by the Needlestick Safety and
                                   tional Safety and Health Review          Prevention Act passed in November
                                   Commission. He was one of three          2000. The directive is online at
Gary Visscher recently joined OSHA members of the independent     
as a Deputy Assistant Secretary.   commission who reviewed OSHA
                                   citations and penalties contested
                                   by companies. Visscher served in
Visscher Named DAS                 congressional staff positions from
   OSHA Administrator John 1983 to 1999, including a stint as
Henshaw recently announced the Workforce Policy Counsel for the
appointment of Gary Visscher, U.S. House of Representatives
former Vice President of Employee Committee on Education and the
Relations for the American Iron Workforce from 1989 to 1999.
and Steel Institute, as a Deputy

 The search and rescue worker who appears in the photograph on pages
 1 and 18 of the Fall 2001 issue of JSHQ is wearing his respirator
 incorrectly. The World Trade Center Emergency Project
 Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan requires all workers at the
 site to wear a negative-pressure respirator with a tri-combo cartridge
 (acid gas, organic vapor, and P-100) at all times in the debris area, as
 well as outside the debris area when cutting steel or loading trucks
 with dry debris. OSHA personnel at the site are working diligently to
 ensure that all workers comply with this requirement. We regret the          OSHA issued a new compliance
 inclusion of this photograph in the magazine. For more information           directive for its revised bloodborne
 about the proper wear of respirators, see Q&A on page 3.                     pathogens standard.

                                                                                               Winter 2002           5
OSHA Launches                          stakeholders in the identification        health,” says Henshaw. “OSHA
Amputation Program                     and elimination of hazards                needs to keep helping the majority
   OSHA recently announced a associated with such equipment.                     of employers who want to do the
special national emphasis program          A new method is now used to           right thing, but we also must ag-
aimed at reducing amputations in       calculate amputation rates. Rates         gressively pursue the ‘bad actors.’”
general industry workplaces. The for each industry are now figured
National Emphasis Program on using the number of employees in                    OSHA Encourages
Hazardous Machinery Associated each              Standard        Industrial      Defibrillator Use
with Amputations expands the Classification, or SIC, code. In the                   OSHA is encouraging employ-
existing national emphasis program past, industries were targeted by the         ers to consider making Automated
on mechanical power presses. This number of amputations, not taking              External Defibrillators, or AEDs,
new initiative targets all types of into consideration the actual size           available in their workplaces to
power presses, including press brakes, of the industry. This new informa-        help save the lives of workers who
saws, shears, slicers, and slitters.   tion will allow greater flexibility for   experience cardiac arrest while on
   The program applies to general regions and area offices to target             the job. To support this effort, the
industry workplaces where these and inspect the most hazardous                   agency issued a pocket card and
machines are present. Companies workplaces. More information                     technical information bulletin on
with fewer than 10 employees are about the national emphasis                     the use of AEDs.
also included, except those program is available on the OSHA                        “AEDs are easy to use and can
industries exempted from pro- website at under                      make the critical difference in
grammed inspections.                   Regulations and Compliance.               reviving individuals who suffer a
   Regional and area offices will                                                cardiac crisis,” says OSHA
conduct outreach programs to OSHA Increases                                      Administrator John L. Henshaw.
identify, reduce, and eliminate Enforcement                                      “Administered within 3 minutes,
workplace hazards associated with         OSHA is increasing its                 the electric shock or defibrillation
these machines. Programs may enforcement efforts in Fiscal Year                  restores the normal rhythm to the
involve employers, professional 2002, with more inspections                      victim’s heart and can increase
associations, and local unions, or targeting workplaces where injury             survival rates from less than
other activities designed to involve and illness rates are the highest.          5 percent to nearly 75 percent.”
employee and management Agency Administrator John L.                             Immediate defibrillation, he says,
                                       Henshaw says OSHA plans to                can revive more than 90 percent
                                       conduct 36,400 inspections during         of victims. For more information,
                                       Fiscal Year 2002, up from slightly        visit
                                       fewer than 35,800 inspections the
                                       previous year and 36,000                  Mine Safety Initiative
                                       inspections in Fiscal Year 2000.          Under Way
                                          In addition to targeting                  In the wake of a deadly mine
                                       workplaces with the highest injury        explosion last September, Assistant
                                       and illness rates and where there         Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety
                                       are known hazards, OSHA will put          and Health David D. Lauriski urges
                                       more enforcement focus on                 mine workers to stay vigilant in
                                       industries where non-English-             promoting mine safety. Lauriski
                                       speaking workers are at the greatest      encourages mine managers and
                                       risk, such as construction.               foreman to take a brief time out at
                                          Henshaw says OSHA is                   the beginning of each work shift
                                       committed to increasing its               to discuss mine safety issues. In
                                       number of trained, certified              addition, the Mine Safety and
                                       inspectors to make its enforcement        Health Administration distributed
                                       efforts more effective. “Consistent,      packets of safety information and
OSHA’s new publication on
amputations supports the special
                                       focused enforcement is one of the         posted it on the agency’s website
national emphasis program.             keys to ensuring workers’ safety and      at

6      Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
   Thirteen miners died in the            situational awareness, transition-     working fluids can have serious
September 23, 2001 explosion in           ing from initial to extended attack,   health risks. We believe this guide
Brookwood, AL. In addition, four          addressing chronic fatigue issues,     is an important first step in arming
coal miners died during a 10-day          and strengthening fire leader-         employers with viable preventative
period last August, and two               ship and accountability.               measures to help reduce those
fatalities and a serious injury              The plan is based on the            risks." For more information, visit
occurred in metal and nonmetal            ThirtyMile Fire Accident Investi-      OSHA’s website at
mining in early October.                  gation Team’s report and the
   The events followed what had           Management Evaluation Report           NSC Introduces Emergency
been a downturn in mining                 developed by the ThirtyMile Fire       Planning Resources
incidents. Before the Brookwood           Board of Review. The plan is               A new National Safety Council
explosion, 19 coal miners had died        available on the Forest Service        website and hotline provides
on the job in 2001, down from 29          website at         wide-ranging information on
for the same period in 2000. In                                                  emergency planning and disaster
metal and nonmetal mining, 22
miners had died during the first          Publications and                       preparedness, including checklists
                                                                                 for businesses and resources for
9 months of 2001, compared with           Products                               emergency planners.
38 for the same period in 2000.                                                      The site,
                                          OSHA Issues Metalworking               prepare.htm, features two
Forest Service Implements                 Manual                                 downloadable documents: a primer
Action Plan                                  OSHA recently released a new        on developing safety and security
   The U.S. Forest Service re-            safety and health guide to help        programs and procedures and a
cently instituted a plan to prevent       employers provide a safer work-        checklist to determine if adequate
future incidents like the one in July     place for workers exposed to           emergency facilities and pro-
2001 that killed four firefighters        metalworking fluids. Metalworking      cedures are in place and operating
fighting the “ThirtyMile Fire” in         fluids include a complex mixture       properly. In addition, NSC now has
the Okanogan-Wenatchee Na-                of oils, detergents, lubricants, and   a toll-free emergency planning
tional Forest. An OSHA investi-           other potentially toxic ingredients    hotline for callers with questions
gation identified serious and willful     and are used mainly for their          on preparing for emergencies. The
job safety violations at the time of      cooling, lubricating, and corrosion-   number is (800) 672-4692.
the fire. The findings are consis-        resisting properties during ma-            “Readiness must be an urgent
tent with those identified by             chining operations.                    priority for everyone charged with
Forest Service.                              The new guide, Metalworking         the responsibility for protecting
   The new accident preven-               Fluids: Safety and Health Best         and safety and health of workers
tion plan calls for emphasizing           Practices Manual, is the culmi-        and building occupants,” says NSC
                                          nation of 4 years of work by the       President Alan McMillan.
                                          Metalworking Standards Advisory        “Emergency planning can no
                                          Committee. It recommends a             longer be regarded as only
                                          systems management approach to         theoretical. The threat of a disaster
                                          control exposure and minimize          is real, and we must do everything
                                          contact with the fluid. That           we can to be prepared.”
                                          strategy includes engineering and
                                          work practice controls and the use     Asphalt Fume Protection
                                          of personal protective equipment.        A new National Institute for
                                             “Millions of workers in the         Occupational Safety and Health
                                          manufacturing industry work with       (NIOSH) report describes ways to
                                          these types of fluids daily,” says     reduce workers’ exposures to
                                          OSHA Administrator John L.             asphalt fumes during the
                                          Henshaw. “There is extensive           manufacture of roofing products.
                                          scientific evidence that continued     The publication, Asphalt Fume
The Forest Service released an accident
prevention plan.                          occupational exposure to metal-        Exposures During the Manufacture

                                                                                                  Winter 2002        7
                                           designed to increase awareness         and Health and Human Services on
                                           among plant managers, safety and       occupational safety and health .
                                           health professionals, and engineers
                                           about the potential for asphalt and    ACCSH Committee Meets
                                           asphalt fume exposures. It also aims       The Advisory Committee on
                                           to promote current exposure-           Construction Safety and Health
                                           reduction practices in the indus-      met in Washington, DC, in early
                                           try. For a copy of the report,         December to discuss safety and
                                           call (800) 35-NIOSH or visit           health issues, standards, and
                                           the organization’s website at          policies that affect the construction
                                                      industry. Committee work groups
                                                                                  met for 2 days, then held a
                                           Committee News                         open meeting.
                                                                                      The committee received an
                                           NACOSH Meets in DC                     overview of ongoing activities
                                                                                  at the World Trade Center disaster
                                              The National Advisory
                                                                                  site. Also discussed were initiatives
A NIOSH report describes ways to        Committee on Occupational
                                                                                  to help control hazards asso-
reduce exposures to asphalt fumes.      Safety and Health recently
                                                                                  ciated with communications
                                        met in Washington, DC, to dis-
of Asphalt Roofing Products: Current cuss OSHA and NIOSH activi-                  tower erection.
Practices for Reducing Exposures, ties. Agenda items included a
identifies steps in the man- presentation on OSHA and Partnership News
ufacturing process that can lead to NIOSH’s responses to the
employee exposure of asphalt September 11 terrorist attacks, OSHA, NATE
fumes. It also discusses engineering ergonomics issues, recordkeeping, Form Partnership
control methods and work and outreach initiatives.                        OSHA recently entered into a
practices to reduce exposures.               NACOSH began under the 3-year regional partnership
    NIOSH, labor, and industry Occupational Safety and Health Act agreement with the National
collaborated on the report, to advise the Secretaries of Labor Association of Tower Erectors
                                                                       (NATE) to reduce workplace
                                                                       injuries in the industry. To qualify
                                                                       as a partner, member employers
                                                                       must to have a competent person
                                                                       on site during all working hours.
                                                                       In addition, participating com-
                                                                       panies must have an OSHA-
                                                                       approved safety and health
                                                                       program and provide 10 hours of
                                                                       training to all field employees
                                                                       and 30 hours of training to all
                                                                       field supervisors.
                                                                          Tower erectors would be subject
                                                                       to only focused inspections, which
                                                                       would address fall protection, how
                                                                       workers get up the tower, and
                                                                       whether they use certified lift
                                                                       equipment. OSHA will work with
                                                                       NATE to develop a list of best
                                                                       practices for the industry.
Assistant Secretary John L. Henshaw, center, meets with NACOSH.           “We are very optimistic
Photo by Donna Miles                                                   about this partnership,” says Mike

8     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
Connors, OSHA Regional Ad-                health of workers on any large and          The partners will identify
ministrator in Chicago. “In devel-        complex construction project,”           interested small businesses that
oping the program, we worked with         says OSHA Administrator John             wish to learn more about safety and
NATE to begin addressing the              Henshaw. “This partnership               health, need assistance with
major hazards in the industry.            agreement to protect the workers         program development, or want to
There is no question they are             building the New England Patriots’       be recognized through OSHA’s
committed to working with OSHA            CMGI Field is precisely the type         Voluntary Protection Programs
to make this a safer industry.”           of framework which fosters that          or the Safety and Health Achieve-
                                          essential cooperation.”                  ment Recognition Program for
OSHA Joins                                                                         small businesses that undergo free
                                          OSHA Joins Small Business                comprehensive safety and health
Stadium Partnership                                                                consultation.
   OSHA recently signed a site-           Partnership                                 The initial phase of the
safety partnership agreement with            OSHA has entered into a               partnership will focus on providing
the contractor building the new           partnership with the Association         information and training regarding
stadium for the New England               of Small Business Development            OSHA’s new recordkeeping
Patriots and the New England              Centers and the Department of            standard. A pilot training program
Revolution soccer team.                   Labor's Office of Small Business         to be developed for recordkeeping
   The partnership between                Programs to help small businesses        will be offered at Small Business
OSHA and Beacon-Barton Malow,             improve their safety and health          Development Centers in selected
a joint venture between Beacon            performance. The partnership             key states.
Skanska, Inc. of Boston and Barton        establishes a comprehensive effort
Malow Company of Southfield,              to improve the safety and health
MI, will be in effect during              performance of small businesses          OSHA Announces USVI
construction of the CMGI Field in         that receive outreach and training       Partnership
Foxboro, Mass. The project began          services. The agreement also                OSHA recently entered into a
in April 2000.                            aims to increase small business          partnership to ensure the safety and
   The partnership agreement              participation in OSHA tech-              health of workers during a major
outlines a cooperative effort to          nical assistance and coopera-            construction project in the U.S.
ensure a safe work environment            tive programs.                           Virgin Islands. The Delayed Coker
during construction of the state-of-
the-art football and soccer stadium.
   Elements include a compre-
hensive safety plan for the site, site-
specific training for all employees
on hazards and regulations
applicable to their work, and
constant site monitoring by the
contractor’s safety team. The
agreement also establishes a labor-
management safety committee
composed of each craft steward on
site and representatives from
management for each contractor.
The committee will coordinate
with the site safety team to resolve
any safety and health problems or
complaints and will hold biweekly
safety meetings with the team.            OSHA Administrator John L. Henshaw, center, joins Department of Labor
    “Cooperation among labor,             Office of Small Business Programs Director June Robinson, left, and Association
management, and OSHA is vitally           of Small Business Development Centers President Donald Wilson in signing a
necessary to ensure the safety and        partnership agreement. Photo by Shawn Moore

