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					DIRECT SEEDING
Establishing A Forest
     With Seed
   BENEFITS
      OF
DIRECT SEEDING
      VS.
TREE SEEDLINGS
     WHY DIRECT SEED?

Larger Planting Window, Fall Season
Utilize Local or In-State Seed
 Resource
More Trees/Acre-Quicker Canopy-
 Form
Undisturbed Root System/No
 Transplant
Overwhelm The Critters
More Natural Appearance
Shorter Maintenance Period
  WHY PLANT SEEDLINGS?

Seed germination is uncertain,
 seedlings are a known quantity
There are more potentially damaging
 agents for seed than seedlings
Seed crops and seed availability are
 uncertain
Seedlings may have a head start the
 first year, depending on size and
 quality
SEED COLLECTION
Determine your needs
Scout potential seed trees
Use a Bag-a-Nut
Be efficient
Float, sort/inspect, store
  Determine
 Your Needs,
   Match
  Species to
     Site
• Tree Planting Plan, an
  attachment to NRCS
  Conservation Plan,
  will prescribe the seed
  per acre and match
  species to site.
    Scout Potential Seed Trees
• Be sure of species ID
• Locate on a large scale map
• Red oak group visible in July, white by
  August
• Obtain permission to collect
Locate Heavy Seed Producers
Mechanized Seed Collection
         Using a Bag-a-Nut
• Up to 1 bushel (about 50 pounds) per hour
  of medium-sized acorns
• Can pay for itself in less than 8 hours
• Works best in mowed grass situation, with
  some site prep
• Match machine to seed size
• For more info. see www.directseeding.org
    Be efficient, gear up before you
                  start:

•   Rakes           • sorting table
•   Blower/vac      • onion bags
•   Bag-a-Nut       • cold storage
•   Containers
•   soaking pool
                 Be Efficient
• Be prepared: In central    • Collect after windy
  Illinois seed begins to      storms
  drop late-August to        • Collect BEFORE
  mid-September                leaves fall
• White oak group is         • After leaves fall use
  usually first, then red,     blower/vac to remove
  pin drops late               leaves
• Concentrate on trees
  with a BIG seed drop
Soaking Seed   Sorting Seed
Bagging and Storing Seed
             Purchasing Seed
•   Local seed is the best seed
•   Contact District Forester and/or SWCD
•   Check www.directseeding.org
•   Follow “Seed Care and Handling”
        Seed Care and Handling
• “Float” collected seed,     • Bag in porous, woven
  soak ALL seed                 (“onion”) sacks
• Immerse 4-8 hours           • Store in cool, well-
• Inspect at least 10           ventilated location,
  seeds/bushel                  protected from
                                predators
• If its your own seed
  inspect on the sorting      • If delayed more than 2
  table, before bagging         weeks, place in plastic
                                bags and refrigerate @
• Cut or crack test, look
                                33-40 degrees
  for seed that is: filled,
  light-colored, bug-free
          Inspect All Tree Seed
• Use a hand pruner for
  acorns, a hammer for
  walnuts & hickorys
• Keep seed that is:
   – Filled
   – Bright, uniform color
   – undamaged
• Discard seed that is
   – Shriveled, shrunken
   – Dark colored or
     mottled
   – Cracked, holed, or
     otherwise damaged
       Use High Quality Seed
• Plant only undamaged,
  mature, viable seed
• Cut or crack test at
  least 10 random seeds
  per bushel
• If non-viable seed is
  found, increase
  seeding rate by the
  same percentage
        PLANTING TIME
-ASAP, Fall is best
-white oaks-must fall plant, especially
Quercus alba & chinkapin
-if properly stored, plant any time
ground is not frozen or dry
-very risky between June and September
                    Seeding Rates
         Row Seeding
*   MINIMUM of 3,000
    hard mast seed/acre
*   At 10’ row spacing,
    about 16” or less
    between seeds
*   Planting depth about
    2X seed diameter, 1-4”
    depending on species
*   If no light seeded spp.
    nearby, add 1,000
    seed/acre
                   Seeding Rates
    Broadcast Seeding

