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Project title: The analysis of aggressive behaviour (frequency, types and trends of development) in Slovene schools from 1991 with the emphasis on the international comparison Principal researcher: dr. Zoran Pavlović Research team: dr. Tina Vršnik Perše, Tina Rutar Leban, Ana Kozina Period (years): 2006-2008 Project goals: The goal of the project was longitudinal observation of the frequency of aggressive behaviour in Slovene educational field in the time period from 1991 to 2007. The main objective was to asses the situation regarding aggressive behaviour in Slovene elementary and high schools. The main idea was to ascertian if the frequency of aggressive behaviour increased or decreased since 1991 and to define the Slovenian situation in this field compared to other counties in the world. Besides, the children’s, parents’ and school workers’ subjective evaluations were compared on the subject of aggressivness in schools, moreover, it was important to gain the evaluation of children’s perception of their own safety in schools. Methodology: The data from two international surveys TIMSS and CRISP from the 1995, 1999, 2003, 2006 and 2007 were used. The children's, school workers' (teachers, principals and school counsellors) and parents' answers were compared in the data analysis. Moreover, the questions regarding the violence in schools were included in the analysis. In the analysis statistical procedures formed especially for working with large comparable databases were used. Due to the complexity of the calculation of achievements with imputed values two programmes are suitable, therefore AM 0.06.03. and IDB Analyzer 184.108.40.206. AM were used, which is statistical package formed for analysis of compound samples, especially for large samples. Results: This report deals with the questions presented at the beginning and the results show a significant difference between genders. The boys experience more aggressive behaviours than the girls, which is significant for all measured types of aggressiveness. These correlations are independent from the cultural environment and the achievement level in each country, which can be seen in international comparison studies. Moreover, the results show a significant difference between younger and older students as well. Older students always experience more aggressive behaviour in school than younger students. However, these correlations were not completely independent from cultural environment, despite the fact they were always present during course of the Slovene research. For a detailed definition of the cultural impact the research should be expanded with additional aggressiveness indexes and a bigger sample of countries. As an important finding of the research proved to be the correlation between experiencing the aggressive behaviours in school and achievements in mathematics and natural science. Moreover, these correlations were confirmed on international samples as well. Interactive model, which best explains this relation, addresses a mutual impact among achievements and aggressive behaviour. At this point, it would be reasonable to form impact guidelines to reduce aggressive behaviour in school and consequently positively influence on students’ achievements. As a result, the aggressive behaviour of the students with specific educational needs could be reduced with additional professional support. If this problem is solved with the interactive model, actions should be taken on both sides of the relation in order to achieve positive results. When the aggressive behaviour was placed in the school context the correlations were not as homogenous as it was expected, which demonstrates the complexity of the aggressive behaviour phenomenon and its incorporation in the educational system. It was demonstrated in the research that lower exposure to the aggressive behaviour correlates with positive standpoints on school, higher assessment of knowledge and grades and lower assessment of free time for fun and sport. Moreover, concerning the socio-economic status it could be stated that lack of some basic school accessories (such as a place to study, calculator,…) influences on higher exposure to aggressive behaviour. Interestingly, parents’ help is positively correlated with experiencing less aggressive behaviour between younger students whereas negatively between older students. Likewise, the correlations regarding free time proved to be appealing. The students exposed to aggressive behaviour in school spend more time watching TV or behind the computer and are more engaged in extra curriculum activities. Moreover, the school size impact is significant due to the fact that among younger students on small schools more aggressive behaviour is noted whereas on bigger schools more aggressive behaviour is noted among older students. However, the size of the class is mostly positively correlated with aggressive behaviour, which means the larger the classroom, the more aggressive behaviour among younger students and the more indirect types of aggressiveness among older students. The research also included trends of aggressive behaviour from the 1995 till 2007. A consistent increase of physical aggressiveness was recognized, whereas other types either stagnate or, as it is the case of older girls, even decrease. However, it is alarming that the level of physical aggressiveness in 2007 is the highest ever.
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