                                                                                                      Winter 2002           9
Plant Project in St. Croix, USVI,           VPP Update                               • Olin Corporation,
includes the construction of a                                                         McIntosh, AL
petroleum coke storage facility and                                                  • Standridge Social Circle Plant,
                                            USPS Earns Star Status                     Social Circle, GA
dock, as well as modifications to              OSHA has welcomed the first
existing units at the Hovensa LLC                                                    • Austin Industrial Company at
                                            U.S. Postal Service facility into its
Refinery. The project is expected                                                      Equistar Chemicals, LP,
                                            prestigious Star Voluntary Protec-
to employee about 2,000 workers.                                                       LaPorte, TX
                                            tion Program. The Pittsburgh Air
   Joining OSHA in the partner-                                                      • CP Kelco, Okmulgee, OK
                                            Mail Center in Coraopolis, PA, is
ship is Bechtel International, Inc.;                                                 • Equistar Chemicals,
                                            the first of 38,000 postal facilities
Hovensa LLC Refinery, and the                                                          LP, LaPorte, TX
                                            nationwide to achieve this honor.
United Steel Workers of America,                                                     • Huntsman, Odessa, TX
                                            In an early October ceremony,
Local 8526. The objective of the                                                     • Lockheed Martin Space
                                            Deputy Assistant Secretary
partnership agreement is to reduce                                                     Operations; Science, Engineer-
                                            R. Davis Layne saluted managers,
the rate of injuries and illnesses at                                                  ing, Analysis, and Test Opera-
                                            workers, and their union leaders for
the site by 20 percent and prevent                                                     tion; Houston, TX
                                            a proactive commitment to worker
serious accidents during the                                                         • Lockheed Martin Space
                                            protection that has borne im-
construction project by eliminat-                                                      Operations at NASA -
                                            pressive results: a 3-year total
ing hazards associated with falls,                                                     Johnson Space Center,
                                            injury/illness rate that is 63 percent
electricity, and struck-by and                                                         Houston, TX
                                            below the industry average, and a
caught-by or in-between dangers.                                                     • Crompton Corporation,
                                            3-year rate for days away from work
                                                                                       Uniroyal Chemical,
                                            and restricted activity that is
                                                                                       Geismar, LA
                                            58 percent below industry average.
                                                                                     • CF Industries, Aurora, NE
                                                                                     • Colonial Springs Healthcare,
                                            New and Recently                           Buffalo, MO
                                            Reapproved                               • Kiewit Construction, Tower at
                                            VPP Members                                First National Center Project,
                                                                                       Omaha, NE
                                            Federal Program
                                                                                     16-Year Star Site
                                                                             • PACTIV Corporation, Temple
                                            New Star                           Logistics Operations,
                                            • Curtis Lumber Company,           Temple, TX
                                              Granville, NY                  • PACTIV Corporation, Poly-
                                            • Curtis Lumber Company,           ethylene Plant, Temple, TX
                                              Schroon Lake, NY               • PACTIV Corporation, Poly-
                                            • United States Postal Service     styrene Plant, Temple, TX
                                              Albany Vehicle Maintenance,
                                              Albany, NY                     14-Year Star
                                            • AK Steel, Butler, PA
                                                                             • GE Plastics, Selkirk, NY
                                            • Dick Corporation, Clay Center
                                                                             • Huntsman Corp., Jefferson
                                              Construction Project,
                                                                               County Operations, Aromatics
                                              Charleston, WV
                                                                               and Olefins Plant,
                                            • International Paper, Hazelton
                                                                               Port Arthur, TX
                                              Converting and Distribution,
                                              Hazelton, PA
                                            • J.A. Jones E and C, LLC, Mount
                                                                             12-Year Star
                                                                             • Lucent Technologies, Oklahoma
                                              Storm Flue Gas Desulfurization
                                                                               City, OK
                                              Project, Mount Storm, WV
                                            • International Paper, McBean
                                              Woodyard, Waynesboro, GA

10     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
11-Year Star                           • Marathon Oil Company, Yates        State-Plan State Programs
• Dow Chemicals, Louisiana               Field, Iraan, TX
  Division, Plaquemine, LA             • Texaco Natural Gas Inc.,           New Star
                                         Maysville Gas Plant, Maysville,    • International Paper,
10-Year Star                             OK                                   Stockton, CA
• Occidental Chemical, Taft            • International Paper, San           • West Michigan Air Care,
  Plant, Hahnville, LA                   Antonio, TX                          Kalamazoo, MI
                                       • Solutia West Port Facility,        • Milliken and Company,
9-Year Star                              Maryland Heights, MO                 Enterprise Plant, Marietta, SC
                                       • Potlatch Consumer Products         • R.R. Donnelley and Sons
• WestPoint Stevens in
                                         Division, Lewiston, ID               Company, Roanoake Manu-
  Abbeville, AL
                                       • United Space Alliance, Logistics     facturing Division, Salem, VA
                                         Support Facility, Houston, TX      • R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Com-
8-Year Star
• Timminco Corporation,                                                       pany, RJR Utilities Division,
                                       Merit to Star                          Winston-Salem, NC
  Magnesium Fabrication
                                       • General Electric, Waterford, NY    • GE Medical Systems,
  Products, Aurora, CO
                                       • Stepan Company, Fieldsboro, NJ       Florence, SC
                                       • Thrall Car Manufacturing,          • Frito-Lay, Inc., Arizona Service
6-Year Star                              Cartersville, GA                     Center, Phoenix, AZ
• Georgia Pacific, Gloster             • Akzo Nobel Chemicals, Deer         • Westvaco Forest Resources
  Plywood Plant, Gloster, MS             Park, TX                             Division, Southern Region,
• Milliken Alma Plant,                 • Armour Swift-Eckrich Food-           Summerville, SC
  Nicholls, GA                           service Company,                   • Georgia-Pacific Corp.,
• Equistar Chemicals, Chocolate          Jonesboro, AR                       White-ville Plywood Plant,
  Bayou Plant, Alvin, TX               • Boone Retirement Center,             Whiteville, NC
• Halliburton Energy Services,           Columbia, MO                       • Glen Raven Filament Fabrics,
  Inc., Carrollton, TX                                                        LLC, Burnsville, NC
• Occidental Chemical Company,         New Merit                            • Mount Olive Pickle Company,
  Dallas Silicates Plant, Dallas, TX                                          Inc., Mt. Olive, NC
                                       • Brown and Williamson, Macon
                                         Branch, Macon, GA                  • Southern Industrial Contrac-
3-Year Star                            • Eaton Aeroquip, Van Wert, OH         tors, Inc., Fayetteville, NC
• General Electric Industrial          • Zachry at Phillips Refinery and    • Avdel Cherry Textro,
  Systems, Auburn, ME                    NGL Center, Borger, TX               Stanfield, NC
• Wenner Bread Products,
  Bayport, NY                          Continued Merit
• Degussa Metals, Catalyst Cerdec
                                                                            Merit to Star
                                       • Rifenburg Construction, Inc., • Solvay Interox, Inc.,
  Corporation, Cerdec Division,
                                         Farmington, NY                  Longview, WA
  Washington, PA
                                       • CIBA Vision-Amwiler Plant, • NW Alloys, Inc. (ALCOA),
• Montenay Energy Resources of
                                         Atlanta, GA                     Addy, WA
  Montgomery County, Inc.,
                                       • Phillips Petroleum Company,
  Conshohocken, PA
                                         Borger Refinery and NGL
• International Paper,                                                  As of December 1, 588 sites
                                         Center, Borger, TX
  Decatur, AL                                                           were participating in the
• International Paper, Treated                                          Federal VPP: 531 in Star, 54 in
  Wood Products Plant,                 New Demonstration
                                       • HDR Engineering, Inc.,         Merit, and 3 in Demonstration.
  Wiggins, MS                                                           In addition, 203 sites were
• R.R. Donnelley and Sons,               Omaha, NE
                                                                        participating in state-plan
  Senatobia, MS                                                         VPPs: 196 in Star and 7 in Merit.
• International Paper,
  Thorsby, AL

                                                                                            Winter 2002     11
 Anthrax Alert
Matrix Helps Assess Risk                                                        “We are providing needed guid-
                                                                                ance, not creating new require-
                                                                                ments. The world has changed

      abor Secretary Elaine L. Chao           OSHA developed the Anthrax since September 11. Threats to our
      has announced a new model            Matrix in consultation with the national security now can clearly
      to assist employers and em-          Centers for Disease Control, U.S. involve the workplace.”
ployees in dealing with possible           Postal Service, National Institute
workplace exposures to anthrax in          for Occupational Safety and
mail handling operations. The An-          Health, Environmental Protection     Tips for Mail
thrax Matrix guides employers in
assessing risk to their work-
                                           Agency, and Federal Bureau of In-
                                           vestigation. OSHA expects to up-     Handling
ers, providing appropriate                 date information on anthrax and

protective equipment, and                  other terrorism threats as new guid-        hao has issued recommen-
specifying safe work prac-                   ance becomes available.                   dations from OSHA that
tices for low-, medium-, Red                        “Most employers and em-            will reduce the risk of an-
and high-risk levels in     Zone                 ployees face little or no risk thrax exposure when handling
the workplace.                                      of exposure to anthrax mail. The guidelines are part of an
   The Anthrax                                        and need only minimal effort to ensure that the American
Matrix, shaped             Yellow                        precautions,” Chao people know that workplaces will
like a pyramid,             Zone                           says. “But some may remain safe.
includes three                                               have to deal with     “The risk of exposure to anthrax
sections: green                                                 potential or in most offices is minute; however,
for low, yel-                                                     known expo- a few common-sense steps should
low for me-                Green                                  sures, and we always be taken,” Chao says.
dium, and                   Zone                               want to make “These will help companies and
red for                                                      sure they have all their employees reduce the risk of
high risk                                                  possible information exposure. Now, more than ever, we
of exposure. Each section links to         available to protect Americans at must work together to protect the
useful information and practical           their workplaces.”                   health of our employees.”
guidance to help determine an ap-             Chao pointed out that there          Chao advised workers to exer-
propriate response. The matrix is          have been only 4 deaths and 17       cise good judgment and caution
posted on the OSHA website at              confirmed cases of anthrax infec- when handling mail and take the                              tion but indicated that the following precautionary measures
   The site also includes general          department wants to be proactive as outlined by OSHA:
information on anthrax and mail            in assisting employers and workers • Be on the lookout for suspi-
handling procedures and links to           concerned about anthrax and other       cious letters and packages,
other sources of information on            potential terrorist threats. “The       including packages or envelopes
biological and chemical hazards            OSHA information is easy to ac-         of unusual weight or size, with a
and emergency preparedness.                cess and understand,” Chao says.        handwritten address or no

12    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                     What is Anthrax?
                                      Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by a spore-forming
                                      bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It is generally acquired
                                      following contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-
                                      contaminated animal products. Anthrax is receiving heightened
                                      attention recently because of its use as a biological warfare agent.
                                      In humans, three types of anthrax infections can occur, based on
    return address, and with exces-   the route of exposure: cutaneous (skin exposure), inhalational
    sive postage.                     (inhalation exposure), and gastrointestinal (ingestion exposure).
•   Open packages and envelopes       Symptoms are dependent on the route of exposure. Those most
    with a minimum amount of          often associated with skin infections are itching, boils, and
    movement and always use           formation of a black scab. Symptoms most often associated with
    a letter opener or method         inhalation infections are fever, chest pain, and difficulty
    that is least likely to disturb   breathing. Symptoms most often associated with ingestion
    the contents.                     infections are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More general
•   Do not blow into envelopes.       information about anthrax can be found in the following resource:
•   Do not shake or pour out
    the contents.
•   Keep hands away from the nose
    and mouth when opening mail.
•   Always wash hands after han-
    dling mail.                                      ¿Qué es el Ántrax?
   Chao added that if employers or    Ántrax es una enfermedad infecciosa aguda causada por una bac-
employees choose to use protective    teria esporulante llamada Bacillus anthracis. En general, se contrae
equipment such as gloves, it is im-   mediante el contacto con animales infectados con ántrax o con
portant that they take necessary      productos de animales infectados con ántrax. Se ha prestado
steps to make sure they handle and    mayor atención al ántrax en estas fechas debido a su uso como
use these items properly. For more    agente de guerra biológica. En los humanos, existen tres tipos de
information, visit the OSHA           infección de ántrax que se basan en el tipo de exposición: cutáneo
website at JSHQ         (exposición por la piel), inhalación (exposición por aspiración)
                                      y gastrointestinal (exposición por ingestión). Los síntomas
                                      dependen del tipo de exposición. Los que más frecuentemente
                                      se asocian con las infecciones por la piel son el picor, los
                                      furúnculos y la formación de una llaga negra. Los síntomas que
                                      más frecuentemente se asocian con las infecciones por aspiración
                                      son la fiebre, el dolor de pecho y la dificultad en respirar. Los
                                      síntomas que más frecuentemente se asocian con las infecciones
                                      por ingestión son la naúsea, el vómito, y la diarrea. Existe mayor
                                      información general sobre el ántrax mediante el siguiente recurso:

                                                                                         Winter 2002         13
      For the Record
           OSHA’s new recordkeeping rules took effect January 1.
                                                   by Susan Hall Fleming

A      s of January 1, 2002, OSHA’s        however, must orally report any          and illnesses must be certified by a
         new injury and illness            workplace incident resulting in a        company executive and posted for
         recordkeeping rules cover         fatality or the hospitalization of       3 months instead of just 1 month.
1.4 million employers in the               three or more employees.                    Three issues in the rule remain
United States—about 20 percent                 The updated rule, most of which      unresolved: the criteria for record-
of the worksites under OSHA’s ju-          is written in a friendly question-       ing work-related hearing loss, the
risdiction. The revised rules are          and-answer format, includes three        definition of musculoskeletal dis-
simpler and clearer and promote            new recordkeeping forms and              order, and the requirement to
more accurate, consistent records.         eliminates different criteria for re-    check the “MSD,” or “musculosk-
   “Our twin goals with the new            cording work-related injuries and        eletal disorder”column on the
system are to make it easier for           illnesses. It provides clearer defi-     OSHA log. These provisions will
employers to track injuries and ill-       nitions for first aid, medical treat-    be delayed until January 1, 2003
nesses and to improve the quality          ment, and restricted work. It also       while the agency reconsiders them.
of the data,” says OSHA Admin-             eliminates the term “Lost Workday           States that operate their own
istrator John L. Henshaw. “We              Injury and Illness (LWDII),” re-         job safety and health programs are
made the forms smaller to fit on           placing it with “Days Away, Re-          adopting comparable recordkeep-
legal size paper, and we clarified         stricted, or Transferred (DART).”        ing rules, also effective on January
and simplified the instructions to         In addition, the rule calls for em-      1, 2002. It is important in compil-
make them easier to understand.            ployers to count calendar days in-       ing national statistics for all em-
We also wanted a system that               stead of workdays.                       ployers to use the same recording
would better protect employee pri-             New requirements instruct em-        criteria for injuries and illnesses.
vacy in sensitive cases.”                  ployers to omit workers’ names on        Other state recordkeeping provi-
   Previous OSHA recordkeeping             the recordkeeping forms for privacy      sions that do not affect which in-
rules date back to 1971. In 1982,          cases such as sexual assaults or         juries or illnesses are recorded and
OSHA exempted employers in                 mental illnesses. Employers also         how they are entered, such as in-
low-hazard industries from main-           must set up a way for employees to       dustry or size exemptions or re-
taining injury and illness logs.           report injuries and illnesses and tell   quirements for reporting of injuries
Employers with 10 or fewer work-           their workers how to report them.        and fatalities, may be different.
ers also are exempt. All employers,        The annual summary of injuries

14    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
   “Critical to making the new           Recordkeeping Qs & As
recordkeeping rule work is the ex-
tensive outreach program OSHA
has developed to assist employers        How can I get copies of the recordkeeping forms?
in making the transition,”                  OSHA recordkeeping forms can be downloaded from the new
Henshaw says. “We are doing              recordkeeping page on the agency’s website at You
everything possible to help em-          also can get paper copies of the forms from your local federal or
ployers—including delaying en-           state OSHA office or from the OSHA Publications Office by call-
forcement of the new rule for 120        ing (202) 693-1888.
days to ensure that employers un-
derstand it completely before we         What if I have specific questions?
hold them accountable.”                     Check the Frequently Asked Questions section on the
   OSHA resources to assist em-          recordkeeping page on the OSHA website. If your question isn’t
ployers in understanding and fol-        answered there, you can call your local federal or state OSHA of-
lowing the new injury and illness        fice or one of the agency’s regional recordkeeping coordinators,
recordkeeping system are available       also listed on the website.
on a special recordkeeping page on
OSHA’s website at          Where can I get training on recordkeeping?
Resources include copies of the             Many local organizations are partnering with OSHA and states
recordkeeping forms and the rule;        operating their own state OSHA programs to offer recordkeeping
a brochure to help employers de-         training. If you’d like to help sponsor such training in your area,
termine if they are covered by the       call your local OSHA office.
rule; frequently asked questions;           In addition, OSHA offers three downloadable PowerPoint slide
fact sheets covering highlights of       training programs on its website. Or you can view an archived
the standard, major changes, and         webcast of the satellite training that OSHA offered nationwide on
a side-by-side comparison of some        December 12, 2001. You can also find a listing of regional educa-
of the major changes between the         tion centers that are offering classes. Choose the Recordkeeping
old and new rule; a webcast train-       page from
ing presentation; three PowerPoint
training programs; and a list of re-     When will OSHA begin enforcing the new record-
gional recordkeeping coordinators        keeping requirements?
who can respond to detailed ques-            To give employers sufficient time to make the transition to the
tions. JSHQ                              new rule, OSHA compliance officers will focus on compliance as-
                                         sistance rather than enforcement for the first 120 days after Janu-
Fleming is a public affairs specialist   ary 1, 2002. No citations will be issued provided employers are
in OSHA’s Office of Public Affairs,      attempting in good faith to meet their recordkeeping obligations
Washington, DC.                          and agree to make corrections necessary to bring their records
                                         into compliance.

