cows by rizkiarif12

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									                               CULTIVATION dairy cows
                                     ( Bos sp. )




1. A BRIEF HISTORY
 Cattle are the most important livestock as a source of meat, milk, labor and other needs.
Cows produce about 50% (45-55%) of meat in the world, 95% of milk and 85% of the
skin. Cattle originating from the family Bovidae. such as bison, bison, water buffalo
(Bubalus), African buffalo (Syncherus), and the anoa.

Domestication of cattle began to be about 400 years BC. Cattle are thought to originate
from Central Asia, then spread to Europe, Africa and throughout Asia. Towards the end
of the 19th century, Ongole cattle from India put the island of Sumba and since then the
island was used as a place of pure Ongole cattle breeding.

In 1957 has been done to improve the genetic quality of cattle by road Madura cattle
crossed with Red Deen. Other crosses between local cattle namely (Peranakan Ongole)
with Holstein Frisian dairy cows at Grati in order to obtain a new type of dairy cows
according to the climate and conditions in Indonesia.

2. LIVESTOCK CENTER
 Sentra cattle farm in the world exist in European countries (Scotland, England, Denmark,
France, Switzerland, The Netherlands), Italy, America, Australia, Africa and Asia (India
and Pakistan). Holstein Friesian cows for example, is famous for its high milk production
(+ 6350 kg / yr), with milk fat percentage of around 3-7%. However, these dairy cows are
capable of producing up to 25,000 kg of milk / year, when the seeds are used, fed in
accordance with the needs of livestock, the environment that support and implement
cultivation with good management. Currently the world's milk production reached 385
million m2/ton/th, especially in the temperate zone. Production of dairy cows in the
PSPB is still less than 10 liters / day and far from normal standards of 12 liters / day (on
average only 5-8 liters / day).

3. J E N I S
 Broadly speaking, the nations of the cow (Bos) contained in the world there are two,
namely (1) those derived from Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) or type of humped cattle, which
originated and spread in the tropics and (2) group from the Bos primigenius, which
spread in sub-tropical regions, or better known as Bos Taurus.
Superior type of dairy cows and most widely cultivated Shorhorn cows (from England),
Holstein Friesian (from Holland), Yersey (from the Channel between England and
France), Brown Swiss (from Switzerland), Danish Red (from Denmark) and
Droughtmaster (from Australia).

The survey results in PSPB Cibinong indicate that the type of dairy cows are most
suitable and profitable for cultivation in Indonesia is Frisien Holstein.

4. BENEFITS
 Dairy farms produce meat as a source of protein, milk, leather used for industrial and
manure as a source of organic land
of agriculture.

5. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS
 The ideal location to build the enclosure is an area which is located quite far from the
settlement but easily reached by vehicle. Cages should be separated from homes with a
minimum distance of 10 feet and the sun should be able to penetrate the stable yard and
close to agricultural land. Manufacturing can be done in groups in the middle of rice
fields.

6. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR CULTIVATION
 6.1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Cages can be made in the form of double or single, depending on the number of cattle
owned. In the single-cage type, placement of cattle carried on one line or one line, while
that of type double cage placement conducted in two ranks facing each other or mutually
contradictory. Between the two ranks are usually made to the road lane.

Making cages for fattening purposes (kereman) if the capacity is usually in the singular
number only a few livestock. However, if the activity is intended for commercial cattle,
the size of the cage should be wider and bigger so it can accommodate more number of
cows.

Floor of the cage should be sought kept clean to prevent the onset of various diseases.
The floor is made of solid soil or cement, and easily cleaned from manure. Ground floor
was covered with dry straw as a warm base enclosure.

All parts of the cage and equipment that had been used should be consecrated hamakan
advance with a disinfectant, such as creolin, lysol, and other bahanbahan.

The size of the cage is made for an adult bull is 1.5 m or 2.5 x2 x2 m, while for adult
cows was 1.8 m and x2 for the calf enough x1 1.5 m per cow, with a height of 2-2 +, 5 m
from the ground. The temperature around 25-40 degrees C cages (average of 33 degrees
C) and humidity of 75%. Location of maintenance can be performed on the lowlands
(100-500 m) to highland (> 500 m).

