european_exploration_and_discovery by gegeshandong

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									European Exploration and
Discovery


American Studies
Geography- Latitude and Longitude

   Learning Target-
   Students will associate historical
    events with their geographic
    counterparts.
   Students will be able to explain how
    geographic facts were casual factors
    in the course of European discovery
    and settlement of America.
Background
   In this lesson students will review the
    sequence and circumstances of the
    European discovery of America,
    associating with precise geographical
    detail the “discoveries” of the various
    explorers. The lesson is presented in the
    form of a game in which the students
    must use a map or globe to identify the
    modern name for a place visited on the
    voyage, or they are given the name and
    are asked to find the location.
Read

   Chapter 2
       Pages 36-62
   What were the social, political, and
    economic circumstances and
    motivations that prompted the
    European discovery and exploration
    of America?
   Why are these European discoveries
    not true discoveries?

   A. Most places in America were
    already inhabited.
   What methods and technology was
    available to sixteenth-century
    navigators in finding their way
    across the ocean?

   A. mapping, star charts, astrolabe,
    quadrant. Traveling along a line of
    latitude.
   Review the circumstances of
    Christopher Columbus’s first
    voyage.

   Video: Math and Culture
   What would have happened to
    Columbus’s crew on their voyage to
    Asia if there had not been a “New
    World” in between?

   A. They would have perished.
Discussion:

   Compare early European explorers
    of America with modern and future
    exploration of space.
   What method did mariners use to
    record the location of the places
    they discovered so that others could
    find their way to the same place?

   A. latitude and an estimate of
    longitude
Lets look at the map

   Lines of Latitude
   Lines of Longitude




   What is our latitude and longitude?
   How were sailors in the sixteenth century
    able to determine the latitude and
    longitude of their position?

   A. latitude was determined by the
    position of the stars. Sailors had no way
    to determine Longitude until the invention
    of the chronometer in the 18th century.
Dividing into groups

   We will have 6 groups and have a
    race to see who can “discover” the
    answers.

   Only the chosen captain can check
    for accuracy.
   1. One of the “Spice Islands” for
    which Columbus and other
    explorers were searching is located
    at 2 degrees 45 minutes South
    latitude, 130 degrees East
    longitude. By what name do we
    know this island?
   2. On November 19, 1492,
    Columbus was sailing past an island
    near 18 degrees north, 66 degrees,
    45 minutes west. The people he
    found there called the island
    Borinquen. By what name do we
    know it?
   3. Columbus did not discover the
    mainland of the Americas until his
    third voyage, when in 1498 he
    anchored near 8 degrees, 55
    minutes north, 61 degrees, 52
    minutes west. In the territory of
    what modern country was his
    anchorage located?
   4. John Cabot, commander of the
    first English expedition to the New
    World, probably made his first
    landfall at Cape Breton Island, off
    the coast of Canada. What would he
    have recorded in his logbook as the
    latitude and longitude of his
    landing?
   5. Brazilians today speak
    Portuguese because the Portuguese
    explorer Pedro Cabral first landed
    on the northeastern “bulge” of that
    country, near the present-day city
    of Natal, in 1500. What is the
    latitude and longitude of his
    landing?
   6. The first map that used the name
    America was published in 1507. It
    showed Zipangu (Japan) at about
    20 degrees north, 100 degrees
    west. What country actually is
    located there?
   7. Vasco Nunez de Balboa was the
    first European to sight the Pacific
    Ocean, in 1513. He saw it from the
    town in Panama that now bears his
    name. What is the latitude and
    longitude of the spot?
   8. Hernan Cortes’ first landfall in
    Mexico in 1519 was at 19 degrees,
    15 minutes north, 96 degrees west.
    What modern city is on that spot?
   9. Ferdinand Magellan was killed in
    1521 near the island located at
    about 10 degrees, 20 minutes
    north, 124 degrees east. What is
    the name of the island?
   10. The French explorer Jacques
    Cartier spent the winter of 1535-
    1536 at a Huron Indian village near
    47 degrees north, 71 degrees west.
    We know this site today by its
    Huron name, which means
    “Narrowing of the River” . What is
    its name?
   11. On Coronado’s search for the
    fabled golden cities of Cibola, some
    of his soldiers sighted a genuine
    marvel located near 36 degrees
    north, 112 degrees west. What was
    it?
   12. Coronado’s expedition may
    have penetrated as far as the site of
    this present day capital at 39
    degrees north, 95 degrees, 45
    minutes west.
   13. In 1542 the Spanish explorer
    Juan Cabrillo entered a bay at about
    33 degrees north, 117 degrees
    west, which he named San Miguel.
    By what name do we know that
    city?
   14. The earliest permanent
    European settlement in what
    became the United States was the
    Spanish town of St. Augustine,
    Florida, founded in 1565. How
    would a navigator describe its
    location?
   15. Sir Francis Drake put into a bay
    at about 38 degrees north, 122
    degrees, 30 minutes west, on his
    round-the-world voyage in 1578.
    What important city is just
    southeast of “Drake’s Bay”?
   16. English colonists led Sir Walter
    Raleigh attempted to establish a
    settlement on Roanoke Island in
    1585. Where would the English
    navigators have pointed their ships
    to find this settlement?
   17. The oldest capital in the United
    States was founded in 1610 at 35
    degrees north, 106 degrees west.
    What is the name of this city?
   18. Dutch settlers established the
    trading center of Fort Orange in
    1624, at 42 degrees, 45 minutes
    North, 73 degrees 45 minutes West.
    What two rivers meet at this
    location? By what name do we know
    this city today?
   19. French priests and fur traders
    traveling inland by canoe through
    North America in the seventeenth
    century had to go around this
    natural barrier at 43 degrees North,
    79 degrees West.
   20. Once past this barrier, explorers
    could travel by water all the way to
    the Mississippi River, except for one
    place where they were forced to
    carry their canoes overland at about
    41 degrees, 45 minutes North, 87
    degrees, 30 minutes West. What
    city arose on that site?
The answers
   1. Ceram                  12. Topeka, Kansas
   2. Puerto Rico            13. San Diego,
   3. Venezuela               California
   4. 46*N, 60* W            14. 30* N, 81*W
   5. 6* S, 35* W            15. San Francisco,
   6. Mexico                  California
   7. 7*30’N, 78*30’W        16. 36*N, 75*40’W
   8. Veracruz               17. Santa Fe, New
                               Mexico
   9. Mactan Island,         18. The Hudson and
    Philippeans                the Mohawk; Albany,
   10. Quebec                 New York
   11. The Grand Canyon      19. Niagara Falls
                              20. Chicago, Illinois

								
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