                                                                                         Winter 2002
                                                                                          Winter 2002    15
                                                                                          Winter 2001
      Customers Give
      OSHA High Marks
        recent Gallup survey of               In addition, 94 percent of           resources on safety and health
        nearly 2,500 workers, em-          workers and 84 percent of               issues. The survey findings provide
        ployers, and OSHA stake-           employers involved in inspections       information that will help our
holders who had direct contact with        were either very satisfied or           customer focus and help us deliver
OSHA during the past year found            satisfied with OSHA staff               on customer expectations.”
customers very satisfied or satisfied      professionalism. More than 95 per-          Based on customer responses,
with their dealings with the agency.       cent of businesses that received free   OSHA has identified several areas
   Of those surveyed, more than            consultations were satisfied with       to work on. The survey found that
92 percent rated compliance assist-        the help they received. Also,           workers were less likely to be
ance useful, and more than                 98 percent of employers in OSHA         satisfied with phone/fax investi-
86 percent of workers at sites with        partnerships found agency staff         gations, where OSHA contacts
OSHA interventions were satisfied          knowledgeable about OSHA rules          employers by phone to report
with their involvement in the              and regulations.                        complaints and receives a faxed
intervention. More than 87 per-               “This survey clearly shows           response. If the response is
cent of workers and employers              OSHA continues to strive to satisfy     satisfactory, the agency takes no
rated OSHA staff professionalism,          its customers by providing them         further action. Instead, workers
competence, and knowledge as               with useful information and             would prefer more onsite in-
satisfactory; and almost 88 percent        opportunities for involvement           spections, more followup visits and
of OSHA stakeholders and par-              in inspections or in partners-          a swifter response. Both employers
tners rated their involvement in           hips,” says OSHA Administrator          and workers wanted inspectors to
the stakeholder/partnership pro-           John L. Henshaw. “Our compli-           be more familiar with their specific
cess as positive.                          ance officers and staff are useful      industries. Small businesses wanted
                                                                                   a speedier response to their request
                                                                                   for consultations and would prefer
                                                                                   annual consultations. Other
                                                                                   requests from those surveyed
                                                                                   included calls for greater involve-
                                                                                   ment of stakeholders, more
                                                                                   partnership and more information,
                                                                                   education and training.
                                                                                       “Although this survey finds
                                                                                   OSHA is doing many things right,
                                                                                   we have many more challenges and
                                                                                   opportunities ahead of us to
                                                                                   improve our overall customer
                                                                                   satisfaction,” Henshaw says. The
                                                                                   survey is available on OSHA’s
                                                                                   website at Click on
                                                                                   About OSHA. JSHQ
OSHA customers gave the agency the “thumbs up” in a recent Gallup survey.

 16     Jo Sa f t t & H a l l t Q a r r t r r l
       Jo b bSa f e e yy& H e e a t hhQ uu a t e e l yy
                                         Workplace Safety
                                           on the Rise
       he overall on-the-job injury                              figures in the 1970s. About the        workplaces continue to become
       and illness rate dropped                                  same number of cases, 5.7 million,     safer and more healthful each
       3 percent in 2000, con-                                   were reported in 2000 as in 1999,      year,” she says. “We must keep
tinuing a downward trend that has                                when the injury and illness rate was   improving upon this positive trend
lowered the incidence rate from                                  6.3 cases per 100 full-time workers.   in workplace injury and illness
8.1 per 100 equivalent full-time                                 Meanwhile, employees worked            rates through proper enforcement
workers in 1995 to 6.1 in 2000.                                  2 percent more hours in 2000 than      of health and safety standards, as
That was the finding of the Bureau                               the previous year.                     well as OSHA’s model compliance
of Labor Statistics’ latest Survey of                               Elaine L. Chao, Secretary of        assistance program.”
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses,                             Labor, called the announcement            Injuries and illnesses that
announced in December.                                           “good news” for both workers and       resulted in lost workdays accounted
   The 2000 rate is a record low                                 those who employ them. “These          for 2.8 million cases, compared
since BLS started reporting annual                               data show that our nation’s            with 2.7 million in 1999. The lost-
                                                                                                        workday rate in 2000 was 3 cases
                                                                                                        per 100 workers, the same rate as
                                                                                                        in 1999.
                                                                                                           The rate for workers on
                                      Incidence rate for workplace injuries and illnesses,              restricted work activity while they
                                                 private industry, 1995-2000                            recuperate stabilized at 1.2 per 100
                                                                                                        workers in 2000, the same rate as
                                                                                                        in 1998 and 1999.
                                                                                                           Manufacturing workers experi-
   Cases per 100 full-time workers

                                                                                                        enced the highest injury and illness
                                                                                                        rate, at 9 cases per 100 workers in
                                                                                                        2000. Other rates for large
                                                                                                        industrial sectors were 7.1 per 100
                                                                                                        for agriculture, forestry, and fishing;
                                                                                                        4.7 per 100 for mining; 8.3 per 100
                                     7                                                                  for construction; 6.9 per 100 for
                                                                                                        transportation; 13.9 per 100 for
                                                                                                        nursing and personal-care facilities;
                                     6                                                                  and 5.9 per 100 for wholesale and
                                                                                                        retail trade.
                                                                                                           More details about the BLS
                                     5                                                                  injury and illness survey are
                                         1995   1996      1997       1998      1999       2000          available at JSHQ

                                                                                                                          Winter 2002       17
World Trade for Safety
     Center O                                                                          SHA has entered into two
                                                                                       new partnerships to protect

                                                                                       the safety and health of
                                                                               thousands of workers at the World
                                                                               Trade Center disaster site and
                                                                               Staten Island recovery operation.
                                                                                   The WTC Emergency Project
                                                                               Partnership Agreement formalizes
                                                                               a commitment to safety and health
                                                                               among contractors, employees,
                                                                               employee representatives, and
                                                                               governmental agencies partici-
                                                                               pating in the emergency response
                                                                               efforts in lower Manhattan. In
                                                                               addition to OSHA, participants
                                                                               include the New York City
                                                                               Department of Design and Con-
                                                                               struction and the Fire Department
                                                                               of New York (Co-Incident
                                                                               Commanders); Building and
                                                                               Construction Trades Council of
                                                                               Greater New York; Building Trades
                                                                               Employers’ Association; Con-
                                                                               tractors Association of Greater
                                                                               New York; General Contractors
                                                                               Association; and the four prime
                                                                               contractors at the WTC site:
                                                                               AMEC Construction Manage-
                                                                               ment, Inc.; Bovis Lend Lease LMB,
                                                                               Inc.; Tully Construction Co., Inc.;
                                                                               and Turner/Plaza Construction
                                                                               Joint Venture.
A new partnership is helping protect workers at the World Trade Center site.       The partnership agreement
Photo by Shawn Moore
                                                                               outlines a cooperative effort to
                                                                               ensure a safe work environment.
                                                                               New safety and health initiatives

18       Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                            Wrecking; Taylor Recycling
                                                                                            Facility LLC; International Union
                                                                                            of Operating Engineers, Locals
                                                                                            14-14B and 15; and Garner Envi-
                                                                                            ronmental Services, Inc.
                                                                                               The Staten Island partnership
                                                                                            calls on participants to work
                                                                                            together in their respective roles to
                                                                                            create the highest level of worker
                                                                                            safety and health in extremely
                                                                                            difficult work environments. The
                                                                                            agreement provides for safety
                                                                                            meetings, joint safety monitoring
                                                                                            tours, respirator fit testing, air
                                                                                            sampling, and employee training.
                                                                                               John Henshaw, OSHA Ad-
Secretary of Labor Elaine L. Chao, center, joins Edward J. Malloy, left, president of the   ministrator, praised the two
Building and Construction Trades Council of Greater New York; and Louis J. Coletti,         partnerships for their commitment
chairman and chief operating officer of the Building Trades Employers Association, in       to worker safety and health. “Our
signing the World Trade Center partnership agreement. Photo by Shawn Moore                  challenge is to ensure the
                                                                                            September 11 tragedy claims no
                                                                                            more victims in terms of fatalities
include a site-orientation training           New York City Department of                   or serious injuries or illnesses,” he
program and establishment of a                Sanitation; Hugo Neu Schnitzer                says. “That challenge demands a
safety committee of representatives           East; Phillips and Jordan; Evans              cooperative, highly coordinated
from labor and management                     Environmental and Geosciences;                effort. These partnerships provide
organizations as well as OSHA and             Yanuzzi and Sons, Inc.; Mazzochi              the framework for that effort. JSHQ
other participating agencies. The
orientation program familiarizes
workers with potential hazards and
personal protective equipment
   “This is a remarkable partner-
ship to ensure the safety of these
heroes as much as possible,” says
Secretary of Labor Elaine L. Chao,
“because we can’t let the terrorists
claim another American life.”
   In a related effort, OSHA
launched a new partnership to
protect workers involved in the
World Trade Center Staten Island
recovery operation. Joining OSHA
in the partnership are the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers; Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency;
New York Police Department; New
York State Department of Envi-
ronmental Conservation; New
York City Department of Health;
                                              Twisted steel and other debris at the site posed many potential safety hazards.
                                              Photo by Shawn Moore

                                                                                                             Winter 2002        19
                                                               hey came from near and far.
                                                               More than 800 safety and
                                                               health professionals from

     OSHA Workers                                      federal and state OSHA offices
                                                       throughout the United States
                                                       heeded the call to take part
                                                       in OSHA’s World Trade Cen-

       Pitch In                                        ter response. Joining them were
                                                       about 12 Voluntary Protec-
                                                       tion Programs’ special govern-
                                                       ment employees.
 OSHA employees are giving their all to protect            Working side by side with their
  workers at the World Trade Center site–and           colleagues from OSHA’s New York
                                                       region, they faced a massive
            getting much in return.                    challenge: to provide 24-hour-a-
                                                       day, 7-day-a-week support at the
                               by Donna Miles          World Trade Center site to help

                                                       Greg Baxter, OSHA Deputy
                                                       Regional Administration in Denver,
                                                       with his puzzle of the New York
                                                       skyline, left, and at work on
                                                       Tower 2 almost 30 years ago.
                                                       Left photo by Richard Kulczewski

20   Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                 suggested after the September 11
                                                                                 terrorist attacks that he remove the
                                                                                 cardboard twin towers of the World
                                                                                 Trade Center, but he says, “I don’t
                                                                                 have the heart to take them down.”
                                                                                    After September 11, Baxter says
                                                                                 he “felt compelled to do
                                                                                 something, to somehow be a part
                                                                                 of this tragedy,” because, to him,
                                                                                 “staying 1,900 miles away from
                                                                                 New York was just not an option.”
                                                                                 He spent 5 weeks at the site,
                                                                                 working weekdays at the command
                                                                                 center, where he helped secure
                                                                                 equipment and resources for the
                                                                                 OSHA response team and served
                                                                                 as OSHA’s liaison with other
                                                                                 government agencies involved in
Deborah Gabry from OSHA’s Technical Support Directorate distributed
                                                                                 the effort. During the weekends,
respirators and performed fit tests for workers at the site.
                                                                                 Baxter served on OSHA’s safety
                                                                                 monitoring teams. He walked the
protect the thousands of rescue and     Center as employees of the New           disaster site, observed the work
recovery workers involved in            York State Department of Labor’s         under way, identified hazards, and
recovery, demolition, and site-         Construction Division.                   persuaded workers to take
clearing operations. Their main            Today in Baxter’s Denver office,      necessary precautions.
focus was on providing site safety      a huge, three-dimensional jigsaw            Although few OSHA workers
and health support by performing        puzzle of the Manhattan skyline,         had ties to the World Trade Center
risk assessment, monitoring air and     painstakingly assembled from             that ran as deeply as Baxter’s, many
physical agents, and distributing       3,100 pieces, stands as a testament      shared his sense of loss. Anthony
and fit-checking respirators.           to his New York roots. Someone           Lemire, Assistant Area Director for
   For Greg Baxter, OSHA’s
Deputy Regional Administrator in
Denver, returning to his native
New York City to help had special
significance. Baxter’s father retired
from the New York Police
Department and his late father-in-
law served 31 years with the Fire
Department of New York. Baxter
has personal ties to the World
Trade Center as well. At age 22,
he spent several months working
as an ornamental ironworker on
Tower 2, bolting on the curtain
wall 104 stories above ground.
There, working on a jury-rigged
scaffold high above the city,
Baxter’s encounter with a site
safety inspector led to his lifetime
interest in occupational safety and     Bob Garvey, Risk Assessment Coordinator, center, discusses air sampling
health. Three years later, Baxter       procedures at the site with an OSHA team of staffers from throughout the United
and his wife worked in the Trade        States. Photo by Shawn Moore

                                                                                                    Winter 2002       21
Keith Tsubata from Hawaii’s Division of Occupational Safety and Health says he
found gratification in knowing he was helping prevent more tragedies at the site.

the Bangor, Maine, Area Office,             tragic event that their personal
felt so “devastated and angered”            safety might be overlooked, and I
over the destruction that he says           could be the one to help them
“I felt I owed it to the agency and         realize that they, too, have a family
to myself to help in whatever way           waiting for them at home.”
necessary.” Lemire spent a week                Mark Behrens, a safety
in late October and early                   consultant for Hawaii’s Division of
November working the 11 p.m.-to-            Occupational Safety and Health,
7 a.m. shift as a safety monitor for        saw OSHA’s request for workers as
the tower area. Walking alongside           a welcomed opportunity. “The
the mountains of twisted metal and          whole country was wondering
debris, he warned the hundreds of           what they could do to help, and
workers at the site about hazards           here this invitation to help was
ranging from respiratory concerns           dropped in my lap one morning
to fall protection to the dangers of        when I came to work,” he says.
the constant flow of dump trucks,           Working at the site for a week in
all-terrain vehicles, and emergency         early November, he distributed
vehicles at the site.                       respirators and provided training
    David Doucet, Assistant Area            and fit-checks to workers involved
Director in the Baton Rouge, LA,            in the recovery operation. While
Area Office, also worked as a safety        helping to protect them from               Patricia Gaydos, the state plan
monitor at the site. He says he             hazards at the site, Behrens says “I    monitor for OSHA’s Denver
offered to work at the World Trade          tried my best to provide en-            Regional Office, agrees that
Center “plain and simple, for the           couragement and to spread ‘aloha’       working at Ground Zero gave her
preservation of human life.” He             to workers at the site. I dealt with    an unexpected opportunity to help.
says, “I figured the workers at the         100 different people on a typical       “I never dreamed, as I watched the
World Trade Center had enough               day and did a lot more listening        towers go down from my hotel room
things on their mind from the               than talking.”                          [TV] in Montana, that I would have

