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Structural Discrimination _ Know

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					 Structural Discrimination &
Knowledge Production in Post-
     Colonial Societies

               Verene A. Shepherd
              Member of the WGPAD
              Geneva, April 13, 2010
    THE IMPORTANCE OF
EDUCATION – MARCUS GARVEY


   “Education is the medium by which a people
    are prepared for the creation of their own
    particular civilization and the advancement
    and glory of their own words”
PREOCCUPATION IN THIS PAPER

   Obstacles to that post-colonial project of
    mental liberation through an education
    system that promotes a more liberating
    narrative of self.
    Racism that masquerades as classism even
    in contexts where African descended people
    are in the majority
   the sexism in some texts used in schools.
STRUCTURAL DISCRIMINATION:
   TRADITIONAL DEFINITION


   The policies of empowered race, ethnic,
    gender institutions and the behaviour of the
    individuals who implement these policies and
    control these institutions which are
    race/ethnic/gender neutral in intent, but
    which have a differential and/or harmful
    effect on minority/race/ethnic/gender groups.”
    (Fred L. Pincus, Readings, 2000)
        INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION
              OCCURS….


   when a neutral, or seemingly harmless,
    policy, rule or practice has a discriminatory
    effect against a certain group of people.
   when a policy or procedure which appears to
    treat everyone equally has the effect of
    disadvantaging certain groups.
         AS USED IN THIS PAPER

   Differential access to quality secondary education
    because of the competitive entrance processes and
    the disadvantageous poor primary education in
    some cases
   Education that does not accept differences (e.g.
    rastas; non-Christians)
   The content of history education/history textbooks,
    which does not empower people of African descent,
    Asians and indigenous peoples
   Sexism in history education
Education Commission Report (Swaby
        Report), 1907 - 1909

   The purpose [of elementary education] is a school
    training which will end at a comparatively early age,
    and may produce the intelligent and industrious
    labourer, or form the groundwork on which may be
    built the technical skill required by the mechanic or
    artisan. The latter [secondary] is carried on to an age
    when manhood is approaching, and aims at fitting for
    their work the thinkers of the community, those who
    follow the learned professions, the leaders and
    organisers, or at least those who serve in the higher
    ranks of industry and commerce.
 SAMPLE LITERACY RATES - 2009
           (UNDP)

COUNTRY            LITERACY RATE (% )   POPULATION SIZE
BAHAMAS            95.8                  307,552
BARBADOS           99.7                  257,083
GUYANA             99.0                  777,000
JAMAICA            79.9                 2,391,000
MONTSERRAT         97                     11,852
ST KITTS & NEVIS   97.8                   42,291
ST LUCIA           94.8                  152,335
SURINAME           90.4                  520,000
T’DAD & TOBAGO     98.7                 1,116,595
ANTIGUA & BAR.     99.0                   65,962
GRENADA            96.0                   96,600
 SAMPLE LITERACY RATES - 2009
            (UNDP)

COUNTRY         LITERACY %   Population
CUBA            99.8         11, 050,729
DOM REP         89.1          7,998,766
ST. VINCENT &   88.1           119,818
GRENADINES
DOMINICA        88              71,183
BELIZE          75.1           307,899
HAITI           54.8         6,780,501
  WORLD ADULT LITERACY
RATES, 2000 (UNESCO ISE, 2002)
FROM PRIMARY TO SECONDARY

BAHAMAS                      Grade Level Assessment Test
BARBADOS                     Common Entrance Exam (CEE)
GUYANA                       National Grade 6 Assessment
JAMAICA                      Grade 6 Achievement Test (GSAT)
MONTSERRAT                   Continuous Assess’t Programme
ST KITTS & NEVIS             Continuous Assess’t Programme
ST LUCIA                     Common Entrance Exam (CEE)
SURINAME                     High School Practice Tests (HSPT)
T’DAD & TOBAGO               Secondary Entrance Assessment
ANTIGUA & BARBUDA            Common Entrance Exam (CEE)
GRENADA                      Common Entrance Exam(CEE)
Source: caribbeanexams.com   Must pass to progress to Sec. Sch.
  Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
           War in Jamaica

