SWITCHING CHARACTERISTIC AND ANALYSIS OF INSULATED-GATE BIPOLAR

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					SWITCHING CHARACTERISTIC AND ANALYSIS OF INSULATED-GATE
                        BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR (IGBT)




                             BAKHTIAR BIN AHMAD




This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
            Bachelor Degree of Electrical Engineering (Power Systems)




                   Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

                            University Malaysia Pahang
                                       (UMP)




                                    APRIL, 2009
“All the trademark and copyright use herein are property of their respective owner.
Reference of information from other sources is quoted accordingly; otherwise the
        information presented in this report is solely work of the author.”




    Signature             : _____________________


    Author                : BAKHTIAR BIN AHMAD


    Date                  :
Specially dedicated to
 My beloved family
                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




       Firstly, thank to God throughout all His Almighty kindness and loveliness for
letting me to finish my final year project. Secondly, I wish to hand a million thank to this
final year project supervisor Mr. Muhamad Zahim Bin Sujod for his encouragement
guidance and consistent supports in finishing this project. I am also very thankful to my
academic advisors Pn. Norhafidzah binti Mat Saad and Mr. Mohd Razali Bin Daud for
guidance and motivation.


       I would like to extend my thank UMP associates that contribute in the project
progress either directly or indirectly. Also, thank to all my friends and those who I not
mention because of helping me to obtain all components I needed for the project.


       My great thanks to my family especially my beloved father and mother who give
a very good support to me to complete the project. For all of that, I am very thankful to
the cooperation and contribution from everyone that has driven me to accomplish of this
project especially my friend. To wrap it, thank you for everything. May Allah bless you
all.
                                         ABSTRACT




        Test circuit of Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT-type IRGPC50F);
standard ultra fast speed IGBT will be operated when gate voltage, Vg is applied to the
Gate-terminal. IR2109 (MOSFET/IGBT Driver) will amplify the pulse signal from
function generator due to DC voltage supply input amplitude. Output of IR2109
connected to IGBT gate in the test circuit and the circuit operates. In the test circuit,
IGBT will turn on ad off due to the input PWM signal from the driver circuit. The event
of the switching on and off of the IGBT observe and the data note down. The factors
affecting the switching mode discuss. Power dissipation and losses in the circuit
calculated     due   to   the   test.   The   result   is   then   compared   to   IGBT-type
IRG4IBC20UDPBF; IGBT with ultra fast soft recovery diode. Analysis and conclusion
then been made to compare the pros and cons between the 2 tested IGBT due on term of
selectivity.
                                      ABSTRAK




       Litar ujian untuk Transistor Bipolar gate-berpenebat (IGBT model IRGPC50F);
IGBT berkelajuan tinggi ultra biasa akan beroperasi apabila voltan di terminal ‘gate’, Vg
diberi ke terminal Gate di IGBT. IR2109 (Pemacu MOSFET/IGBT) akan membesarkan
isyarat denyutan daripada generator pelbagai fungsi berdasarkan masukan daripada
amplitud pembekal voltan DC. Keluaran oleh IR2109 kemudiannya disambung ke gate
IGBT di dalam litar ujian utama dan litar beroperasi. Di litar ujian utama, IGBT akan
berada dalam keadaan ‘on’ dan ‘off’ berdasarkan masukan PWM daripada litar pemacu.
Keadaan ‘on’ dan ‘off’ tersebut diperhatikan dan segala data dicatat. Faktor yang yang
mempengaruhi keadaan ini dibincangkan. Kuasa terhapus dan kehilangan tenaga
diperhatikan dan dihisab berdasarkan data diperoleh melalui ujian. Keputusan tersebut
kemudian disbanding terhadap IGBT model IRG4IBC20UPBF, iaitu IGBT dengan diod
pemulih berkelajuan tinggi ultra. Analisis dan kesimpulan dibuat untuk membanding
beza antara kedua-dua IGBT yang telah diuji berdasarkan segi pilihan yang lebih
efisyen.
                                      Vii