22     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                          Nancy Diaz from OSHA’s Hasbrouck Heights, NJ, Area Office instructs a New York
                                          City police officer in the use of respiratory protection at the site. Photo by Donna Miles

                                             Peggy Peterson, a senior                   York community that has given so
                                          industrial hygienist for the Iowa             much to me.”
                                          Division of Labor, was among                     Working at the site, the workers
                                          representatives of 22 OSHA-                   agree, was difficult and painful—
                                          approved state plan states and                but rewarding. Peterson recalls
                                          OSHA onsite consultation pro-                 sights and sounds she will never
                                          grams who pitched in to support               forget: “heavy metal steel scraping
                                          the effort. Working at the site from          and being pulled in directions
                                          late November to early December,              against the natural movement, an
                                          she taught workers and rescue                 I-beam being removed from the
                                          personnel how to wear their                   pile, still on fire, the size of the
                                          respiratory protection properly and           rubble pile shrinking by the hour,
                                          warned them about the dangers of              the movement of vehicles.” Of her
Joe Czapik, an industrial hygienist       elements such as silica and lead              experience, she says, “I’ve seen the
from OSHA’s Avenel, NJ, Area              that they could be exposed to if              destruction. I heard the sounds of
Office, prepares air samples for          they didn’t.                                  the recovery. I watched the bodies
processing at OSHA’s Salt Lake               Deborah Gabry, a health                    solemnly taken from the pile.
Technical Center. Photo by Shawn Moore    scientist in the OSHA National                I smelled the ash, dust, and smoke.
                                          Office’s Technical Support                    I was there. I feel that I was able,
                                          Directorate in Washington, DC,                in a very small way, to help
                                          spent a week at the site in late              the people of New York and the
the opportunity to do something,”         December distributing and fit-                rescue workers.”
she says. “But that opportunity           testing respirators and doing her                Keith Tsubata, an occupational
came and I couldn’t refuse.” She          best to educate workers about the             safety and health advisor for
spent a week at the disaster site         importance of wearing them                    Hawaii’s Division of Occupational
sampling air for asbestos, silica, lead   consistently. A native New Yorker,            Safety and Health, says that as he
and other heavy metals, carbon            Gabry says she “wanted to make a              worked the 11 p.m.-to-7 a.m. shift
monoxide, and organic and                 difference” to help workers at the            distributing personal protective
inorganic compounds.                      site and to “give back to the New             equipment at the site, “I stood and

                                                                                                             Winter 2002         23
     stared at the site every night and          is everything,’ and the workers        admits that he returned to his
     shook my head in disbelief.” The            at Ground Zero are a liv-              Denver office in late October with
     gratification, he says, was knowing         ing testament.”                        mixed feelings. “I left with sadness
     that he was doing his part to help              Like his OSHA colleagues,          that I was abandoning the job, that
     prevent additional tragedies at the         Baxter says he was startled when       there was more to be done, that
     site. “I felt like I made a difference,”    he first saw the enormity of the 16-   maybe I should still be there,” he
     he says.                                    acre disaster site and the of the      says.” Being a part of the OSHA
         Doucet, too, says he felt he            damage. “The sights, sounds, and       World Trade Center effort will, I
     played a tangible role in protecting        smell of the site will forever be      am sure, be a highlight of my
     the recovery workers. Recognizing           etched on my mind,” he says. “I        career. It will be a story I’ll be
     that a cleanup crew was throwing            thought of Dante’s Inferno because     telling my grandchildren and
     debris out of a building heavily            all I could see was this massive,      anyone else willing to listen.”
     damaged during the twin towers’             cube-like block of debris, lit up by      Pat Clark, OSHA’s Regional
     collapse, he helped get the street          ‘stadium’ lights, grapplers reaching   Administrator in New York,
     below barricaded to prevent                 into the debris like dinosaurs, and    expressed “respect and gratitude”
     recovery workers there from                 a constant plume of smoke. It was      for members of the “OSHA ‘family’
     getting struck. He says he                  almost impossible to comprehend.”      outside Region II who immedi-
     got special pleasure in “selling                Standing at Ground Zero            ately stepped up to the plate to help
     safety” to employers and employees          looking at the twisted steel that      us during this remarkable time.”
     at the site. “It’s my job, it’s what I      had collapsed from above, he says      She says that at some times, “We
     love, and it’s what I get paid to do,”      he couldn’t help but wonder if he      had more volunteers than slots—a
     he says.                                    was looking at the same columns        testament to the dedication of
         Gabry says she gained “a                that he had seen while working on      OSHA employees, both federal
     tremendous appreciation for the             Tower 2 almost 30 years ago. He        and state, to do their jobs.” JSHQ
     workers and what they’re doing at
     the site,” and felt that the workers,
     in turn, “were genuinely apprecia-
     tive that someone was taking the
     time to look out for their safety and         OSHA Facts
     well-being.” She left New York
     feeling that “I really made a                 Federal and state OSHA personnel involved in the emergency
     difference” and that because of her           project... More than 800
     efforts, workers who might                    OSHA-approved state plans and OSHA onsite consultation
     otherwise not have worn their                 programs providing volunteers...22
     respirators now do. “It’s such a good         OSHA personnel currently working at the site every day...60
     feeling to make a positive impact             OSHA 8-hour shifts worked at the site...About 6,000
     on somebody,” she says. “After my             Air and bulk samples taken by OSHA at the site...3,600 (includes
     experience in New York, I don’t               metals, asbestos, silica, and other volatile organic compounds)
     feel like I’ll ever be the same.”             Respirators issued by OSHA since September 13...More than
         Behrens says his World Trade              113,500
     Center experience gave him a deep             Respirators issued per day by OSHA during first weeks after the
     appreciation of the workers at the            attack...4,000
     site. “The World Trade Center                 Quantitative fit tests performed by OSHA since December 1...More
     exemplifies teamwork,” he says.               than 2,000 (Includes 1,200 Fire Department of New York
     “What struck me the most and                  personnel)
     what still inspires me to this day is         Hardhats distributed by OSHA since September 13...More than
     the amazing attitude of all the               11,200
     people I met and was fortunate                Safety glasses and goggles distributed by OSHA since September
     enough to work with at Ground                 13...More than 11,500
     Zero. I’ve often heard that ‘attitude         Protective gloves distributed by OSHA since September 11...More
                                                   than 21,000

24       Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                      uring the early 1990s, em-
                                                                                      ployees at Citizens Memo-
                                                                                      rial Healthcare Foundation

Caring for
                                                                               long-term care facilities were ex-
                                                                               periencing the same high injury
                                                                               rates that plague workers at many
                                                                               other nursing homes. The Bolivar,
                                                                               MO, foundation tackled the

                                                                               problem head on, introducing a
                                                                               comprehensive safety and health
                                                                               program credited for a dramatic re-
                                                                               duction in on-the-job injuries at its
                                                                               five facilities.
                                                                                  At       Citizens      Memorial
                                                                               Healthcare Facility, for example,
          A Missouri health-care foundation                                    the total recordable incident rate
          is teaching its workers to look out                                  is now 55 percent below the na-
            for their own health and safety                                    tional average for the industry. The
                                                                               facility’s days away from work or
               as well as their residents’.                                    restricted work case incident rate
                                                                               is 41 percent below the national
                                by Matt Gaines                                 average. Another facility, Butter-
                                                                               field Residential Care, has had no
                                                                               recordable injuries or illnesses
                                                                               within the last 3 years.
                                                                                  The safety and health program
                                                                               that led to this turnaround earned
                                                                               the Citizens Memorial Healthcare
                                                                               Facility distinction as the first long-
                                                                               term care facility in the United
                                                                               States to earn recognition in
                                                                               OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Pro-
                                                                               grams. The site received OSHA
                                                                               approval in March 1999 as a VPP
                                                                               Merit site and an upgrade to top-
                                                                               ranked Star status in December
                                                                               2000. The Butterfield Residential
                                                                               Care Facility also earned VPP Star
                                                                               recognition in December 2000.
                                                                               That same month, the founda-
                                                                               tion’s Parkview Healthcare Facil-
                                                                               ity became a Merit VPP site. It is
                                                                               continuing to work toward Star
                                                                                  Corporate VPP Coordinator
                                                                               Sherry Welch says the foundation
                                                                               is making wide strides in achiev-
                                                                               ing executive director Donald
                                                                               Babb’s goal to get all its facilities
                                                                               into the VPP program. OSHA
A comprehensive safety and health program is helping protect workers against   conducted a pre-approval VPP visit
workplace injuries. Photo courtesy of Manor Care                               at a fourth foundation site, the

                                                                                                 Winter 2002       25
                                                                                                     recordable injuries were strains and
                                                                                                     sprains related to resident handling
                                                                                                     procedures. Since then, injuries
                                                                                                     have declined by more than 50 per-
                                                                                                     cent, and ergonomic-type injuries
                                                                                                     now account for less than 30 per-
                                                                                                     cent of all injuries. The degree of
                                                                                                     severity has been significantly im-
                                                                                                     proved, too, with lost work-
                                                                                                     days down from 275 in 1994 to 15
                                                                                                     in 2000.
                                                                                                        Staff members assess each
                                                                                                     resident’s need for lifting and trans-
                                                                                                     fer assistance on admission and
                                                                                                     enter that information on the
                                                                                                     medical record. The staff reassesses
                                                                                                     the resident’s needs on an ongo-
                                                                                                     ing basis until discharge and shares
The Parkview Healthcare Facility became a Merit VPP site in December 2000.
Photo courtesy of Citizens Memorial Healthcare Foundation
                                                                                                     that information with all cowork-
                                                                                                     ers who handle the resident. This
                                                                                                     ensures that staff members recog-
Colonial Springs Healthcare Facil-                     Memorial Healthcare Foundation                nize the resident’s needs, assess the
ity in Buffalo, MO, in August.                         facilities, a strong ergonomics pro-          risk for both the resident and them-
Welch says the foundation’s fifth                      gram is reducing the injury rates             selves, and then determine and
site will apply for the VPP program                    significantly. When the founda-               take appropriate protective mea-
after construction of its new                          tion’s facilities began focusing on           sures. In addition, training, em-
physical plant is completed later                      their safety and health program               phasis on safe work practices, and
this year.                                             in 1995, nearly 65 percent of all             state-of-the-art engineering con-
   Welch attributes the success of                                                                   trols such as electronic lifts are
the foundation’s safety and health                                                                   helping reduce ergonomic injuries.
program to three factors: a                                                                             Welch says employee involve-
companywide emphasis on safety,                                                                      ment has been key to the program’s
employee support for and partici-                                                                    success. “Our employees have own-
pation in the program, and an ac-                                                                    ership in the safety and health
tive safety training program.                                                                        program,” she says. “They were in-
   “Safety is our number one con-                                                                    volved from the beginning in set-
cern, for both residents and em-                                                                     ting up the program’s policies and
ployees,” she says. “That’s some-                                                                    procedures and continue to play an
thing fairly novel among                                                                             active role in making it work.”
caregivers. People in this profession                                                                   Employees and a VPP represen-
are trained to take care of others                                                                   tative from each facility serve on
and often forget to take care of                                                                     an All Facilities Safety Committee.
themselves. We’re working to                                                                         Committee members receive train-
change that culture so our employ-                                                                   ing in hazard recognition, job haz-
ees recognize that they have a right                                                                 ard analysis, incident investigation,
and responsibility to safeguard                                                                      and root-cause analysis. The com-
their own health and safety, and it’s                                                                mittee meets at least quarterly to
a priority.”                                                                                         conduct facility safety and health
   For example, many health-care                                                                     inspections, and reviews all acci-
workers who handle residents ex-                       Safe work practices can prevent               dent and injury reports. It recom-
perience back and other muscu-                         ergonomic injuries as workers provide         mends further investigation, policy
loskeletal injuries. At Citizens                       resident care. Photo courtesy of Manor Care   and procedure changes, and

26       Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
process improvements. As a testa-        Citizens Memorial Healthcare               six nursing homes in the St. Louis
ment to employees’ commitment,           Foundation has taken its expertise         area hope to reduce injury and ill-
a committee meeting has never            on the road to share with other            ness rates for the participating fa-
been cancelled and committee             nursing care facilities. The “Caring       cilities by 10 percent within
members rarely miss a meeting.           for the Caregiver” series consists of      3 years.
   In addition, the foundation en-       three 1-day workshops on worker               “I’m delighted that Citizens Me-
courages employees to submit sug-        safety issues. Foundation trainers         morial is showing such a strong
gestions that may lead to safety or      present the workshops at the re-           commitment to share its experi-
health improvements. Under               questing facility and help the staff       ence,” says Paula White, who heads
the VOICE$, or Very Outstanding          develop a written safety and health        OSHA’s Directorate of Federal
Ideas Can Earn $, program, a             program to encourage employee in-          State Operations, which adminis-
committee of employees and               volvement and decrease work-re-            ters the VPP and Partnership pro-
management evaluates sugges-             lated injuries. So far, the staff has      grams. “This is an excellent ex-
tions and presents cash awards           presented the grant training pro-          ample of a VPP participant helping
to contributors.                         gram to more than 1,600 health-            OSHA and its industry by partici-
   The foundation offers several         care workers from other facilities.        pating in the St. Louis partnership.”
other avenues for employees to              “We’re big on sharing what we              Despite the progress the founda-
raise concerns regarding safety and      know about safety and health,” says        tion has made in promoting health
health. Workers can submit two           Welch. ”We know that our pro-              and safety in its own and other
forms: a “Tell it to the Chief” form     gram is making a difference and we         companies’ nursing homes, Welch
that goes to the executive director,     want to give other facilities an op-       says much remains to be done. “The
and a “Tell it to the Administra-        portunity to learn how to protect          success of any program depends on
tor” form that goes to the facility      their workers, too.”                       continuous improvement,” she
administrator. Both require an im-          The foundation recently agreed          says. “We have lots of room for im-
mediate response. In addition, the       to serve as a resource on safety and       provement, and we’re dedicated to
last two pages of the foundation’s       health issues to the facilities in-        building on our successes to make
monthly newsletter, The Grapevine,       volved in a new partnership with           our programs even better.” JSHQ
deal with safety and health issues.      OSHA’s St. Louis Area Office un-
Employees can take the safety quiz       der the OSHA Strategic Partner-            Gaines is the VPP manager for the
inside and turn it in for cash prizes.   ship Program. The Health Systems,          OSHA Regional Office in Kansas
Welch says this incentive encour-        Inc., nursing home association and         City, MO.
ages them to participate in health
and safety awareness.
   Ongoing training is the center-
piece of the Citizens Memorial
safety and health programs. All
1,400 employees must participate
in safety education programs that
go far beyond regulatory require-
ments. Welch says the staff meets
at least monthly to train on a
specific safety or health topic.
Whenever an incident or “close
call” occurs, employees meet to dis-
cuss what happened and how a
similar situation could be avoided
in the future.
   Thanks to a grant to Riverside
Management and Rehabilitation
from OSHA’s Susan Harwood
Training Grant Program, the              The Butterfield Residential Care Facility has had no recordable injuries or illnesses
                                         within the last 3 years. Photo courtesy of Citizens Memorial Healthcare Foundation