Name              Property/        Parish    Sentence
                  Enslaver
Catherine Brown   Cascade Pen –    Hanover   Death –
                  Mrs. Griffiths             commuted to 50
                                             lashes & 6
                                             weeks
                                             imprisonment.
Catherine Clarke Dr. W. Skirving   Hanover   50 lashes & 3
                                             months in prison
                                             at hard labour
Esther Comba      Cascade Pen –    Hanover   Not stated
                  Mrs. Griffiths
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Name              Property/        Parish    Sentence
                  Enslaver
Ann James         Free             Hanover   Death/executed



Christina James   Cascade Pen –    Hanover   50 lashes & 3
                  Mrs. Griffiths             months in prison at
                                             hard labour

Eliza James       Coventry         Hanover   100 lashes, 2
                                             months & 50
                                             lashes when
                                             discharged
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Susan James      Coventry      Hanover         200 lashes, 2
                                               months & 50
                                               lashes when
                                               discharged
Ann Ramsay       H. Bean       Hanover         100 lashes, 6
                                               months & 50
                                               lashes when
                                               discharged
Mary Campbell    Not stated    St. Elizabeth   150 lashes

Nancy Campbell   Ipswich       St. Elizabeth   50 lashes



Clarisa          Ginger Hill   St. Elizabeth   Acquitted
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Sarah Darling     Mitcham       St. Elizabeth   15 lashes


Anna Freeburn     Ipswich       St. Elizabeth   50 lashes & 3
                                                months in prison
Rebecca Hart      Pisgah        St. Elizabeth   Acquitted


Sarah Jackson     Ginger Hill   St. Elizabeth   Transportation for
                                                life
Sophia Maitland   Not Stated    St. Elizabeth   25 lashes


Jane Maitland     Not Stated    St. Elizabeth   25 lashes
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Matty           Ipswich       St. Elizabeth   50 lashes


Amelia Murray   Not Stated    St. Elizabeth   100 lashes


Matty           Ginger Hill   St. Elizabeth   Pardoned


Phoebe          Mocho         St. Elizabeth   Acquitted


Betsy Powell    Not Stated    St. Elizabeth   20 lashes


Priscilla       Ipswich       St. Elizabeth   Transportation for
                                              life
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Queen             Ginger Hill   St. Elizabeth   To be confined
                                                during martial law
Caroline Smith    Lacovia       St. Elizabeth   100 lashes


Charlotte Smith   Ipswich       St. Elizabeth   50 lashes


Mary Walker       Not Stated    St. Elizabeth   10 lashes


Suzanna Wright    Mitcham       St. Elizabeth   25 lashes


Nancy Wright      Mitcham       St. Elizabeth   20 lashes
Women in the 1831/32 Emancipation
War in Jamaica

Rosanna Wright   Not Stated         St. Elizabeth   25 lashes


Elizabeth Ball   Free               St. James       24 lashes


Becky            Virgin Valley      St. James       Sentence
                                                    postponed
Charlotte        Moor Park          St. James       Reprimanded


Ann Guy          Belfield           St. James       Acquitted


Jenny            Kirkpatrick Hall   St. James       Death
SHAME AND KNOWLEDGE

“… In a country such as ours, where shame
 about the past too often fills the place that
  should be held by knowledge, knowledge
      of the past must play its part in our
   liberation from the bonds of the past. ”
                     Elsa Goveia, 1925-1980
Former P.M. Tony Blair (Britain)

   “… the bicentenary offers us a chance not
    just to say how profoundly shameful the
    slave trade was – how we condemn its
    existence utterly and praise those who
    fought for its abolition, but also to
    express our deep sorrow that it ever
    happened, that it ever could have
    happened and to rejoice at the different
    and better times we live in today.”

				
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