                  TABLE OF CONTENTS




CHAPTER   CONTENTS                    PAGE



          TITLE                       i

          DECLARATION                 ii

          DEDICATION                  iii

          ACKNOWLEDGEMENT             iv

          ABSTRACT                     v

          ABSTRAK                     vi

          TABLE OF CONTENTS           vii

          LIST OF FIGURES             xii

          LIST OF TABLES              xiv

          LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS       xv

          LIST OF APPENDICES          xvi
                                                                 viii


1         INTRODUCTION                                      1


    1.1   Introduction                                       2

    1.2   Overview                                           2

    1.3   Problem Statement                                  3

    1.4   Objective                                          3

    1.5   Scope of the Project                               3

          1.5.1 Software Development of IGBT Test Circuit    3

          1.5.2 Data Analysis of 2 Types of IGBT             4

          1.4.3 Using Microsoft Excel to Store Data          4

          1.6    Thesis Outline                              5



2         LITERATURE REVIEW                                  6



    2.1   Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)           7

    2.2   High & Low Side Driver                            8

    2.3   PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional                       9

    2.4   Microsoft Excel                                   10



3         METHODOLOGY                                       11



    3.1   Introduction                                      12

    3.2   Software Implementation/Design Simulation         13

          3.2.1 PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional                 13
                                                                ix


    3.3   Hardware Development                             14

          3.3.1 Gate Driver Circuit                        14

                  3.3.1.1 Integrated Circuit (IC) IR2109   15

          3.3.2 Main IGBT Test Circuit                     17

                  3.3.2.1 IRG4IBC20UPBF                    17

                  3.3.2.2 IRGPC50F                         18

    3.4   Data Management                                  19

          3.4.1 Data Storage Using Microsoft Excel         19

          3.4.2 Rise Time, tr and Fall Time, tf            19

          3.4.3 Td (on) and Td (off)                       20

          3.4.4 Vgate (on) and Vgate (off)                 20



4         RESULT, DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS                  21



    4.1   Introduction                                     22

    4.2   Power Supply Output Voltage                      22

          4.2.1 Discussion                                 23

    4.3   Driver Circuit Output Result                     23

          4.3.1 Discussion                                 24

    4.4   Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)                     26

          4.4.1 Discussion                                 26

    4.5   Simulation Results                               26
                            x


5         CONCLUSION   36



    5.1   Conclusion   37



    REFERENCE          42



    APPENDIX A         44

    APPENDIX B         56

    APPENDIX C         63

    APPENDIX D         73
                                                               xi




                     LIST OF FIGURE




FIGURE   TITLE                                           PAGE



2.1      IGBT Structure                                   7

2.2      Static Characteristic of an IGBT                 8

3.1      Flow Chart of the project                        12

3.2      Finalized Circuit Design                         14

3.3      Driver circuit configuration scheme              15

3.4      Driver circuit operational block diagram         15

3.5      Functional block diagram of IR210X               16

3.6      Configuration of test circuit of IGBT            17

3.7      n-channel IGBT with ultra fast recovery diode    18

3.8      standard n-channel ultra fast speed IGBT         18

4.1      Output of DC power supply of 15V                 22

4.2      Test point of PWM output of IR2109               23

4.3      PWM output at end of the driver circuit          24

4.4      Noise cause by long wire jumper                  25

4.5      Voltage drop cause sy standard wire jumper       25
                                                                            xii




4.6       Simulation test of IGBT switching characteristics            27

4.7(a)    Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc input   28

4.7(b)    Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc input        29

4.8(a)    Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc input   29

4.8(b)    Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc input        30

4.9(a)    Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc input 30

4.9(b)    Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc input 31

4.10(a)   Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc input    32

4.10(b)   Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc input         33

4.11(a)   Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc input    33

4.11(b)   Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc input         34