                                                                                                        Winter 2002        27
                                               Improving Nursing Home Safety

                                                     ive years after it launched a      Bureau of Labor Statistics. By 1999,
                                                     seven-state initiative to pro-     BLS statistics showed that injuries
                                                     tect workers in 5,000 nursing      had dropped to 192,200.
                                               home and personal-care facilities,           Rich Fairfax, chief of OSHA’s
                                               OSHA is seeing progress in reduc-        Directorate of Compliance Pro-
                                               ing injuries while expanding its         grams, acknowledges that progress
                                               outreach efforts.                        in reducing injuries at nursing and
                                                   As part of the 1996 initiative,      personal care facilities is slower
                                               facilities in the participating          than hoped. The biggest challenge,
                                               states—Florida, Illinois, Massachu-      he says, is to continue emphasizing
                                               setts, Missouri, New York, Ohio,         worker awareness of health and
                                               and Pennsylvania—received free,          safety issues—particularly those in-
                                               comprehensive safety and health          volving back injuries and slips and
                                               seminars designed to help employ-        falls that continue to cause the
                                               ers reduce worker injuries and ill-      most injuries at nursing and per-
                                               nesses. The seminars, presented by       sonal care facilities. Other most fre-
                                               OSHA in cooperation with the             quently cited violations, he says,
                                               AFL-CIO Service Employees                involve bloodborne pathogens,
                                               International Union and the              uncontrolled electrical hazards,
                                               American Association of Homes            hazard communication, lockout/
                                               and Services for the Aging, ad-          tagout, machine guarding, and per-
                                               dressed potential nursing home           sonal protective equipment.
                                               hazards. These included back in-             Fairfax says he is encouraged by
                                               juries from incorrect or strenuous       OSHA’s comprehensive strategy to
                                               lifting of residents, slips and falls,   address injuries and illnesses in
                                               workplace violence, and risks from       nursing homes through training,
                                               infectious diseases.                     enforcement, partnership agree-
                                                   Keith Motley, deputy director of     ments, grants, and efforts to bring
                                               OSHA’s Salt Lake Technical Cen-          nursing homes into the Voluntary
                                               ter and coordinator of the program,      Protection Programs. In addition to
                                               says its main emphasis was on get-       efforts by the Citizens Memorial
                                               ting nursing homes to develop a          Healthcare Foundation in Missouri
                                               safety and health program to ad-         (see related article), these initia-
                                               dress their injury rates. “We            tives include the following:
                                               stressed to them that safety pays in     • A 3-year partnership with Pinon
                                               helping reduce workers’ compen-             Management, Inc., and RTW
                                               sation costs,” he says.                     Colorado, Inc., that involves
                                                   OSHA incorporated the nurs-             seven nursing homes. This Stra-
                                               ing home initiative into its strate-        tegic Partnership includes
                                               gic plan in 1999. The agency                OSHA’s Englewood and Denver
                                               identified nursing homes as one of          Area Offices and the OSHA
                                               five high-hazard industries and set         Onsite Consultation Program.
                                               a goal of reducing injuries and ill-        The goal of the partnership is to
                                               nesses by 15 percent within 5 years.        reduce lost-workday injury and
                                                   When OSHA announced the                 illness rates for participating fa-
                                               nursing home initiative in 1996,            cilities by 10 percent per year,
A variety of initiatives is showing progress
in heightening caregivers’ awareness of
                                               injury and illness cases within the         develop and implement a com-
health and safety issues. Photos courtesy of   industry had reached 221,000, ac-           prehensive safety and health
Erickson Retirement Communities                cording to 1994 data from the               program for nursing homes, and

28       Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
  cut workers’ compensation costs                                        • Grants through the Susan
  by reducing the number and se-                                           Harwood Program to support a
  verity of injuries and illnesses.                                        wide range of safety and health
• Partnerships between OSHA’s                                              training programs in nursing
  Regional Office in Atlanta and                                           homes. More than $480,000 in
  nine nursing homes in Chatham                                            new grants was awarded in 2000
  County, GA. The goal of the                                              to the Aging Research Institute
  partnerships, announced in                                               in Topeka, KS; Bishop State
  May, is to reduce injuries and ill-                                      Community College in Mobile,
  nesses by 10 percent by January                                          AL; the Western Massachusetts
  2003. Participating homes OSHA’s nursing home eCAT identifies            Coalition for Occupational
                                      hazards and controls.
  agreed to maintain effective,                                            Safety and Health, Inc., in
  comprehensive safety and • Extension of a partnership                    Springfield, MA; and the West-
  health programs and to train          agreement between OSHA and         ern New York Council on Oc-
  employees in hazard recognition       the Joint Commission on Ac-        cupational Safety and Health,
  specific to their industry. In ad-    creditation of Healthcare Orga-    Inc., in Buffalo, NY.
  dition, they will conduct             nizations. The agreement, • An electronic Compliance As-
  monthly safety and health             formed in 1996 and extended in     sistance Tool (eCATS) that of-
  inspections and promote               2000, promotes workplace safety    fers a graphic menu to identify
  employee involvement in day-          in health-care institutions, in-   hazards and controls in the nurs-
  to-day operations. Two remain-        cluding nursing homes. The         ing home industry. It is available
  ing nursing care facilities in        partnership emphasizes health      on the OSHA website at
  Chatham County declined to            and safety training and encour- under Technical
  join the partnership but agreed       ages healthcare facilities to      Links. JSHQ
  to attend a day-long train-           participate in OSHA’s Volun-
  ing session.                          teer Protection Programs.

   Fewer nursing home workers are being injured on the job, and OSHA
   continues to expand its outreach in this high-hazard industry. Photo courtesy
   of Erickson Retirement Communities

                                                                                           Winter 2002     29
     Workers at Risk    OSHA is working to help protect workers
                         in health-care facilities from violence.

                                                  by Sheila Brown Arbury

     ast spring, a Florida nurse with      summon help in an emergency. In          average of 1.8. Of almost 5,000
     20 years’ experience in               response to this tragic event, the       nurses who responded to the
     psychiatry died of head and           facility made plans to purchase          American Nurses Association
face trauma at the hands of a              two-way communication systems            Health and Safety Survey last
patient, a former wrestler, who had        and personal alarm systems, hire a       September, 17 percent had been
arrived at 1:45 a.m. for involuntary       security guard, and add a “floating”     physically assaulted and 56.9 per-
admission to a private mental              staff member to relieve personnel        cent had experienced threats or
health-care facility. On duty in the       going on break so no staff member        verbal abuse on the job during the
Intensive Treatment Service unit           works alone on the unit.                 previous year. As high as these
were two women: the nurse who                 Homicide in health-care set-          percentages may be, there is strong
died and a mental-health techni-           tings is part of the larger picture of   speculation that workplace
cian who was on break when the             workplace violence in health care.       violence is underreported because
incident occurred. Other staff             According to the Bureau of Justice       of the victims’ fears of blame or loss
members realized there was a               National Crime Victimization             of their jobs. There also exists an
problem when the patient                   Survey, 69,500 nurses were               unfortunate and persistent
appeared outside the unit with the         assaulted at work from 1992 to           perception that within the health-
nurse’s keys. They found the nurse         1996. The National Institute for         care industry, assaults are part of
on the floor bleeding from her             Occupational Safety and Health           the job.
injuries, initiated CPR, and               reports that 9,000 health-care               OSHA’s publication, Guidelines
transported her to a hospital, where       providers are attacked on the job        for Preventing Workplace Violence for
she died.                                  every day. Bureau of Labor               Health Care and Social Service
   The preliminary investigation           Statistics figures for 1999 show that    Workers (OSHA 3148), addresses
revealed that the facility did not         43 percent of all non-fatal assaults     the problem and can help
have a specific policy on workplace        and violent acts resulting in lost       employers establish effective
violence, although the administ-           workdays across all industries           violence prevention programs
rators stated that they were in the        occurred within health-care              adapted to the needs and resources
process of writing one. There also         services. The incidence rate for         of their workplace.
were no written policies on staff          non-fatal assaults and violent acts          In response to the Florida nurse’s
breaks and no communication                in health services in 1999 was 9 per     death, OSHA’s Atlanta Regional
devices except the unit telephone          100 full-time equivalent workers,        Office staff recently presen-
and overhead paging system to              compared with the national               ted a conference on “Reducing

30    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
Workplace Violence in Psychiatric        facilities, presented relevant             of national organizations such as
Facilities: Cost-Effective Strategies    statistics, and offered strategies to      the American Nurses Association.
That Succeed.” The conference            decrease workplace violence in                OSHA believes that coopera-
attracted 137 participants: admin-       psychiatric facilities. Kevin              tive efforts with its stakeholders
istrators, nurses, security personnel,   Murrett, an architect in Buffalo,          will help to reduce workplace
risk managers, and OSHA staff, all       NY, who serves as a consultant to          violence and its harmful effects.
interested in strategies for             the New York State Office of               For more information about
decreasing workplace violence in         Mental Health, discussed building          workplace violence, visit the
psychiatric facilities by decreasing     design elements that discourage            OSHA website at
worker risks and lowering costs,         workplace violence. Nurses Ellen           The American Nurses Association
both human and financial.                Farley and Anne Schuler described          Health and Safety Survey is online
    Speakers at the conference           the successes of Massachusetts’            at
came from OSHA area, regional,           Assaulted Staff Action Program.
and national offices, the American       This volunteer peer help and crisis        Arbury is a health scientist in
Psychiatric Nurses Association, the      intervention program has resulted          OSHA’s Office of Occupational
American Nurses Association, the         in decreased symptoms of acute             Health Nursing, Washington, DC.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Joint    trauma and post-traumatic stress
Commission on Accreditation of           disorder among assaulted health-
Healthcare Organizations, the            care workers.
Center for Violence Prevention              “OSHA’s off to a good start,”                Risk Factors for
and Control at the University of         commented a participant in the                Workplace Violence in
Minnesota, the University of             Florida conference. “I hope this is           Health-Care Facilities
Maryland School of Nursing, the          just the beginning of great things
Cape Cod Community Mental                to come.” The agency plans to              • Prevalence of handguns and
Health Center, and the New York          explore other activities on                  other weapons among patients,
State Office of Mental Health.           workplace violence based on                  their families, and friends.
    The speakers described the           regional partnerships among                • Increasing numbers of acute
problem of violence in health-care       OSHA offices and state branches              and chronically mentally ill
                                                                                      patients released from hospitals
                                                                                      without followup care.
                                                                                    • Situational factors such as
                                                                                      unrestricted movement of the
                                                                                      public in health-care settings,
                                                                                      the increasing presence of drug
                                                                                      and alcohol abusers, and long
                                                                                      waits for services, resulting in
                                                                                      patient and family frustration.
                                                                                    • Low staffing levels at night and
                                                                                      during times of increased
                                                                                      activity such as meals, visiting
                                                                                      hours, and transport of patients.
                                                                                    • Isolated work with patients
                                                                                      during examinations or
                                                                                    • Lack of staff training in
                                                                                      recognizing and managing
                                                                                      hostile and assaultive behavior.
                                                                                    • Lack of specific safety and
                                                                                      health program to address
                                                                                      workplace violence. JSHQ
NIOSH reports that 9,000 health-care providers are attacked on the job every day.

                                                                                                    Winter 2002      31
                                                         by Julia Navarro

                                                  ommercial fishing has         wide range of operations—harvest-

                                          C       ranked consistently as the
                                                  most deadly occupation
                                          since 1992, when the Bureau of
                                          Labor Statistics started publishing
                                                                                ing, processing, cooking, packag-
                                                                                ing, freezing, storing, and shipping
                                                                                crabs—while at sea, with produc-
                                                                                tion continuing 24 hours a day.
                                          fatality rates by occupation. At no   This means 10-to-18-hour shifts
                                          time of the year is this industry     until all the catch is processed.
                                          more dangerous than in the harsh          OSHA’s Anchorage Area Office
                                          winter months, when, in addition      recently launched a new program
                                          to the risk of drowning and other     to improve its working relationship
                                          shipboard hazards, workers must       with fish processing companies
                                          deal with ice and bitter cold.        within its jurisdiction and, ulti-
                                             These are the conditions Alas-     mately, to reduce injury and death
                                          kan fishers brave during their        rates among workers in the indus-
                                          major crab-harvest season, when       try. According to Area Director
                                          temperatures plummet to sub-zero      Randy White, the program focuses
                                          in the double digits. During the      on promoting awareness of safety
                                          crab season, workers perform a        and health issues and offers

32    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
 32    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
in Alaska
 technical training in areas such as    solve today’s problems rather than
 machine guarding, electrical sys-      focusing on being an enforcement/
 tems, and ammonia refrigeration        punitive agent,” he writes in a let-
 systems. The Area Office staff also    ter to the Anchorage Area Office.
 conducts compliance assistance         “I am very impressed.” JSHQ
 visits to identify hazards before
 they lead to injuries.                 Narraro, a former safety specialist in
    In addition, OSHA is included       OSHA’s Anchorage Area Office, now
 in a limited partnership with 14       works in the Denver Area Office.
 seafood companies to reduce the
 risk of injuries and accidents asso-   Photos, clockwise from upper left: gaff-
 ciated with exposure to or cata-       ing a salmon, sorting a catch for freez-
 strophic releases of ammonia.          ing, processing shellfish at sea, preparing
    Jim Hutsinpiller, administrative    fish fillets for shipment, traveling to fish-
 manager for NorQuest Seafoods,         ing grounds, offloading a halibut catch,
                                        preparing to gaff a halibut in open water,
 praises OSHA’s initiative. “I think
                                        and sorting crabs by size. Photos courtesy of
 this is an excellent example of gov-   Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute
 ernment working with business to

                                                                                        Winter 2002    33
                                                                                         Winter 2002    33
                                                         Safety goggles protect a worker’s eyes from
                                                         flying debris.

34    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
 34    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
      PPE Saves Lives
             Personal protective equipment is more convenient,
            comfortable, and effective than ever before. Properly
              used, it could save hundreds of lives every year.

