; _2 Ancient Egypt Notes
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_2 Ancient Egypt Notes


  • pg 1
									                            Ancient Egypt
1) Model birthplace for civilization
   a) Without Nile, everything would be desert
      i) Rivers so important to ancient peoples lives, rivers worshipped as
      ii) Nile floods every September, bringing water for irrigation
      iii) Soil made richer be deposits of Nile mud and silt
      iv) This created fertile land for good harvests
   b) Abundant food encourages growth and population

2) Definitions:
   a) Civilization:
      i) Advanced stage of human life
      ii) People have cities and organizations
      iii) People have different occupations
           (1) Merchants, soldiers, farmers, weavers, etc.
      iv) Have numbers to keep track of money
   b) Dynasty:
      i) Series of rulers
      ii) Belong to same family
   c) Empire:
      i) Group of people conquers other different groups of people
      ii) Rules the new lands
      iii) Expanded nation
   d) Theocracy:
      i) Form of government
      ii) Religious leader rules the state
      iii) Is God’s representative
   e) Scribe:
      i) Wrote letters and documents for important people
      ii) Important in Egypt because they could read and write
   f) Polytheism:
      i) Belief in many gods
   g) Hieroglyphics:
      i) Picture writing

3) Nile People
   a) Beginning of civilization
      i) New Stone Age people learned to farm
           (1) Barley, wheat, and raise cattle
      ii) Farmer took first steps toward civilization
           (1) Farmers relied on September flood for new soil and water
           (2) Dug irrigation ditches for off months
           (3) Led to development one of first civilizations
      iii) Farmers formed groups
           (1) To dig ditches, keep in repair, and build dams
           (2) Each group had leader (administrator)
               (a) Directed work
               (b) Made rules for workers
           (3) Over time, groups grew larger and leader grew more powerful
               (a) Directed planning and harvesting of crops
               (b) Decided whether to store or distribute crop surpluses
           (4) Early cooperative efforts and rise of administrative class earliest
               form of local government in Egypt
      iv) Farmers studied astronomy
           (1) Counted days between arrivals of Nile floods
           (2) Studied sun, moon, and stars to learn when spring planting
               season would come
           (3) This created a calendar around 4000 BC
               (a) Created the 365 day year
                   (i) Saw Sirius appear in eastern sky before sunrise once a
               (b) Divided year into twelve months
                   (i) Each month 30 days
                   (ii) Five days added at end of year
   b) 5000 BC – 3100 BC
      i) Development of irrigation
      ii) Rise of local governments
      iii) Invention of calendar
      iv) Developed writing system
      v) Discovered how to make copper tools
      vi) Invented the plow
   c) 2000 BC – created bronze by mixing copper and tin

4) Old Kingdom
   a) Began with unification of Egypt
      i) 3100 – 2270 BC
           (1) Originally consisted of independent, separate villages
           (2) Ruling class of nobles and princes emerged
               (a) Nobles lived in large, luxurious homes
               (b) Pharaoh means “great house”
               (c) Became word for King
           (3) 3100 – two separate kingdoms developed
               (a) King Menes, ruled one, united Egypt with Memphis as
                   (i) First time in history strong government ruled so large
                   (ii) Founded first Egyptian dynasty
   b) During Old Kingdom trading expanded
      i) Ships traveled up and down Nile
      ii) Expeditions left Nile Valley to trade with people in Africa and
      iii) Carved statues, wove soft linen cloth, made pottery with potter’s
      iv) Used stone tools, some made of copper
   c) Pyramids built during Old Kingdom
      i) Used as tombs for pharaohs
           (1) Largest built for Pharaoh Cheops
               (a) Built at Giza
               (b) 450 feet (135 meters) high
               (c) Each side measures 756 feet (226.8 meters) long at base
               (d) Took 20 years and 100,000 people to build