4.12(a)   Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc input   34

4.12(b)   Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc input        35
                                                                   viii




                      LIST OF TABLE




TABLE    TITLE                                                   PAGE



2.1     High & Low Side Driver Features Comparison                10

4.1     Result of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc collector voltage input     27

4.2     Result of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc collector voltage input     28

4.3     Result of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc collector voltage input    28

4.4     Result of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc collector voltage input      31

4.5     Result of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc collector voltage input      31

4.6     Result of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc collector voltage input     32

5.1     Cost estimate for Test Circuit of IGBT                    40
                                                                   ix




             LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS




IGBT     -   Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

MOSFET   -   Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor
P        -   Power
V        -   Voltage
I        -   Current
Vdc      -   Direct Current Voltage
DC       -   Direct Current

PWM      -   Pulse width modulation
IC       -   Integrated circuit
Vg       -   Gate terminal voltage
FET      -   Field-effect transistor
CMOS     -   Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
HVDC     -   High Voltage Direct Current
VSM      -   Virtual System Modeling

LSTTL    -   Large Scale Transistor-transistor Logic
SPICE    -   Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis
Op-amp   -   Operational amplifier
                                               x




                   LIST OF APPENDICES




APPENDIX   TITLE                         PAGE



A          Data Sheet of IRG4IBC20UPBF    44

B          Data Sheet of IRGPC50F         56

C          Data Sheet of IR2109           63

D          Author’s Biography             73
                                                                                        xi




                                   CHAPTER 1




                                INTRODUCTION




        This chapter will describe about the whole inspiration of the project thesis which
cover the project overview, problem statement, objective, scope of the project and the
thesis outline.
                                                                                       viii


1.1    Introduction


       The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power
semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric
power in many modern appliances. It is designed to rapidly turn on and off. The IGBT
combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFET with the high-current and
low–saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors.




       Nowadays, there are bulk types of IGBT available in the market for various type
of electrical and electronics use as well. The selection of these components should be
properly done by specifically recognize their characteristics and limitations. This may
effects the future performance of a system and effectively saving costs.




1.2    Overview


       This project is based on the product of today IGBT which come in various types
and packages. This sometimes bring problem to such event on which type of effective
power electronic switching (in this matter IGBT) to take consideration.




        There are factors of selectivity that should be included in the proper pick of the
component. Lack of these factors will result in maybe poor performance and highly cost
the defect of the system because even a typical type of an IGBT would cost a high value
in money.
                                                                                      ix


       Thus, this project will basically show experiment and analysis of some types of
IGBT available on the market these days. So that, hopefully it will assists viewer in
proper selection of the component.




1.3    Problem Statement


       Test circuit of Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT-type IRG4RC10U) will
be operated when gate voltage, Vg is applied to the Gate-terminal. IR2109
(MOSFET/IGBT Driver) will amplify the pulse signal from function generator due to
DC voltage supply input amplitude. Output of IR2109 connected to IGBT gate in the test
circuit and the circuit operates. In the test circuit, capacitor and inductor will store
voltage and current respectively. The event of the charging and discharging of the
component observed and analyzed. Power dissipation and losses in the circuit calculated
due to the test. The result is then compared to IGBT-type IRG4BC20SD.




1.4    Objective


          i.   To design a test circuit of IGBT
         ii.   To compare between 2 types of IGBT
        iii.   To analyze the switching characteristics



1.5    Scope of the Project


There are 3 scopes for this project to achieve.
                                                                                           x


1.5.1 Software Development of IGBT Test Circuit Design.


       To start the entire project after the research, simulation test must be carried out to
design a proper and workable system. In this contact, design-simulation software
needed. The other importance aspects of carrying this step are to make sure that the
system components easily to be identified and cost estimation of the components can be
done well.