                                                        by Fred Walters

                                            worker was wearing a safety har-            comprehensive written safety pro-

          ithout warning, a falling
          limb struck the boom of           ness, it was not fastened to the            gram with a sound fall protection
         a 26-year-old Arkansas             bucket and could not protect him            policy, a program of regular job site
tree-trimmer’s bucket, catapulting          from falling.                               surveys followed by employee
him skyward. Within seconds, his               Ira Wainless, a senior industrial        training concerning identified haz-
body slammed into the boom at-              hygienist in OSHA’s Technical               ards, and use of personal protective
tached to the bucket, with gravity          Support Directorate, says any num-          equipment—PPE.
pulling him hard to the ground. He          ber of employer precautions might              PPE is special gear worn by
died the next day. Although the             have prevented this accident: a             employees to protect them from

An OSHA worker at the World Trade Center site wears a hard hat and respirator to
protect himself from falling debris and respiratory hazards. Photo by Shawn Moore
A logger wears a hardhat with logger face screen, hearing protectors, and chainsaw chaps. Photo by Eric Johnson
                                                                                                            Winter 2002    35
                                                                                                             Winter 2002    35
                                                                                 stylish, abandoning the traditional
                                                                                 one-size-fits-all approach,” says
                                                                                 Wainless. Because it looks better,
                                                                                 fits better, and is more comfortable,
                                                                                 he says more workers have better
                                                                                 protection today than they did just
                                                                                 a few years ago because more and
                                                                                 more employees wear PPE.
                                                                                     Also, more disposable clothing
                                                                                 such as aprons and jackets is now
                                                                                 available. Wainless says that these
                                                                                 forms of PPE are particularly popu-
                                                                                 lar with employers because they cut
                                                                                 down on the costs of maintenance,
                                                                                 decontamination, and storage.
                                                                                     Despite the protections it offers,
                                                                                 Monroe points out that PPE has
                                                                                 one major drawback: “Its effective-
                                                                                 ness depends on people using it.”
                                                                                 Gloves cannot do much good for a
                                                                                 worker’s hands if they are hanging
                                                                                 out of a back pocket. Safety glasses
                                                                                 cannot ward off eye injuries if they
                                                                                 are dangling from a worker’s neck.
                                                                                 And earplugs will not protect your
                                                                                 hearing if they stay in your pocket.
                                                                                     In addition, PPE that is not
                                                                                 maintained properly or inspected
                                                                                 routinely for wear and tear offers
                                                                                 little or no protection. A cracked
                                                                                 hardhat with sagging suspension,
                                                                                 for example, is not the best buffer
                                                                                 when a hammer comes flying out
                                                                                 of nowhere.
                                                                                     Newspapers frequently run ar-
A welder’s helmet protects the face and eyes from sparks and bright light.       ticles about worker fatalities that
                                                                                 PPE might have prevented, such as
                                                                                 these examples:
contact with chemical, physical,                Although specific numbers are
thermal, biological, and radiologi-          not available, Bill Klingbeil, • Argon gas asphyxiated a man
cal hazards. It includes a variety of        OSHA Voluntary Protection Pro-        while he cleaned a furnace at a
devices and garments such as                 grams Manager in the Dallas Re-       metallurgical plant in Califor-
hardhats, goggles, safety glasses,           gional Office, says “the proper use   nia. A coworker tried to save
face shields, earplugs, respirators,         of PPE by workers could prevent       him, but both men died during
vests, coveralls, safety shoes, and          hundreds of deaths and thousands      the rescue attempt. Wearing a
gloves that protect workers’ heads,          of injuries every year.”              self-contained breathing appara-
eyes, faces, ears, bodies, arms, legs,          Today’s PPE is more convenient,    tus (SCBA) might have pre-
feet and hands. “It creates a physi-         comfortable, and effective than       vented this tragedy.
cal barrier that travels with the            ever before. “In the past decade or • Failed hydraulics caused an
worker,” says Susan Monroe, an               so, PPE manufacturers have cus-       aerial lift to throw a man almost
OSHA industrial hygienist with               tomized their products to make        20 feet from a work platform dur-
the Regional Office in Dallas.               them more comfortable and more        ing an equipment test in Texas,

36      Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
  killing him. He was not wearing       replaced by a semiautomated or
  a fall restraint/ arrest system.      fully automated manufacturing
• Tainted blood splashed into a         process that reduces or eliminates
  Pennsylvania hospital worker’s        the risk of skin coming into con-
  eyes, infecting him with the          tact with acid.
  hepatitis C virus. Sick for more          Klingbeil says this is just one ex-
  than 5 years, the man died be-        ample of innovations that may
  fore he could get a liver trans-      some day make PPE obsolete be-
  plant. Safety goggles might have      cause workers will no longer need
  prevented the infection.              it to protect themselves from work-
                                        place hazards. But until that day
   Despite widespread efforts to        comes, he says PPE is the best way
educate workers about the impor-        to reduce on-the-job accidents
tance of wearing PPE, safety and        and injuries.
health professionals agree that the         “We need to continue to get the
best way to protect workers is to       word out about PPE and drive it
rely on PPE only when other pro-        home,” agrees Wainless. “Just hav-
tections are not practical or avail-    ing PPE is not enough. You have
able. Klingbeil stresses that PPE is    to wear it, the right way, for as long
a worker’s second line of defense       as you’re exposed to a hazard—not
against workplace hazards. Ideally,     only for yourself, but also for those
he says, employers should manage        who care about you.”
these hazards through engineering,          For more information about
administrative, and work prac-          PPE, visit the agency website at
tice controls.                 Go to the index and
   Engineering controls, he ex-         click on P, then Personal Protec-
plained, involve physically             tive Equipment. JSHQ
changing a machine or work envi-
ronment to prevent employee ex-         Walters is a writer-editor in OSHA’s Head-to-toe protection is necessary for
posure to a hazard. They have the       Office of Public Affairs in Washing- workers involved with hazardous
added benefit of not relying on em-     ton, DC.                             materials.
ployee behavior to be effective.
Administrative controls, on the
other hand, involve changing how
or when employees do their jobs.
   “PPE would be obsolete in an
ideal world, because it wouldn’t be
needed,” says Klingbeil. “For in-
stance, hazardous noise would be
engineered out of the workplace or
isolated from the worker, eliminat-
ing the need for earplugs.”
Monroe agrees that “PPE is the last
resort if you can’t get hazards out
of the workplace.”
   Technology could eventually
displace PPE. Some workers using
acid metal plating solutions, for ex-
ample, have already benefitted
from technological changes. The
fully manual manufacturing
process they once used has been         Earmuffs protect workers from noisy equipment and machinery.

                                                                                                  Winter 2002      37
          Turning the
          at ConAgra  ConAgra Refrigerated Foods has created a
                      new view of workplace safety and health.
                                                    by Susan Hall Fleming

                                          Workers on the turkey deboning line use steel mesh gloves to protect against knife
                                          cuts—one of many safety measures in place at ConAgra. Photo courtesy of ConAgra
                                          Refrigerated Foods, Inc.

 38    Jo Sa f t t & H a l l t Q a r r t r r l
      Jo b bSa f e e yy& H e e a t hhQ uu a t e e l yy
        s corporations evolve,
        remaking and retooling
        themselves to meet the
challenges of an ever-changing
marketplace, their cultures change,
too. Culture is that body of closely
held, often unwritten beliefs and
behaviors that characterizes a com-
pany, distinguishing it from others
in its industry. Think of some old
stereotypes—starched white shirts
at IBM versus jeans and T-shirts at
Apple—and you begin to tap into
company culture. Of course, cul-
ture is more than a dress code. It is
a pervasive atmosphere, sometimes
defined by the VIPs as “what your
people do when you’re not around.”
   This is a story about a deliber-     ConAgra included its employees, like these in the Butterball Turkey Company
                                        plant in Carthage, MO, in its effort to improve workplace safety and health.
ate decision by ConAgra Refriger-
                                        Photo courtesy of ConAgra Refrigerated Foods, Inc.
ated Foods, Inc., its union, and
OSHA to change the company              corrections, and reinspections—                      sites could then inspire the other
culture regarding workplace inju-       and tired of the adversarial rela-                   ConAgra plants to follow suit?
ries and illnesses. It is about how     tionship it had developed with                           Judy Fryman, a ConAgra vice
changing the way people look at         OSHA. ConAgra was determined                         president, saw such a partnership
workplace safety and health can         to try another strategy.                             as a way to improve the company’s
change the very heart of a business.                                                         safety and health performance, its
It is about the challenge of look-      The Possibilities                                    labor/management relations, and
ing at a company in a new light,           What if ConAgra formed a                          its relationship with OSHA. But
stepping outside the box, and turn-     management-union partnership                         Fryman says the company wasn’t
ing the kaleidoscope. When you          with OSHA that would lead to                         satisfied with creating a good safety
shift just a few pretty fragments of    excellence in safety and health at                   and health program; it wanted an
colored glass, the entire picture       a group of their sites? What if those                outstanding one. There seemed to
changes and a new vision emerges.                                                            be no better way to achieve that
                                                                                              goal than to strive to get some of
The Problem                                                                                   ConAgra’s sites into OSHA’s pres-
   For ConAgra Refrigerated                                                                   tigious Voluntary Protection Pro-
Foods, an amalgam of diverse com-                                                             grams (VPP). “ConAgra had a
panies and sites in the meat and                                                              mountain to climb and saw VPP
poultry processing business, the                  ConAgra                                     as a vehicle to make it to the top,”
impetus for change was a series of             Refrigerated                                   says Fryman.
OSHA inspections. ConAgra                                                                        ConAgra’s goal was lofty: to
came to recognize that the prob-             Foods set out to                                 bring 9 of its 30 sites—plants with
lems identified in several inspec-               achieve an                                   good safety records as well as those
tions over the course of a year were                                                          with a long way to go—into VPP.
much like those found in previous           ambitious goal: to                                It hoped to work toward that goal
inspections. Problems got fixed,             bring 9 of its 30                                through a 5-year partnership com-
only to resurface and be tagged                                                               mitted to establishing effective
once again during another inspec-
                                              sites into VPP.                                 safety and health systems at each
tion. The company was tired of the                                                            site by drawing on the technical
endless and fruitless merry-go-                                                               resources and expertise of OSHA
round of inspections, penalties,                                                              and the union.

                                                                                                              Winter 2002      39
   “ConAgra saw the partnership                                                    and health issues “instead of
as a way to improve health and                                                     coming in after the fact to find
safety programs in the [Refrigerated                                               the problems.”
Foods] division,” says Corporate                   ConAgra saw                        Cathy Oliver, OSHA’s Chief of
Health, Safety, and security Vice                     value in                     VPP, says the agency also saw the
President Dennis Waugh. “We felt                                                   partnership as a way to demon-
we weren’t making that much                       partnering with                  strate the economic value of good
progress, and this might be easier                   OSHA to                       safety and health programs. “We
in partnership with OSHA. We                                                       wanted the industry to sit up and
could get help in the process and                   improve its                    take notice that they could achieve
build on that for VPP.”                          health and safety                 significant reductions in workers’
   The VPP Partnership Initiative                                                  compensation costs,” she says.
started in January 1997. ConAgra
                                                     programs.                     “In a competitive industry, this is
Refrigerated Foods Companies, the                                                  very important.”
United Food and Commercial                                                            The UFCW was less certain
Workers International Union,                                                       about the potential for success due
AFL-CIO (UFCW), and OSHA                                                           to the large number of hazards and
pledged to work together coopera-                  industry, a high-hazard industryhigh turnover rates in the food pro-
tively to improve safety and health                targeted for special emphasis by the
                                                                                   cessing industry. Still, Jackie
at nine ConAgra sites. ConAgra                     agency in its strategic plan. “We
                                                                                   Nowell, UFCW Health and Safety
pledged to put into practice the                   welcomed the partnership becauseDirector, thought that in the long
pillars of VPP: management lead-                   we wanted to conserve our re-   run, “Workers are better off with
ership, employee involvement,                      sources, to avoid going out to sites
                                                                                   than without the VPP.”
worksite analysis, hazard preven-                  over and over again and finding the
tion and control, and safety and                   same hazards,” says Jennifer Kim, Partnership in Practice
health training.                                   OSHA’s project leader for the part-     Both the union and OSHA con-
   OSHA also saw the venture as                    nership. She says she welcomed the tributed time and expertise to the
an opportunity to make a signifi-                  opportunity to work proactively partnership. The UFCW held
cant impact in the food processing                 with a company to address safety training sessions, including 4 hours
                                                                                        of ergonomics training for workers
                                                                                        at the Brown N’ Serve plant in St.
                                                                                        Charles, IL. OSHA has invested
                                                                                        the equivalent of about three-quar-
                                                                                        ters of a full-time employee’s time
                                                                                        each year of the partnership.
                                                                                           The agency helped ConAgra
                                                                                        develop corporate and site-specific
                                                                                        safety and health system imple-
                                                                                        mentation plans. OSHA staff con-
                                                                                        ducted onsite mock VPP reviews
                                                                                        at five ConAgra plants so far, pro-
                                                                                        viding a baseline measure for
                                                                                        strengthening the sites’ safety and
                                                                                        health management systems. In
                                                                                        addition, OSHA trained corporate
                                                                                        evaluation teams and created a spe-
                                                                                        cial reporting system (DRUM:
                                                                                        Data, Results, Updates, and Mile-
                                                                                        stones) that enables ConAgra sites
A ConAgra worker performs an audit to verify use of proper machinery                    to make quarterly progress reports
safeguards. Photo courtesy of ConAgra Refrigerated Foods, Inc.                          to the agency. Representatives

40     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                    Next, participants examined
   Partnership Participants                                                      what a safety and health manage-
                                                                                 ment system looks like, reviewing
   ASE Consumer Products Co., Brown N’ Serve, St. Charles, IL                    events at the mythical “Plant
   ASE Foodservice Co. Dry Sausage, St. Charles, IL                              Death.” They applied what they
   Butterball Turkey Co., Huntsville, AR                                         learned by analyzing real accidents
   Butterball Turkey Co., Carthage, MO                                           from their own plant’s files to de-
   ASE Foodservice Co., Omaha, NE                                                termine root causes. Finally, labor
   ASE Consumer Products Co., Kansas City, KS                                    and management groups separated
   ASE Consumer Products Co., Mason City, IA                                     to develop models for management
   ConAgra Beef Co., Greeley, CO                                                 commitment and employee in-
   ASE Foodservice Co., Longmont, CO                                             volvement for their specific plant.
                                                                                 They joined together at the end of
                                                                                 the day to create a unified vision.
from OSHA, UFCW, ConAgra’s              “With an adversarial culture, there      Both groups reached the same con-
corporate office, and each partici-     is low trust, fear, and poor commu-      clusion: We must change the way
pating facility also discuss progress   nication. This gets in the way of        we do business, and the problems
during quarterly conference calls.      everything an organization wants         must be solved by us, not them.
                                        to do—not just to improve sa-               Workshop participants identi-
Changing Culture                        fety and health,” he says. “My goal      fied the steps to take to work
   The critical element OSHA            was to build relationships, trust,       toward their unified vision and se-
provided, however, was a series of      and communication so the                 lected a team to carry the plan for-
15 “culture change” workshops           whole culture of the organization        ward. Team members received
conducted at participating plants       would shift.”                            training to help them work to-
by Dr. Jerry Ryan, former VPP co-           Participants in the culture          gether and identify process im-
ordinator for OSHA’s Regional Of-       change workshops discussed loss-         provements. According to Mark
fice in Denver. Ryan saw the work-      control principles: the physical as      Pohl, ConAgra Corporate Safety
shops as a way to give the sites “a     well as human aspects of accidents.      and Health Manager, the process
new paradigm emphasizing a big-         Ryan explained that pressure to          went a long way toward building
ger, broader, and more positive pic-    produce can lead to shortcuts and        trust between management, the
ture of safety as opposed to a nar-     risk taking because doing some-          unions, and OSHA.
row compliance focus that is self-      thing safely may take a little longer.
limiting and produces mediocre                                                   Pitfalls Along the Path
results in the long run.”                                                           Maintaining effective safety and
   In effect, turning the kaleido-                                               health programs in the midst of
scope not only moves a few stones,                                               management and workforce turn-
but also alters the entire picture.                                              overs can be difficult and repre-
   Ryan gathered the company                    Changing                         sents an ongoing challenge for
president, executive staff, plant                                                ConAgra plants and others in food
manager, and union leadership for              ConAgra’s                         processing. “This is a very danger-
a full day to examine where the             culture regarding                    ous industry with a lot of problems
company was and where it wanted                                                  and turnover,” said the UFCW’s
to go. “My challenge to workshop
                                            workplace safety                     Nowell. “It’s not the best candi-
participants was this: How big a             and health was                      date for VPP. The three partners
game do you want to play?” he says.           critical to the                    committed to work together, but
“VPP is actually a small game.                                                   when plant management changes
These changes can produce busi-               partnership’s                      or the safety and health director
ness excellence if you allow it.”                success.                        changes, we take a step backwards.”
   Ryan says rebuilding the rela-                                                   “Changing culture is a chal-
tionship between labor and man-                                                  lenge,” says Pohl. “Plant managers
agement is key to culture change.                                                must be willing to listen to a new