5) Middle Kingdom
   a) Lasted 2060 – 1785 BC
   b) Civil war ended Old Kingdom in 2270 BC
   c) For 200 years rival leaders fought amongst selves
   d) Princes from city of Thebes reunified kingdom
      i) Became new Pharaohs
      ii) Encouraged literature and art
      iii) Began new irrigation projects
      iv) Built a canal that joined business centers of Nile Valley with Red
   e) Conquered by Hyksos in 1680 BC while weak with internal disorder
      i) From them Egyptians learned how to fight wars with horses and
           chariots like Hyksos
6) New Kingdom
   a) Egypt freed itself became empire 1580 – 1085 BC
   b) Thebes provided leaders who drove out Hyksos
      i) Marked beginning of New Kingdom or Empire
   c) Pharaohs created empire
      i) Extended Egyptian rule into western Asia
      ii) For 450 years trade and booty from conquered countries made
           Egypt rich
      iii) Thebes became capital
           (1) City of statues, temples, and palaces
      iv) Traded wheat, and linens to
           (1) Mediterranean
           (2) Europe
           (3) Asia
      v) Returned with
           (1) Lumber
           (2) Metal weapons
   d) By 1100 Egypt weak
      i) Quarrels among leaders
      ii) Rebellions of conquered people
      iii) Costly battles with foreign enemies
   e) Civil war and foreign invasions follow years to come

7) Pharaohs
   a) Absolute power
      i) Most rulers governed justly
      ii) People believed pharaohs were god
           (1) Descended from gods
      iii) Owned all the land
      iv) Commanded army
      v) Controlled irrigation system
      vi) Appointed officials to assist him
           (1) Made important decisions of government on his own

8) Society
   a) Three classes
      i) Upper class
         (1) Priests
             (a) Men and women
             (b) Performed religious ceremonies
                   (i) Especially with burial of the dead
           (2) Court nobility
               (a) Advised the pharaoh and queen
               (b) Carried out their orders
           (3) Landed nobility
               (a) Managed estates
               (b) Women especially important in this class
                   (i) Land passed from mother to daughter
      ii) Middle class
           (1) Men and women rich through trade
           (2) Skilled artisans
               (a) Made furniture and jewelry
               (b) Worked with leather and cloth
               (c) Directed building of tombs and palaces
           (3) Professionals
               (a) Teachers
               (b) Artists
               (c) Doctors
               (d) Scribes
      iii) Lower class
           (1) Slaves
               (a) Usually prisoners of war
               (b) Worked on same projects as free laborers
               (c) Loyal, able slaves sometimes given freedom
               (d) On few occasions, rise to government official
           (2) Free laborers
               (a) Worked on farms
               (b) Irrigation systems
               (c) Building projects
               (d) Had few political rights
               (e) Unlike slaves, heavily burdened by taxes
               (f) Could rise to higher ranks

9) Religion
   a) Believed in life after death
      i) Human body should be preserved after death
           (1) As a mummy
           (2) Soul could live on this way
      ii) Preserving body became highly skilled art
      iii) Led them to building large tombs
      iv) Good conduct necessary for immortality
      v) Book of the Dead
   b) Worshipped many gods
      i) Most important gods
           (1) Amon-Re
               (a) Sun god
           (2) Osiris
               (a) God of underworld
               (b) Lord of afterlife
   c) During rule of Pharaoh Akhenaton
      i) Began new faith in one supreme God
           (1) Aton – the sun
      ii) Outlawed worship of all gods but Aton
           (1) Took government support from priests of other gods
           (2) Priests convinced people they would receive wrath of other
               gods for following Akhenaton
      iii) While alive, Akhenaton orders not openly disobeyed
   d) After death, Egyptians returned to polytheism

10) Development of writing
   a) Between 4000 – 3000 BC
      i) Developed picture writing
      ii) First writing consisted of pictures of objects
      iii) Gradually became picture signs came into use for ideas and objects
      iv) Also used pictures signs to indicate sound
           (1) Only the beginnings of alphabet
   b) First books written as early as 4000 BC
      i) Made on papyrus
           (1) Origin for English word paper
      ii) Most books on religion
      iii) Some adventure stories written

11) Mathematics and Medicine
   a) Egyptians surveyed lands often because of floods
      i) Used geometry to measure boundaries
   b) Engineers used math for precise measurements of pyramids and
   c) Doctors became familiar with anatomy
      i) Studied bodies to study best ways for preservation after death
      ii) Learned healing properties of certain herbs
iii) Learned how to set broken bones
iv) Learned how to heal wounds

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