6.2. Nurseries
The requirements to be met by the seeds mature female dairy cattle are: (a) high milk
production, (b) 3.5 to 4.5 years of age and had been childless, (c) derived from the parent
and the males that have a production eturunan High milk, (d) the shape of her body like a
wedge, (e) his eyes glowing, back straight, good head shape, the distance of the front legs
or rear legs wide enough and strong legs, (f) The udder is large enough, convergence on
the body is quite good, if palpable soft, smooth skin, veins much milk, long and
berkelokkelok, nipples no more than 4, is located in a symmetrical square and not too
short, (g) the body healthy and not as carriers of infectious diseases, and (h) each year
midwives.

While holding a good candidate, among others: (a) derived from the parent that produces
high breast milk, (b) head and neck a little long, sharp shoulders, a long body, back and
hips, chest deep and wide hips, (c) distance between the two hind legs and front legs wide
enough, (d) the growth of good udder and nipples, (e) the number of nipples no more than
4 and is located symmetrically, and (f) healthy and not disabled.

A good stud should meet the following criteria: (a) the age of about 4-5 years, (b) has a
high fertility, (c) reduce the power production of high trait to their children, (d) derived
from the male parent and a good , (e) of the body according to age, strong, and has
properties of a good stud, (f) wide head, large neck, waist width, strong backs, (g) face a
little long, slightly sharp and shoulder width, ( h) flat thigh and quite separately, (i) chest
width and spacing between ribs is wide enough, (j) body length, chest deep, chest
circumference and a large abdominal circumference, and (k) healthy, free from infectious
diseases and does not degrade defects in the offspring.
1) Selection of seed and the prospective parent
To pursue the high productivity of livestock, environmental improvements and increase
the genetic quality of livestock is concerned.
Seeds of the new arrivals should be quarantined for disease transmission. Then the
seedlings were given drinking water mixed with salt, placed in clean cages and were
weighed and recorded performance.
2) Treatment of seeds and the prospective parent
The whole virgin dairy cow that has not shown signs of lust or not pregnant after a
certain period, should be set aside. If a cow has been set aside to produce milk, cow milk
production were selected based on the return, the tendency inflamed udder and
temperament.
3) System Pemuliabiakan
Often dairy cows mated with virgin males broilers to reduce the risk of birth difficulty
and only after they produce children one male mated with a choice of dairy cows.
Seedlings should be given the opportunity to move on at least 2 hours every day.

6.3. Maintenance
1. Sanitation and Preventive Actions
On the maintenance of intensive cattle ranchers are caged so easy to watch, while
maintaining extensive oversight difficult because the cows are allowed to live freely
maintained. Dairy cows are kept in the shade (the room) has a conception of higher
production (19%) and milk production 11% more than without shade. Diseased seedlings
and seedlings treated immediately because the midwife before kandangkan dried for 1-2
months.
2. Animal Care
Livestock bathed 2 days. Whole cow's mother bathed every day after the cage is cleaned
before milking and milk. Cages should be cleaned every day, dirt cage placed on a
special reservoir that can be processed into fertilizer. After the cage is cleaned, the floors
should be given a mattress as flooring are generally made of straw or forage feed
remnants (mattress once a week should be dismantled).