                                                                                                  Winter 2002     41
                                                                                           them had virtually no industrial
                                                                                           hygiene program before this part-
                                                                                           nership. Every site in the partner-
                                                                                           ship has planned, and most have
                                                                                           completed, a baseline industrial hy-
                                                                                           giene survey.”
                                                                                              Thanks to the partnership, the
                                                                                           relationship between ConAgra and
                                                                                           OSHA has turned from adversarial
                                                                                           to cooperative. ConAgra and
                                                                                           OSHA staffers alike simply pick up
                                                                                           the phone and resolve issues
                                                                                           quickly and positively with a
                                                                                           simple conversation. “Sites in the
ConAgra workers now have lower injury and illness incidence rates and the                  partnership submit a status report
company pays less in workers’ compensation costs. Photo courtesy of ConAgra Refrigerated   every quarter, so we have an ongo-
Foods, Inc.                                                                                ing effort with sites continuously
                                                                                           making improvements,” says Kim.
way [of doing things]. The plants             anecdotal evidence suggests that                Ryan stresses that the impact
doing team-based production have              the increases may reflect better in-         goes beyond the sites in the part-
the easiest time. For more tradi-             jury reporting and greater em-               nership. “ConAgra is the second-
tional plants, it’s harder. Culture           ployee willingness to report inju-           largest food producer in the U.S.,”
can change, but it takes a while.             ries without fear of reprisal.               he says. “There is a trickle-down
We’re going to get there eventu-                  As injuries and illnesses have           effect, so we don’t know how much
ally with all of them.”                       declined, the plants have seen a             impact we’ve had.”
                                              dramatic decline in workers’ com-               Oliver says the partnership also
The Progress                                  pensation costs—from 42 to                   has given OSHA a better appre-
    “The progress is good,” says              93 percent, with an average                  ciation of how corporations oper-
UFCW’s Nowell. “It’s involved                 reduction of 62 percent. There’s             ate, including how they budget and
workers, increased hazard identifi-           more to the story than just num-             distribute safety and health re-
cation, and led to more work-                 bers, of course. “Sites are now iden-        sources. “It gave us insight into
er training.”                                 tifying and correcting hazards on            how to change corporate culture to
    Eight of the nine original sites          their own,” Kim says. “Most of               change safety and health. Working
remain in the partnership. One site                                                        hand in hand, we got a better un-
closed, but another facility re-                                                           derstanding of their issues that bet-
placed it in the partnership. One,                                                         ter equipped us to provide them
the Brown N’ Serve site in St.                                                             with strategies to make changes,”
Charles, joined VPP as a Merit site                                                        she says. “Compliance officers
in August 1999. (See sidebar, page                                                         identify violations. We wanted to
43.) Two others sites are readying               The impact of the                         look at systemic problems and find
their applications. Most sites have                                                        systemic solutions.”
improved their health and safety                 ConAgra partner-
programs significantly.                           ship is extending                        Ripples from the
    Seven of the original nine facili-             far beyond the                          Partnership
ties reduced their total injury and                                                           Pohl notes that the ConAgra
illness incidence rates by 6 to 30               eight plants in the                       partnership’s impact is spreading
percent, with an average reduction
of 20 percent. Their lost-time and
                                                      program.                             beyond the eight plants in the pro-
                                                                                           gram. One facility not included in
restricted-work injuries—the most                                                          the partnership, for example, has
serious injuries—dropped by 8 to                                                           become a Merit VPP member.
61 percent at these sites. Rates                                                           “We’ll bring the rest of the facili-
increased at two of the sites, but                                                         ties along,” Pohl says.

42       Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                           What’s next? OSHA recently
                                                                                        launched a similar partnership with
                                                                                        two sites of another food processor,
                                                                                        Tysons Foods. “Tysons also wanted to
                                                                                        do something to improve its safety and
                                                                                        health programs,” says Oliver. “We’re
                                                                                        using the ConAgra partnership as a
                                                                                        model for the Tysons one.”
                                                                                           What about the future at ConAgra?
                                                                                        Waugh sees the new paradigm as “the
                                                                                        way we’re going to operate—not just
                                                                                        today, but every day from now on.
                                                                                        Safety must be ingrained in the cul-
Teamwork on the production floor and throughout the ConAgra organization is
                                                                                        ture.” OSHA, the union, and the com-
critical to the success of its safety and health initiatives. Photo courtesy of ConAgra
Refrigerated Foods, Inc.
                                                                                        pany are working to address the part-
                                                                                        nership issues and, if satisfied with their
                                                                                        progress, may consider extending the
    In a sense, the kaleidoscopes for built good model worksites in food partnership. JSHQ
each plant mesh like gears with processing. When other sites say,
those of other sites. As one turns ‘We can’t do it,’ we can say, ‘Yes, Fleming is a public affairs specialist in
and changes, others are also af- you can—and here’s how!’”                              OSHA’s Office of Public Affairs,
fected. Slowly, sometimes in fits                  “VPP is a winner,” says Waugh. Washington, DC.
and starts, all the pictures improve. “This is the third major company
    “What we wanted were systemic that I’ve been with that’s been
changes to impact all the workers involved in VPP. It will be part
in the company and, beyond that, of any safety program I lead from
the industry,” Oliver says. “We’ve now on.”

                               Savoring Success at Brown N’ Serve

          he Armour Swift Eckrich Brown N’ Serve                  3 years, the basic safety training has been conducted
          plant in St. Charles, IL, was the first ConAgra         by production employees. This demonstrates on-
          site to earn acceptance into VPP. A Merit               going employee involvement. We have employees
  site for 2 years, the facility hopes to move up to Star         telling us about potential safety hazards and dan-
  status in early 2002, according to Manufacturing                gerous acts without fear of reprisals.”
  Manager David Amacher.                                             “Supervisors are more focused on ‘near misses’
     Brown N’ Serve’s efforts in the partnership have             and potentials rather than accidents and numbers,”
  paid off handsomely. “Our workers’ comp costs have              Amacher says. “The challenge is to maintain em-
  been reduced by 93 percent from 1997 to 1999,”                  ployee involvement through turnover—getting new
  Amacher says. “This saved the plant more than                   people up to speed and as committed [to safety] as
  $200,000 in the past 3 years.”                                  the rest of them are.”
     According to the plant’s health and safety direc-               Amacher says Brown N’ Serve has adopted five
  tor, Chris Martin, a key change has been early re-              core VPP values: enforcement of a safe work envi-
  porting and intervention. “Employees report discom-             ronment, creation of an atmosphere that encour-
  fort and we take care of it immediately,” he says.              ages employee involvement, emphasis on coaching
  “We’ve learned to emphasize training rather than                and training rather than reacting and disciplining,
  discipline—with much better results.”                           open communication without fear of reprisal, and
     Beyond the numbers lie many additional benefits,             use of root-cause analysis of injuries and illnesses
  Amacher pointed out. “For example, for the past                 rather than reaction to symptoms.

                                                                                                         Winter 2002        43
 OSHA Semiannual Agenda

Developed biannually, the agenda includes all regulations the agency expects to develop or review. The current
agency agenda, published in the Federal Register/Vol. 66, No. 232/Monday, December 3, 2001, is as follows.

Prerules                                   Presence Sensing Device Initia-    Final Rules
Title and Regulation Identifier            tion of Mechanical Power Presses   Update and Revision of the Exit
Number (RIN)                               (Section 610 Review)               Routes Standard
                                           1218-AC03                          (Reg Plan Seq No. 96)
Confined Spaces in Construction                                               1218-AB82
(Part 1926): Preventing Suffoca-
                                           Proposed Rules
tion/Explosions in Confined                Assigned Protection Factors:       Signs, Signals, and Barricades
Spaces                                     Amendments to the Final Rule       (Reg Plan Seq No. 97)
1218-AB47                                  on Respiratory Protection          1218-AB88
                                           (Reg Plan Seq No. 93)
Occupational Exposure to Ethyl-            1218-AA05                          Procedures for Handling
ene Oxide (Section 610 Review)                                                of Discrimination Complaints
1218-AB60                                  Occupational Exposure              Under the Aviation and Reform
                                           to Tuberculosis                    Act
Electric Power Transmission and            1218-AB46                          1218-AB99
Distribution; Electrical Protec-
                                           General Working Conditions
tive Equipment in the Construc-
                                           for Shipyard Employment            Long-Term Actions
tion Industry                                                                 Longshoring and Marine Termi-
1218-AB67                                  1218-AB50
                                                                              nals (Parts 1917 and 1918)—
Grain Handling Facilities                  Fire Protection in Shipyard        Reopening of the Record (Verti-
(Section 610 Review)                       Employment (Part 1915, Sub-        cal Tandem Lifts
1218-AB73                                  part P) (Shipyards: Fire Safety)   1218-AA56
                                           (Reg Plan Seq No. 94)
Occupational Exposure                      1218-AB51                          Scaffolds in Shipyards
to Beryllium                                                                  (Part 1915, Subpart N)
1218-AB76                                  Standards Improvement (Misc.       1218-AA68
                                           Changes) for General Industry,
Hearing Loss Prevention                    Marine Terminals, and Construc-    Access and Egress in Shipyards
in Construction Workers                    tion Standards (Phase II)          (Part 1915, Subpart E)
1218-AB89                                  (Reg Plan Seq No. 95)              (Shipyards: Emergency Exits and
                                           1218-AB81                          Aisles)
Cranes, Derricks, Hoists,                                                     1218-AA70
Elevators, and Conveyors                   Changes to State Plans
1218-AC01                                  1218-AB91                          Glycol Ethers:
Excavations                                                                   2-Ethoxyethanol, and Their
(Section 610 Review)                                                          Acetates: Protecting
1218-AC02                                                                     Reproductive Health

44    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
Accreditation of Training             Completed Actions                 Oil and Gas Well Drilling
Programs for Hazardous Waste          Permissible Exposure Limits       and Servicing
Operations (Part 1910)                for Air Contaminants              1218-AB83
1218-AB27                             1218-AB54                         Update and Revision of the
Indoor Air Quality                    Metalworking Fluids: Protecting   Spray Applications Standard
in the Workplace                      Respiratory Health                1218-AB84
1218-AB37                             1218-AB58                         Occupational Exposure
Injury and Illness Prevention         Update and Revision of the        to Perchloroethylene
1218-AB41                             Flammable and Combustible         1218-AB86
Occupational Exposure                 Liquids Standard                  Sanitation in the Construction
to Hexavalent Chromium                1218-AB61                         Industry
(Preventing Occupational Illness:     Process Safety Management         1218-AB87
Chromium)                             of Highly Hazardous Chemicals
1218-AB45                                                               Ergonomics Programs
                                      1218-AB63                         in Construction (Part 1926)
Fall Protection                       Revision and Update of the        1218-AB94
in the Construction Industry          Mechanical Power-Transmission
1218-AB62                                                               Occupational Health Risks in the
                                      Apparatus Standard                Manufacture and Assembly of
Occupational Exposure                 1218-AB66                         Semiconductors
to Crystalline Silica                 Safety Standards for Scaffolds    1218-AB96
1218-AB70                             Used in the Construction          Occupational Injury and Illness
Employer Payment for Personal         Industry—Part II                  Recording and Reporting
Protective Equipment                  1218-AB68                         Requirements
1218-AB77                                                               1218-AC00 JSHQ
                                      Safety and Health Programs
Walking Working Surfaces and          for Construction
Personal Fall Protection              1218-AB69
(Part 1910) (Slips, Trips, and Fall
Prevention)                           Control of Hazardous Energy
1218-AB80                             (Lockout) in Construction
                                      (Part 1926)
Revision and Update of Subpart        1218-AB71
S–Electrical Standards
1218-AB95                             Consolidation of Records
                                      Maintenance Requirements
Commercial Diving Operations:         in OSHA Standards
Revision                              1218-AB78

                                                                                       Winter 2002        45
                                                                                             ow did two OSHA instruc-
                                                                                             tors train more than 1,600

Going the
                                                                                             students in confined space
                                                                                    hazards in just 1 week? No, it
                                                                                    wasn’t by crowding everyone into
                                                                                    one huge auditorium—but by us-
                                                                                    ing a satellite training session de-

                                                                                    veloped and presented by staff from
                                                                                    the OSHA Office of Training and
                                                                                    Education (OTE).
                                                                                        This is just one of the new dis-
                                                                                    tance learning methods that OTE,

for Training                                                                        based in Des Plaines, IL, is using
                                                                                    to train OSHA federal and state
                                                                                    field staff, federal agencies, and the
                                                                                    private sector.
                                                                                        Distance learning also is known
                                                                                    as technology-based training or “e-
                                                                                    learning.” The goal is to deliver
OSHA’s Office of Training and Education                                             effective and timely training in an
uses distance learning to deliver safety and                                        economical and efficient way to
                                                                                    audiences spread across a wide geo-
health training to more students nationwide.                                        graphic area. OSHA plans to use
                                                                                    both satellite sessions and web-
by Susan Salem                                                                      based training in its distance learn-
                                                                                    ing program.
                                                                                        Satellite training involves trans-
                                                                                    mitting from a studio or site with
                                                                                    appropriate facilities (the uplink
                                                                                    site) to remote locations (downlink
                                                                                    sites). The training generally in-
                                                                                    volves two-way audio and one-way
                                                                                    video transmissions.
                                                                                        Web-based training, in contrast,
                                                                                    is offered anywhere, anytime over
                                                                                    the Internet or a corporate Intranet
                                                                                    through browser software. Web-
                                                                                    based instruction can be synchro-
                                                                                    nous, conducted in real time with
                                                                                    an instructor, or asynchronous, self
                                                                                    directed and self paced. Instruction
                                                                                    can be delivered by a combination
                                                                                    of static methods such as learning
                                                                                    portals, hyperlinked pages,
                                                                                    screencam tutorials, streaming au-
                                                                                    dio/video, and live web broadcasts.
                                                                                    It also can be delivered using in-
OSHA instructor Terry Krug rehearses for a satellite presentation at the Kirtland   teractive methods such as threaded
Air Force Base studio in New Mexico. Teaching partner Linda Spurling prepares       discussions, chats, and desktop
in the background.                                                                  videoconferencing.
                                                                                        Dr. Hank Payne started plan-
                                                                                    ning for distance learning at

46     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
                                                                                • Team instruction is used to
                                                                                    provide flexibility during
                                                                                    the broadcast.
                                                                                    OTE held its first satellite train-
                                                                                ing course, on confined space en-
                                                                                try, during 4 consecutive days in
                                                                                March, for 3 hours each day.
                                                                                OSHA instructors Linda Spurling
                                                                                and Terry Krug presented the train-
                                                                                ing at a studio run by the Depart-
                                                                                ment of Energy at Kirtland Air
                                                                                Force Base in Albuquerque, NM.
                                                                                Employees from the Air Force and
                                                                                the Department of Veterans Affairs
                                                                                at locations across the country at-
                                                                                tended the training. After each
                                                                                day’s broadcast, individual groups
                                                                                had the opportunity to address
                                                                                specific training needs through
Terry Krug, left, an OSHA instructor, joins Air Force instructors in a panel    onsite sessions or another satel-
discussion during a satellite training event.                                   lite broadcast.
                                                                                    The participating agencies were
                                                                                extremely positive about the train-
OSHA 2 years ago when he be-              Satellite Training                    ing. “The satellite broadcasts
came the OTE director. As a mem-             To make satellite-based courses    brought excellent training to a
ber of the Board of Directors and         successful, OTE established the       worldwide Air Force population in
Chairman of the Advisory Board            following four essential concepts:    minimal time and at a fraction of
of the U.S. Distance Learning As-         • Broadcasts are 3 hours or less to   the cost of resident training,”
sociation and a former president of          maintain student interest.         says Karen Kinkle, Safety and
the Federal Government Distance           • Content is presented succinctly     Occupational Health Manager at
Learning Association, he had ex-             in as few training days as pos-    Kirtland’s Air Force Safety Center.
perience in developing and pre-              sible.                             “Satellite training is essential
senting distance learning sessions.       • Students and instructors have       for us to meet our future train-
Before joining OTE, he managed               access to phone and fax commu-     ing requirements.”
the Federal Aviation Administra-             nication during broadcasts so          OTE broadcast the second sat-
tion’s Distance Learning Program.            students can have their ques-      ellite course, the Collateral Duty
“I knew the value of this type of            tions answered.                    Course for Other Federal Agencies,
training, particularly in organiza-
tions with physically dispersed field
staffs and limited budgets,” he says.
   Payne trained the staff on the
principles of distance learning and
new technologies available. Next,                OSHA and other agencies participating
the staff set out to identify which              in its satellite training are excited about
courses to convert from onsite de-
livery to satellite and web-based                the prospects. Says one user, “Satellite
training, and the role each office                training is essential for us to meet our
would play. The staff selected three
OSHA courses to deliver through                       future training requirements.”
satellite events and nine to convert
to web-based training.