       It is decided to use PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional as the deign-simulation
software because of a certain aspects. It provides most of the electronics parts in the
library and features realistic and sufficient needs of example to explore the whole
software to user.




1.5.2 Data Analysis of 2 Types of IGBT.


       Any 2 types of commercial IGBT must be identified in the earliest stage of the
project. The characteristics of both also should be noted and taken care of theoretically
to make sure they are comparable, feasible and effective in the later stage of the project.
Parameters such as input voltage, current and frequency drive well-recognized for the
system to be practically can be done. Other part of the system that might affects the
system from running (i.e. Gate Driver) also take into account.




       After the all data have been gathered and valid, the comparison and analysis be
made. All the aspect possible of affecting the selectivity between the 2 types of IGBT
taken care of and conclusion deduced on each of them.
                                                                                          xi


1.5.3 Using Microsoft Excel to Store Data.


       We can manipulate the data that will store in Microsoft Excel to get a graph, chart
and diagram. From the data in Microsoft Excel, we can build a graph, chart and many
more. We also can make an observation or conclusion using the data. That’s why I
choose to use Microsoft Excel to store a data.




1.6    Thesis Outline


       This thesis contains 5 chapter which is every chapter have its own purpose. After
viewing the entire chapter in this thesis hopefully viewer can understand the whole
system design and analyzed data for this project.




       Chapter 1 describe on the background of the project which include the problem
statement, objectives, scope of the project and the thesis outline that briefly describe the
entire view of the project.



       Chapter 2 is illustrating about the literature review of all parts of the project.
Those include the theory of the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), where it
described about the characteristics, test circuit design-software, and other components
which related to the project stages.



       Chapter 3 elaborated more on the theory of the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor
(IGBT), how to design, control and operate the system. Besides it also describe the
functions of each components use in the circuit and how the data is taken especially on
the second stage of the project.
                                                                                       xii


       Chapter 4 presents the data and result that have been got from the experiments
while in development process. The result of this project also is accompanied by the
discussions for each problem statements. Analysis of the data also included in this
chapter.



       Lastly is chapter 5, in this chapter the conclusion have been made for the project
from the whole aspect and there are also suggestions to improve the test of IGBT on the
future, it is for the commercialization. There is also the costing stated for the project
implementation.
                                                                                   viii




                                  CHAPTER 2




                          LITERATURE REVIEW




       This chapter will review about the critical components and parts of the project
which include Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), type of Low & High Side
Driver, PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional and also Microsoft Excell.
2.1    Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)



       The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power
semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric
power in many modern appliances: electric cars, variable speed refrigerators, air-
conditioners, and even stereo systems with digital amplifiers. Since it is designed to
rapidly turn on and off, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with
pulse width modulation and low-pass filters. [1]




       The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with
the high-current and low–saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by
combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a
switch, in a single device. An IGBT structure shown in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 show
the static characteristic of an IGBT.




                                Figure 2.1: IGBT Structure
                                                                                        13




                        Figure 2.2: Static Characteristic of an IGBT

                 The IGBT is a fairly recent invention. The first-generation devices of the
1980s and early 1990s were relatively slow in switching, and prone to failure through
such modes as latch up and secondary breakdown. Second-generation devices were
much improved, and the current third-generation ones are even better, with speed
rivaling MOSFETs, and excellent ruggedness and tolerance of overloads. [2]



2.2    High & Low Side Driver


       The IR2XXX are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT drivers
with independent high and low side referenced output channels. Proprietary HVDC and
latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction.

       The logic input is compatible with standard CMOS or LSTTL output, down to
3.3V logic. The output drivers feature a high pulse current buffer stage designed for
minimum driver cross-conduction. The floating channel can be used to drive an N-
channel power MOSFET or IGBT in the high side configuration which operates up to
600 volts. [3]

       Since there are certain types of IGBT driver available, certain features should be
considered when choosing the suitable one for any use. The features are shown in Table
2.1.

				
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