Weighing do since beef calf to adulthood. Cow calf weighed once a week while adult
cattle were weighed every month or 3 months. Newly weaned cows were weighed once a
month. Adult cattle can be weighed by the estimated measurement based on the
circumference and chest width, body length and shoulder height.
3. Giving Feed
Feeding the cows can be done in three ways, namely:
a) grazing systems (pasture fattening)
b) kereman (dry lot fattening)
c0 a combination of first and second ways.
4. Feed given in the form of forage and concentrates. Forage in the form of rice straw,
sugarcane shoots, lamtoro, alfalfa, grass, grass or grass king of Bengal. Given forage
during the day after milking as much as 30-50 kg / head / day. Grass for cattle feed the
adults are generally given as much as 10% of body weight (BW) and the additional feed
as much as 1-2% of baseline.
Cows who are breastfeeding (lactation) require additional food by 25% forage and
concentrates in the rations. In the form of fresh grass forage should be added to the type
of beans (legumes).
Sources of refined carbohydrates in the form of bran or rice bran, pulp, cassava, and
coconut cake and minerals (as reinforcement) in the form of table salt, lime, etc.. Feeding
of concentrate should be given in the morning and afternoon before the cows were milked
as much as 1-2 kg / head / day.
Besides food, the cow should be given water to drink as much as 10% of body weight per
day.
The main maintenance is the provision of adequate and quality feed, and keep clean the
cage and livestock health. Kereman feeding is combined with grazing in the early dry
season, cattle grazed each day. In the rainy season, cattle are caged and given food by
rations. Grazing also aims to provide an opportunity to move the cows to strengthen his
legs.
5. Cage Maintenance
Dirt dumped elsewhere in order to undergo a process of fermentation (+1-2 weeks) and
turn into manure that has been cooked and good. Cowshed should not be closed tightly
(slightly open) for air circulation inside running smoothly.
Clean drinking water should be available at all times. Place food and drink should be
made outside of the cage but still below the roof. Feeder is made somewhat higher in
order to feed given not trampled or mixed with dirt. While the drinking water should be
made permanent cement tanks and slightly higher than the surface of the floor. Also
provide equipment for bathing cattle.
7. Pests and diseases
 7.1. Disease
1. Anthrax
Cause: Bacillus anthracis is transmitted through direct contact, food / beverage or
breathing.
Symptoms: (1) high fever, weakness and shaking, (2) respiratory, (3) swelling of the
glands chest, neck, genitals and body full of sores; (4) is sometimes dark red blood that
comes out through the nose , ears, mouth, anus and vagina, (5) and liquid manure is often
mixed with blood, (6) spleen was swollen and blackish in color.
Control: vaccination, antibiotic treatment, isolate the infected cattle and bury / burn the
dead cow.
2. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) or disease Apthae epizootica (AE)
Cause: The virus is transmitted through direct contact with urine, breast milk, saliva and
other objects contaminated with germs AE.
Symptoms: (1) of the oral cavity, tongue, and soles of the feet or blisters tracak round and
there is a bulge containing a clear fluid, (2) fever or heat, body temperature dropped
dramatically, (3) decreased appetite would not even eat at all; (4) excessive salivation
out.
Control: vaccination and the sick cow was exiled and treated separately.
3. Disease snoring / mendekur or disease Septichaema epizootica (SE)
Cause: Pasturella multocida bacteria. Transmission through contaminated food and
beverages bacteria.
Symptoms: (1) of the scalp and mucous membranes of the tongue swollen, red and blue,
(2) the neck, anus, and vulva swells, (3) the lungs become inflamed, the mucous
membranes of the intestines and stomach sour and dark red; (4 ) fever and difficulty
breathing so that similar people are snoring. In very severe circumstances, the cow will
die in the time between 12-36 hours.
Control: vaccination anti-SE and given antibiotics or sulfa.
4. Inflammatory disease of the nail or nail rot (foot rot)
This disease attacks the cattle are kept in a cage, wet and dirty.
Symptoms: (1) initial swelling around the nail cracks and remove cloudy white liquid, (2)
skin peeling nails, (3) growing bumps that cause pain, (4) cows limping and could
eventually paralyzed.

7.2. Attack Prevention
Prevention and treatment efforts made by cutting nails and soak the affected part in the
solution refanol repeated for 30 minutes once a week and put the cattle in pens clean and
dry.

8. P A N E N
 8.1. Main Results
The main result of the cultivation of dairy cows is the milk produced by female parent.
8.2. By-product
In addition to milk of dairy cows also provide other results of flesh and skin that comes
from cows that are not productive and manure generated from livestock manure.

9. POST-HARVEST
 ---
10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT CULTIVATION
 10.1. Cultivation of Business Analysis
Dairy cattle business in Indonesia is still a subsistence by a small breeder and have not
reached economic-oriented business. The low level of productivity of livestock is more
due to lack of capital, and knowledge / skills of farmers that includes aspects of
reproduction, feeding, management of post-harvest results, the implementation of
recording systems, milking, sanitation and disease prevention. In addition farmers'
knowledge about aspects of trade system should be improved so that the benefits worth
the maintenance.

