Varnai Dora-Factors influencing bully-victims behaviour by gegeshandong


									 Factors influencing bully-victim
 behaviour with special focus on
   self-esteem and depression

Dóra Várnai M.A., Ágnes Németh PhD., Ágnes Balogh,
 M.A., Gyöngyi Kökönyei, M.A., Gabriella Pál, M.D.,
               Anna Aszmann, M.D.

                National Institute of Child Health
         Bullying and nonbullying victims
   Nonbullying victims - who seldom attempt to dominate
    others through aggressive behavior, they are often
    unassertive youngsters withdrawing from or concede to
    bullies and readily display emotional distress when bullied
    (Olweus, 1991)
   Bullying victims - (sometimes described as provocative
    victims), who frequently aggress towards peers despite
    being bullied themselves,
     – engage in numerous aggressive acts towards peers
     – often show levels of aggression and aggression-related
       cognitive profiles comparable to bullies who are not
       themselves frequent targets of aggression (Vernberg et
       al., 1999)
      National Institute of Child Health           Dóra Várnai, 2004
 Bullying – the frequencies in the Hungarian
    •The recent Hungarian sample (2002/2003) was used for the analysis
•Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, T-test, logistic regression,
                              non parametric tests

                                                       not involved in bullying
        15,1%                                                                         N=3838
                                                       victim                         N=655
                                                       bully                          N=899
       10,9%                           64,1%           bully-victim                   N=559

       National Institute of Child Health                             Dóra Várnai, 2004
             Age groups and bullying
•   The mean age is significantly lower in the bully-victim
    group, than in any of other three groups

                  T values              Controls      Bullies            Victims
                Bully victims           t=11,252     t=10,028            t=2,081

                              14,83        14,84
                     14                                            13,65


                             Controls      Bullies   Victims    Bully/victims
                      Gender differences
                                                GIRLS            N         %
                                                Controls        2214      68,9
•   There     are      significant
                                                Bullies         327       12,2
    gender differences between
                                                Victim          392       10,2
    groups indicating that the                  Bully-victims   282       8,8
    proportion of bully-victims
    and bullies among boys is
                                                BOYS             N        %
    significantly higher than
                                                Controls        1605     59,3
    among         girls       (chi
                                                Bullies         568       21
    square=146,497)                             Victims         260       9,6
                                                Bully-victims   275      10,2

           National Institute of Child Health                   Dóra Várnai, 2004
        Family affluence and bullying
•   No significant difference was
    found between groups in their                      FAS            Mean       Median
    families’ wealth (FAS), or                    Controls             2,36           2
    SES of father
•   Victims’ and bully victim’s                   Victims              2,34           2
    mother’ SES is significantly                  Bully victims        2,42           2
    lower than in any other group
                                                  Bullies              2,38           2

             National Institute of Child Health                   Dóra Várnai, 2004

                           Obese        •   The ratio of obese children
Controls                    384             among bully victims is
                           10,8%            significantly higher than
Bully victims                89             among            controls     (chi-
                                            square=17,561*), or bullies (chi
Bullies                     109
                           12,7%            square=     5,161*)    but    not
Victims                      89             significantly higher than
                           15,0%            among victims (chi square= 0,939)

           National Institute of Child Health                  Dóra Várnai, 2004
   We     used     height   standards
    computed using age and self
    reported height (cm)                                     short       normal        tall

    If we compare height category
    there are more short and normal                                         175          166
    and less tall children among bully              1414         380

    victims than among controls (chi
    square=11,361*), or bullies (chi                                        320
    square=21,341*)                                 1813

   There are almost equal numbers of
    shorts, normals and talls among                 350          71                      64

    victims and bully victims (chi-               Controls     Bullies    Victims   Bully_victims

             National Institute of Child Health                           Dóra Várnai, 2004
                      Bullying and self-esteem
        Self – esteem was evaluated with Rosenberg self esteem items where higher
         scores indicate higher self-esteem,
        It has been evaluated for 15-17 year olds
        Self-esteem of bully-victims and victims is significantly lower than of controls
         or of bullies

30        28,09         28,19
                                     26,29         26,21

                                                                 T values    Bully-      Victims
15                                                              Bullies     t=6,131*    t= - 6,156*
                                                                Controls    t= 6,805*    t=7,094*


         controls      bullies      victims     bully-victims

                                                                    Dóra Várnai, 2004
         N=2804      N=668        N=394        N=318
             Bullying and depression
 •Depression was evaluated with Child Depression Inventory items (Kovács,
•Higher scores on scale indicate higher level of depression, that is significantly
        higher for victims or bully victims, than of bullies and controls
             4                   Mean=3,55
            3,5                                                 Mean=3,65
             3                                                 (Median=3,0)
                 Mean=1,91 (Median=2,0)
                  controls     bullies      victims   bully-victims