                                                                                                  Winter 2002       47
for the Department of Veterans                     “Distance learning gives us the ability to
Affairs in late September. Some
1,500 to 2,000 students attended                    deliver top-quality instruction to more
the training, which was broadcast                      students and at a lower cost, and
from the VA studio in St. Louis,
MO, at some 200 downlink sites.                     ultimately, to make a bigger impact on
    On December 12, OSHA of-                                  workplace safety.”
fered its first satellite course to the
public—a 2-1/2-hour session on
the agency’s new recordkeeping
standard. OSHA area offices iden-
tified 293 local community colleges
and other venues with satellite fa-             For example, in the Principles        “Distance learning represents a
cilities to carry the training and en-      of Ventilation course, one of          huge step forward for OTE,” says
couraged local employers and trade          OSHA’s pilot web-based training        OSHA Training Institute Director
groups to participate. The U.S.             courses now under development,         Zigmas Sadauskas. “It gives us
Postal Service set up an additional         computer modules will cover            the ability to deliver top-quality
900 sites, and the broadcast was            mathematical equations and tech-       instruction to more students and at
available at 2,000 more sites               nical information. After success-      a lower cost and, ultimately, to
through a health-care and long-             fully completing the web-based         make a bigger impact on work-
term-care network and at 72 loca-           modules, students will travel to the   place safety.” JSHQ
tions through the State of                  OSHA Training Institute for ven-
Wisconsin’s Consultation Project.           tilation labs and workshops.           Salem is an occupational safety and
The training program also was si-                All other web courses will have   health specialist at OTE.
mulcast on the Internet to more             a similar format. Courses to be re-
than 1,000 viewers. To date, more           designed for web-based training
than 10,000 people have viewed              this year are as follows:
the program. Feedback has been              • Principles of Industrial Ventila-
95 percent positive.                            tion;
                                            • Excavation, Trenching, and Soil
Web-Based Training                              Mechanics;
   OTE’s web-based training en-             • Fire Protection and Life Safety;
tails two stages: one web-based and         • Permit-Required Confined
one onsite. The “textbook” portion              Space Entry;
of the existing training, in which          • Safety and Health for Grain
students learn the basic facts about            Handling Operations;
the topic, is designed for the web          • Fall Arrest Systems;
with short lessons that students can        • Principles of Scaffolding;
complete in about 20 minutes or             • Biohazards; and
less. Students take a test at the end       • Applied Spray Finishing and
of each lesson and module. The                  Coating.
program directs any student who
gets a wrong answer back to the                The OTE staff will evaluate
section of the lesson with the cor-         each course to ensure that the
rect information. After completing          training is effective and meets
the web-based section of the train-         the learners’ needs. OTE plans
ing, students attend a shortened,           eventually to offer a web-based
onsite course that focuses on work-         portion for each appropriate onsite
shops and the “hands-on” aspects            OSHA course.
of the training.

48     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
OSHA Training (April - June 2002)
OSHA Training Institute, Des Plaines, IL

101 Safety Hazard Recognition           205 Cranes and Rigging Safety        222 Respiratory Protection
for Industrial Hygienists               for Construction                     Covers requirements for the estab-
Introductory course features hazard     Introduces students to crane         lishment, maintenance, and moni-
recognition related to common in-       operations, crane inspection and     toring of a respirator program.
dustrial processes and the criteria     maintenance, rigging inspection,
for citation or referral to safety      reading load charts, and corre-             Tuition: $1,064
compliance officers.                    sponding OSHA and consensus                 Dates: June 13-21
        Tuition: $1,400                                                      224 Laboratory Safety
        Dates: April 2-12                      Tuition: $560                 and Health
                                               Dates: April 23-26            Introduces students to the hazards
201 Hazardous Materials                                                      associated with laboratories and
Covers OSHA general industry            207 Fire Protection                  control of these hazards.
standards and integrates materials      and Life Safety
from other consensus and propri-        Introduces students to the recog-            Tuition: $560
etary standards that relate to haz-     nition of potential fire hazards and         Dates: April 16-19
ardous materials.                       emergency procedures. Course will
                                        be held at the Volpentest HAM- 226 Permit-Required Confined
        Tuition: $1,064                 MER Training Facility, Richland, Space Entry
        Dates: May 2-10                 Washington.                          Teaches students to recognize,
                                                                             evaluate, control, and abate safety
203 Basic Electrical Principles                 Tuition: $1,064              and health hazards associated with
Introduces students to the basic                Dates: April 11-19           permit-required confined space
principles of electricity, electrical                                        entry. Course will be held at the
hazard recognition, OSHA electri-       208 Cranes and Materials             Volpentest HAMMER Training
cal standards, appropriate inspec-      Handling for General Industry        Facility, Richland, Washington.
tion procedures, and electrical test    Introduces various types of over-
equipment.                              head cranes, hoists, and powered             Tuition: $560
                                        industrial trucks used in general            Dates: April 16-19
        Tuition: $560                   safety and appropriate safety stan-
        Dates: April 9-12               dards and requirements.              304 Power Press Guarding
                                                                             Covers specific requirements of
204 Machinery and Machine                       Tuition: $560                Title 29 Code of Federal Regula-
Guarding Standards                              Dates: June 11-14            tions 1910.217, Mechanical Power
Familiarizes students with various                                           Presses.
types of common machinery and           220 Industrial Noise
the related safety standards.           Addresses occupational noise, in-            Tuition: $560
                                        cluding its nature, hazards, evalu-          Dates: April 16-19
        Tuition: $1,064                 ation, and control.
        Dates: June 6-14                                                     306 Safety and Health for
                                                Tuition: $1,064              Grain Handling Operations
                                                Dates: April 25-May 3        Covers the safety and health as-
                                                                             pects of the grain handling
                                                                             industry, including terminology,
                                                                             processes, equipment, and me-
                                                                             chanical/electrical safeguards.
                                                                                    Tuition: $560
                                                                                    Dates: May 21-24

                                                                                             Winter 2002     49
308 Principles of Scaffolding       500 Trainer Course in                             OSHA Training
Focuses on the safety aspects of    Occupational Safety and Health                  Institute Education
scaffolding and current OSHA re-    Standards for the Construction
quirements.                         Industry                                              Centers
                                    Provides guidelines for private-sec-
        Tuition: $560               tor personnel to teach the 10- and                The OSHA Training Insti-
        Dates: April 2-5            30-hour construction safety and                tute has a program for other in-
                                    health courses to their employees              stitutions to conduct OSHA
311 Fall Arrest Systems             and interested groups. Graduates               courses for the private sector
Provides an overview of technol- receive cards verifying their autho-              and federal agencies. These in-
ogy for fall protection and current rization to teach the construction             clude Eastern Michigan Uni-
OSHA requirements. Course will course.                                             versity/United Auto Workers,
be held at the Volpentest HAM-                                                     Ypsilanti, MI, (800) 932-8689;
MER Training Facility, Richland,            Tuition: $728                          Georgia Technological Re-
Washington.                                 Dates: June 3-7                        search Institute, Atlanta, GA,
       Tuition: $560                                                               (800) 653-3629; Great Lakes
                                   502 Update for Construction                     OSHA Training Consortium,
       Dates: May 14-17            Industry Outreach Trainers                      Minneapolis, MN, (800) 493-
                                   Updates graduates of Course #500                2060; Keene State College,
313 Safety and Health in the       who are active trainers in the out-
Chemical Processing Industries                                                     Manchester, NH, (800) 449-
                                   reach program on OSHA construc-                 6742; Metropolitan Commu-
for Construction                   tion standards, policies, and regu-
Focuses on the recognition, evalu- lations.                                        nity Colleges–Business and
ation, and control of safety and                                                   Technology Center, Kansas
health hazards in the chemical              Tuition: $504                          City, MO, (800) 841-7158;
industry for construction-related           Dates: March 12-14                     National Resource Center for
operations.                                                                        OSHA Training, Washington,
                                                                                   DC, (800) 367-6724; National
       Tuition: $504                                                               Safety Education Center,
       Dates: June 11-14                     Course dates are subject to           DeKalb, IL, (800) 656-5317;
                                             change. For more complete             Niagara County Community
322 Applied Welding Principles               course descriptions or to regis-      College, Lockport, NY, (800)
Focuses on the processes and haz-            ter for courses or request a train-   280-6742; Red Rocks Commu-
ards associated with welding opera-          ing catalog, call (847) 297-4913;     nity College and Trinidad State
tions and OSHA requirements for              visit and click on       Junior College, Lakewood,
general industry and construction.           Outreach; or write: OSHA              CO, (800) 933-8394; Texas
                                             Training Institute, 1555 Times        Engineering Extension Ser-
       Tuition: $560                         Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018.         vice, Mesquite, TX, (800) 723-
       Dates: May 7-10                                                             3811; University of California,
                                                                                   San Diego, (800) 358-9206;
326 Health Hazards in the                                                          and University of Washington,
Construction Industry for                                                          Seattle, (800) 326-7568.
Safety Personnel
Covers the recognition and evalu-
ation of health hazards in the con-
struction industry.
       Tuition: $560
       Dates: April 30-May 3

50    Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y
              Fatal Facts - Accident Report No. 70

              Accident Summary
              Accident Type                           Fall
              Weather                                 Clear/cold
              Type of operation                       New building construction
              Crew size                               5
              Competent person on site?               Yes
              Safety and health program in effect?    Partially
              Worksite inspected regularly            Occasionally
              by employer?
              Training and education provided?        Yes
              Employee job title                      Iron workers                       The references for the revised steel
                                                                                         erection rule, effective January 18,
              Age/sex                                 45/male
                                                                                         2002, are the following:
              Experience at this type of work         20 years                           • 1926.757 (a)(1) “... where steel
                                                                                            joists are used and columns are
              Time on project                         1 week                                not framed in at least two direc-
                                                                                            tions with solid web structural
Detach Here

                                                                                            steel members, a steel joist shall
                                                                                            be field-bolted at the column to
                                                                                            provide lateral stability to the
              Brief Description                    Inspection Results                       column during erection....”
              of Accident                                                                • 1926.757 (a)(1)(i) “A vertical
                                                     Following an inspection,               stabilizer plate shall be provided
              Five iron workers were placing 90-   OSHA issued citations for two se-        on each column for steel
              foot-long open web bar joists on a rious violations of OSHA stan-             joists....”
              building under construction. The dards.                                    • 1926.757 (a)(4) “Where steel
              bar joists was supported by vertical                                          joists at or near columns span
              columns spaced 30 feet apart. The Accident Prevention                         more than 60 feet (18.3 m), the
              steel columns were not framed in Recommendations                              joists shall be set in tandem with
              at least two directions and the bar                                           all bridging unless an alternative
              joist was not field-bolted to The employer must:                              method of erection, which pro-
              the vertical columns to pre- Ensure that during steel framing                 vides equivalent stability to the
              vent collapse.                       where bar joists are being used and      steel joist, is designed by a quali-
                 The bar joists shifted, causing columns are not framed in at least         fied person and is included in
              the vertical columns to lean. This two directions with structural steel       the site-specific erection plan.”
              caused the entire section of col- members, a bar shall be field-bolted     • 1926.755 (a)(4) “All columns
              umns and open web bar joists to at the column to provide lateral              shall be evaluated by a compe-
              collapse. Two employees rode the stability during construction, in            tent person to determine
              iron down. One was fatally injured accordance with Title 29 of the            whether guying or bracing is
              and one received serious injuries. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)          needed; if guying or bracing is
                                                   Part 1926.751 (c)(1).                    needed, it shall be installed.”

                                                                                                           Winter 2002       51
Install a center row of bolted bridg-         Available from the Superinten-
ing to provide lateral stability dur-         dent of Documents, Govern-
ing construction prior to slacking            ment Printing Office, Washing-
of the hoisting line where longspan           ton DC 20402-9325, phone
joists or trusses, 40 feet or longer,         (202) 512-1800.
are used, in accordance with 29             • OSHA Construction Standards
CFR 1926.751 (c)(2).                          (29 CFR Part 1926) includes all
                                              OSHA job safety and health rules
The references for the revised steel          and regulations covering con-
erection rule, effective January 18,          struction, and may be purchased
2002, are the following:                      from the Government Printing
• 1926.757 (d)(2) “Where the                  Office, phone (202) 512-1800,
   span of the steel joist is over 60         fax (202) 512-2250, Order No.
   feet (18.3 m) through 100 feet             S/N 869-038-00107-1 ($30).
   (30.5 m), the following shall            • OSHA-funded free consulta-
   apply: (i) All rows of bridging            tion services listed in telephone
   shall be bolted diagonal bridg-            directories under U.S. Labor De-
   ing; (ii) Two rows of bolted di-           partment or under the state gov-
   agonal erection bridging shall be          ernment section where states ad-
   installed near the third points of         minister their own OSHA pro-
   the steel joist; (iii) Hoisting            grams. This information is also
   cables shall not be released un-           on the agency website at
   til this bolted diagonal erection
   bridging is installed and an-            • OSHA regulations, documents

                                                                                  Detach Here
   chored; and (iv) No more than              and technical information also
   two employees shall be allowed             are available on CD-ROM,
   on these spans until all other             which may be purchased from
   bridging is installed and an-              the Government Printing Of-
   chored.”                                   fice, phone (202) 512-1800 or
                                              fax (202) 512-2250, Order No.
The case described here was se-               S/N 729-013-00000-5, $45
lected as being representative of             annually; $21, single copy. JSHQ
fatalities caused by improper work
practices. No special emphasis or
priority is implied nor is the case
necessarily a recent occurrence.
The legal aspects of the incident
have been resolved, and the case is
now closed.

Sources of Help
• OSHA 2202 Construction Indus-
  try Digest includes all OSHA
  construction standards and those
  general industry standards that
  apply to construction. Order No.
  S/N 029-016-00193-0, ($5).

52     Jo b Sa f e t y & H e a l t h Q u a r t e r l y

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