Production of dairy cows in the world has now exceeded 385 million m2/ton/th with the
level of cattle sales and the product is greater than the calf, males, and cow afkiran. In the
United States, the level of sales and purchases in cash cow and its products reached 13%
of all farms in the world. While the level of sales calf (calf), stud dairy cattle, and cow
salvage only around 3%. Milk production number that still need to be increased in line
with the increasing number of people in this world.

To achieve high production levels of the management and feeding should be strictly in
accordance with the needs of livestock, which feed the minimum that can be utilized by
livestock (absorbed) cultivated about 3.5 - 4% of dry matter.
10.2. Opportunity Overview Agribusiness
Family dairy farm businesses provide benefits if the number of cattle that are at least as
much as 6 tails, although the level of efficiency can be achieved with a minimum of 2
pengusahaannya tails with an average milk production of 15 liters / day. Efforts to
increase farmers' income through the cultivation of dairy cows may also be done by
diversifying the business. In addition to cooperative and integrative attempts (horizontal
and vertical) with other farmers and other competent instansiinstansi, and remained above
the established pattern of PIR.

11. REFERENCES
 1. Anonymous. []. Guidelines for dairy cattle breeding. Navan, Central Cattle Breeding
and Food Livestock forage. 2 things. (Brochure).
2. Anonymous. 1983. Instructions means the use of livestock medicines. Samarinda, East
Kalimantan Animal Husbandry Department. 12 things.
3. Anonymous. 1988. Condition of the dairy farm and milk quality on the island of Java.
PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 39-40.
4. Anonymous. 1988. Milking, a determining factor for the amount of milk. Self-Help
Livestock Indonesia, (42) 1988: 23-24.
5. Anonymous. 1988. Efforts to improve the welfare of farmers through increased
production efficiency. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 16-24.
6. Bandini, Yusni. 1997. Bali cattle. Cet 1. Jakarta, Self spreader. 73 things.
7. Church, D.C. 1991. Livestock feeds and feeding. 3rd ed. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall,
Inc..: 278-279.
8. Djaja, William. 1988. Clean and healthy living on a dairy farm. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27)
1988: 25-26.
9. Djarijah, Abbas Sirega. 1996. Cattle business. Yogyakarta, Canisius. 43 things.
10. Fox, Michael W. 1984. Farm animals: husbandry, behavior, and veterinary practice.
Maryland Baltimore, University Park Press: 82-112; 150.
11. Ginting, Eliezer. 1988. Guidance and counseling dairy business people in East Java.
PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 27-33.
12. Hehanussa, P.E. 1995. Life Science Center's master plan-Cibinong. Limnotek, 3 (1)
1995: 1-34.
13. Hermanto. 1988. How does the handling of dairy cattle during the dry? Self-Help
Livestock Indonesia, (42) 1988: 24-25.
14. Nienaber, J.A., et al. 1974. Livestock production affects environment and health.
Proceedings of the International Livestock Environment Conference. St. Joseph, the
American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
15. Pane, Ismed. 1986. Pemuliabiakan cattle. Jakarta, PT. Media: 1-38; 133.
16. Sabrani, M. 1994. Technology development of Sumba Ongole cattle. Jakarta, the
Agency for Agricultural Research and Development: 15-26.
17. Suryanto, Bambang; Santosa, Siswanto Imam; Mukson. 1988. Science of Livestock.
Semarang, Faculty of Animal UNDIP. 63 things.
18. Warudjo, Bambang 1988. Quality and price of milk. PPSKI Bulletin, 5 (27) 1988: 34-
38.

12. CONTACT RELATIONS
1. Rural Community Economic Development Project - BAPPENAS
Coconut No. Jl.Sunda. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office of State Minister for Research and Technology, Deputy Minister for
Administrative and Correctional Science, BPPT II Building, 6th Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin
No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952,
Website: http://www.ristek.go.id


Sources:
Rural Community Economic Development Project, Bappenas

								
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