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					 Class Notes

 Chapter 12

AGGRESSION
        AGGRESSION
• BEHAVIOR INTENDED TO HARM
  ANOTHER LIVING BEING
 – PHYSICAL AGGRESSION
 – VERBAL AGGRESSION
 – PROPERTY DESTRUCTION
 – HOSTILE AND INSTRUMENTAL
      Murder Rate in Stable
    Industrialized Democracies
6

5

4

3

2

1

0
     US   Can   Germany   France   England   NewZe
 AGGRESSION OCCURS IN
    MANY SETTINGS
• STREET CRIME

• DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
    28%, 16% IN LAST YEAR

• SANCTIONED AGGRESSION
THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
• INSTINCTUAL/BIOLOGICAL
• MOTIVATIONAL
     FRUSTRATION, ETC.
• SOCIAL LEARNING
INSTINCTUAL/ BIOLOGICAL

• FREUD --EROS & THANATOS
• ETHOLOGISTS -TERRITORY,
  MATING
• GENETICS-MICE
• BRAIN MECHANISMS
• HORMONES
LIMITATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL
       APPROACHES
• DOESN’T ACCOUNT FOR TIMING OR
  TARGET OF AGGRESSION
• NON-VIOLENT SOCIETIES
      MOTIVATIONAL
• FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION
 – BLOCKED GOAL
 – DIRECT & DISPLACED
 NATURE OF THE FRUSTRATION

• INTENDED
  – REVERSED SHOCK LABELS
  – GOOF OFF VS HEARING PROBLEM
  – HADN’T PREVIEWED SOUND LEVEL
• TYPICAL
  – NOISE LEVELS
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION

• DOESN’T ALWAYS HAPPEN
 – FRUSTRATION CAUSES MANY
   RESPONSES---DEPRESSION, CRYING,
   GIVING UP, PROBLEM SOLVING
 – OTHER THINGS CAUSE AGGRESSION
   ATTACK, INSULT, ENVIRONMENTAL
   STRESSORS, EXCITATION-TRANSFER
             Berkowitz Model

NEGATIVE
                  ANGER
 EVENTS




AGGRESSIVE                     AGGRESSION
   CUES



 HABITS &
  TRAITS
     AGGRESSIVE CUES
• WEAPONS EFFECT
 – BOXER
 – GUNS
 – HONKING
 – THROWING SPONGES AT CLOWNS
• THIRD-PARTY INSTIGATION
• DEINDIVIDUATION
    SOCIAL LEARNING
• AGGRESSION IS LEARNED
• DIRECT REINFORCEMENT
     INSTRUMENTAL, ANGER
     REDUCTION IS REINFORCING
• OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
 – PARENTS
 – PEERS
 – MEDIA
 Childhood & Adult Aggression

• It is important for children to learn to
  control violent impulses.
• 1/2 of Antisocial Children become
  Adolescent Delinquents
• 2/3 of Adolescent Delinquents become
  Adult Offenders
    PARENTING & AGGRESSION
• Harsh & Inconsistent Discipline
• Little Positive Parental Involvement
• Poor Monitoring & Supervision
• Sometimes Reinforce Aggressive
  Behavior (attention, laughing)
• Escape Conditioning (Child uses
  aggressive behavior to terminate
  undesirable parental behavior
  -ie. tantrum to stop nagging)
  INEFFECTIVE PARENTING
• Family Problems Undermine Effective
  Parenting (antisocial parents, less
  educated, divorced, money problems)
• Ineffective Parenting Promotes
  Childhood Aggression
• Childhood Aggression Promotes
  Rejection by Normal Peers & Academic
  Failure, Resulting in Commitment to a
  Deviant Peer Group
• Adolescent & Adult Delinquency
    Continuing Aggression

• Half of Antisocial Children become
  Adolescent Delinquents

• 2/3 of Adolescent Delinquents become
  Adult Offenders
                MODELS
• MEDIA
• Avg. Hour of TV Contains 8 Acts of Verbal &
  9 Acts of Physical Aggression
• 12 yr. Old Watches 100,000 Violent Acts
• 78% No Remorse, Criticism or Penalty
• 40% By Heroes.
• Plot: Provoked Hero Retaliates Other Conflict
  Resolution is Rare
TV Violence & Aggression
  6

  5                                      Boys

  4
                                         Girls
  3

  2


  1

  0

      Nonviolent Movie   Violent Movie
        Childhood TV Violence & Adult
             Criminal Convictions
Seriousness of
Criminal Acts




                 Low   Medium   High
   WHY MEDIA VIOLENCE
        WORKS
• SOCIAL LEARNING OF NEW
  BEHAVIORS
• CHANGING NORMS-VIOLENCE IS OK
• DESENSITIZATION
• DISINHIBITION
        CATHARSIS
• EMOTIONAL VENTING
• BUT SERVES AS AN AGGRESSIVE
  CUE
• MAY EITHER INCREASE OR
  DECREASE OVERALL TENDENCY
  TO AGGRESS
    AGGRESSIVE HABITS
• TRAIT 1 YR. r = .80 ; 20 YR. r = .35
• MURDERERS HAVE LONG HISTORY

				
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