* MINIMUM of 4,800
  hard mast seed/acre

* Planting depth about
  2X seed diameter, 1-4”
  depending on species

* If no light seeded spp.
  nearby, add 1,000
  seed/acre
  Site Preparation, Row Planting
                              • Till and/or spray a
                                minimum 2-foot
                                radius circle or 4-foot
                                wide band with trees
                                or seed centered in
                                the grass free area.
                              • Grass species, esp.
                                sod-forming, are
                                death to trees.
                              • Use snap trap survey
Mow or till between rows to     to estimate potential
 minimize rodent habitat        rodent populations.
Site Preparation, Broadcast
              • Crop ground
                – Disk Several Times

              • Pasture/Brome
                 – Mow grass in
                   August.
                 – Spray 2 quarts of
                   Roundup in
                   September
                 – Plow and Disk
Row Seeding Equipment
Row Seeding Equipment
Modified Corn Planters
Broadcast Seeding
    WEED CONTROL FOR
     DIRECT SEEDING
> Competition must
  be controlled for
  minimum of two
  years

> Good control of
  grasses and weeds
  is critical
       WEED CONTROL FOR
        DIRECT SEEDING
1st Year

Pre-emergents
   Pendulum (Prowl) - 2qts/ac.
   Goal - 2 to 4 qts/ac. (expensive)

Post-emergents
  Fusilade - grasses 6-10”; 1 pint/ac. plus a non-ionic surfactant
                                 OR
  Envoy - grasses < 12”; 1 pint/ac.
  Transline or Stinger - broadleaves; 1/2 pint/ac.

See: IL Forest Herbicide Manual, IL Direct Seeding Handbook, &
   www.directseeding.org.
       WEED CONTROL FOR
        DIRECT SEEDING
2nd Year

Pre-emergents
   Pendulum (2 to 3 qts/ac). + Princep (2 to 4 qts/ac.)

Post-emergents (weeds no more than 6-12” tall)
  Fusilade - grasses (1 pint/ac.)
  Transline or Stinger - broadleaves (1/2 pint/ac.)
  Oust - grasses and broadleaves (1/2 to 3/4
       oz/ac.)


See: IL Forest Herbicide Manual, IL Direct Seeding Handbook, &
   www.directseeding.org.
       Plantation Maintenance
• Maintain weed free
  area for 2-3 years

• Replant if survival
  drops below 500 after
  2 years, counting
  desirable natural
  regeneration.
A little late-season             Grass competition is
broadleaf competition is OK...   a prescription for failure!
Give these young trees a good start…weed-free
      IOWA ESTIMATED COSTS OF DIRECT
                 SEEDING
      OPERATION        COST/ACRE
Site Preparation
   Grass Cover            $100
   Cropland                $20
Seed                   $150 to 200
Seeding Labor             $70
Herbicide (1st Year)      $50
Herbicide (2nd Year)      $50
Total Cost             $340 to 470
ILLINOIS ESTIMATED COSTS
    OF DIRECT SEEDING
OPERATION           COST per ACRE   COST per ACRE
                    Row Seeding     Broadcast Seeding
Site Preparation
  Grass Cover       $60             $60
  Cropland          $30             $30
Seed                $75-120         $150-240
Seeding Labor       $100            $100
            st
Herbicide, 1 year   $30-50          $30-50
            nd
Herbicide, 2 year   $30-50          $30-50
TOTAL COST          $265-380        $340-500
One and Two Year Old
      Seedlings
One Year Old Seedlings
One Year Old Broadcast Seeding
                 6 year old Black Walnut
5 year old SWO
5 year old broadcast   7 year old broadcast
Keys to Success with Direct Seeding

 • Use a professional      • Survey and manage
                             rodent populations
 • Control weeds
                           • Use lots of seed
 • Match spp. to site
                           • Use lots of species
 • Inspect all seed,
   carefully store &       • Plant @ proper depth
   handle (cool & moist)
KEEP ON GROWING!

				
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