Development of Aggressive Behavior

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					Development of

Aggressive Behavior
Aggression Behavior – In childhood
   Biology/Physiology (last two chapters)
        (pre-birth)
   Environment (this chapter)
        (post-birth)

   Chapter 1
       Instinctive Drives – Evolutionary Perspective
       Externally created Motivations
            Frustration-Aggression model
            Aggressive Cue Theory
            Excitation Transfer Theory
       Cognitive Models
            Cognitive Neoassociation Model
            Cognition-Excitation Interdependencies
       Learned Behavior
            Social Learning Theory
Aggression Behavior – In childhood
   Biology/Physiology (last two chapters)
        (pre-birth)
   Environment (this chapter)
        (post-birth)

   Chapter 1
       Instinctive Drives – Evolutionary Perspective
       Externally created Motivations
            Frustration-Aggression model
            Aggressive Cue Theory
            Excitation Transfer Theory
       Cognitive Models
            Cognitive Neoassociation Model
            Cognition-Excitation Interdependencies
       Learned Behavior
            Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory
   Aggression is Acquired through
     Biologicalfactors (mechanisms)
     Learning (activation)

   Aggression is Regulated through
     External rewards/punishments
     Vicarious Reinforcement
     Self-regulatory Mechanisms
Acquisition - Learning
   Direct experience
     Afterdoing it yourself, experience feedback
      (Rewards and Punishments) such as material
      incentives, money, desired objects, toys,
      candy, social approval, increased status
   Observational Learning
     What? Witness others (models) receiving
      rewards/punishments
     Who? Family, Peers, Media
Regulation
   External – Rewards and punishments
     Successful aggression
     Tangible rewards
     Social rewards and approval
     Reduction in pain/mistreatment
     Emotions   like pride, guilt
   Vicarious – Rewards and punishments
     Witnessing same things as above
     Informs about likely consequences of self behavior
   Self-administered – Rewards and punishments
     Giving   self the same things as above
     Notice   control when giving to self
Four conceptual categories for
rewards and punishments:
   Positive reward, which increases the frequency of
    approved behavior by adding something desirable to
    the situation
   Negative reward, which increases the frequency of
    approved behavior by removing something distressful
    from the situation

   Positive punishment, which decrease the frequency of
    unwanted behavior by adding something undesirable
    to the situation
   Negative punishment, which decreases the frequency
    of unwanted behavior by removing something
    desirable form the situation
Acquisition – Learning (cont)
   Family
       Primary source of early socialization
            Research on preschoolers overhearing affectionate or angry
            At a very early age!
       Family level
            Chaotic and/or socially isolated = more aggression
       Parent-child
            Attachment Theory
            Intergenerational transmissions of violence (victim, then perpetrator)
       Sibling
            Sibling violence predictive of self violence
            Parental mediation may encourage aggression
       Punishment (learning, arousal, not internalize standards)
            High punishment = high aggression in child
            No punishment = high aggression in child
       Monitoring (supervision)
            No monitoring = high aggression in child
       Consistency (follow-up on commands same way every time)
            No consistency = high aggression in child
Acquisition – Learning (cont)
   Peers
     “Ididn’t know all these different ways to hurt someone,
      but now I do!”
     More peer interactions = more aggression
     More victimization = more aggression
      (provocative victims, not passive)
   Media
     Bobo doll – but problems…no generalization?
     Experimental – but problems…no generalization?
     Real-world – but problems…
  Implications:
  Eron & Heusmann, 1985
   50              Females                    Males
   40
   30
   20
   10
    0
             Low     Med     High           Low   Med    High

                      Frequency of TV Viewing at Age 8

DV: Seriousness of Criminal Act by Age 30
Problem
Many anti-social role models
Be Violent
Be A Crook Like Tony Soprano
Be a Jack-Ass
Modeling (summary)
   Learn new information – new and different ways
    to be aggressive
   Learn new information – cultural rules about what
    is appropriate, when, whom, etc.
   Learn new information – the more you witness,
    the more desensitized, disinhibited
   Learning new information – alter image of reality,
    as more violent, more hostile expectations
“Using” Social Learning
   Path model of being able to use it
     Attention (pay attention to model)
     Retention (remember the behavior)
     Motor Reproduction (ability to replicate)
     Motivational (want to do it)


   Path model of knowing what to do
    Textbook’s version is Dodge & Crick
     Encode   (aware)
     Interpret (hostile)
     Response search (options)
     Response evaluation (choose one)
     Response enactment (do it)

				
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posted:1/2/2012
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