                  N=2827      N=680         N=405          N=333
       National Institute of Child Health                              Dóra Várnai, 2004
                 Time out with friends
•   Bully-victims don’t spend less
    afternoons     with      friends      than                  Mean     Median
    controls: it seems that their social
                                                   Bully         3,09      3,00
    network is not significantly poorer            victims
    as that of the normal population               Controls      3,02      3,00

•   They spend more time out with                  Victims       2,78      3,00
    friends than victims,
                                                   Bullies       3,49      4,00
•   But significantly less time out than

              National Institute of Child Health             Dóra Várnai, 2004
       Attitude towards classmates

   Higher scores indicate more
    preferable     attitude    towards                      Mean     Median
    classmates                                   Controls   16,025   16,00
   There is significant difference
    between      bully-victims     and           Bullies    15,29    15,00
    controls or bullies, indicating
    that bully victims judge class
                                                 Victims    14,628   15,00
    climate less advisable
   There is no significant difference           Bully-     14,625   16,00
    between victims and bully-                   victims
    victims in this point of view

            National Institute of Child Health               Dóra Várnai, 2004
          Attitude towards teachers
 Using this scale-like variable higher scores indicate
  better attitude towards teachers
 Bully victims, just as bullies judge teachers
  significantly less fair and helpful than do controls and
                                         Means   Medians
       Controls                          13.58     14
       Victims                           13,25     14
       Bullies                           12,76     13
       Bully-victims                     12,59     13
    National Institute of Child Health              Dóra Várnai, 2004
                    Parental control
 Higher scores indicate higher parental control
 The paternal control is significantly lower for bully-victims and
  bullies than for controls or victims
 The same is true for mother control, but in mother control there is
  no difference between victims and controls, whilst paternal control
  is higher for controls
                       Paternal control       Maternal control
                      Means       Medians     Means     Medians
    Controls           12,82        13,00     13,87      15,00
    Victims            12,59        13,00     13,77      14,00
    Bully-victims      12,15        13,00     13,32      14,00
    Bullies            12,15        13,00     13,28      14,00
                Parental love
 There is significant difference of maternal and
  paternal love variable indicating that bullies and
  bully-victim report to have lower level of maternal
  affection than controls or victims
 (There is significant difference between victims and
  controls as well on both variables)
                  Paternal love       Mothernal love
                Means      Medians   Means    Medians
Controls        10,15         11     11,12       12
Victims          9,93        10        10,9      12
Bullies           9,7        10       10,89      11
Bully victims    9,76        10       10,75      11
                Logistic regression model
   Logistic regression models were built (with the above mentioned variables as
    independent variables), but the multicollinearity proved to be too high in some
    cases– our future plan is to handle these variables together

   Those who are obese have 1, 569 times higher chance to become bully-victims
    than to be controls and depressed children have 1,226 times higher chance to
    become bully-victim than to be control

        OR                Compared to Compared to Compared to
                           Controls     Victims     Bullies
        Depression           1,226     Non sign.     1,251
        Obesity              1,569     Non sign.     1,421
                            National Institute of Child Health
                      Possible reasons
•   Victims’ aggression towards peers could be a reactive following
    episodes of being bullied
•   This suggests bully-victims may access physically aggressive
    responses quicker in potential confrontations with peers and in
    some instances fail to select appropriate alternatives to
    aggression during confrontation
•   Perhaps victims' intentions to aggress are generated by less
    adaptive coping with emotional arousal.
•   Negative body image is associated with bullying – they do not
    have more mature means from which to form masculine identity

          National Institute of Child Health   Dóra Várnai, 2004
•   Younger children, boys and obese children are at higher risk to be a
    bully victims
•   Bully victims are rather similar to victims and differ from bullies or
    controls in obesity, depression and lack of self-esteem, worse attitude
    towards classmates
•   Bully victims are rather similar to bullies in lower parental control,
    lower percepted affection for mother or father, worse attitude towards
•   They do not differ from the other groups in height or in family
    affluence and they don’t spend less time out with friends than controls
•   They really shape a mixed group sharing characteristic of both bullies
    and victims

         National Institute of Child Health               Dóra Várnai, 2004
 Thank you!

  National Institute of Child Health

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