SWITCHING CHARACTERISTIC AND ANALYSIS OF INSULATED-GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR (IGBT) BAKHTIAR BIN AHMAD This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Bachelor Degree of Electrical Engineering (Power Systems) Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering University Malaysia Pahang (UMP) APRIL, 2009 “All the trademark and copyright use herein are property of their respective owner. Reference of information from other sources is quoted accordingly; otherwise the information presented in this report is solely work of the author.” Signature : _____________________ Author : BAKHTIAR BIN AHMAD Date : Specially dedicated to My beloved family ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly, thank to God throughout all His Almighty kindness and loveliness for letting me to finish my final year project. Secondly, I wish to hand a million thank to this final year project supervisor Mr. Muhamad Zahim Bin Sujod for his encouragement guidance and consistent supports in finishing this project. I am also very thankful to my academic advisors Pn. Norhafidzah binti Mat Saad and Mr. Mohd Razali Bin Daud for guidance and motivation. I would like to extend my thank UMP associates that contribute in the project progress either directly or indirectly. Also, thank to all my friends and those who I not mention because of helping me to obtain all components I needed for the project. My great thanks to my family especially my beloved father and mother who give a very good support to me to complete the project. For all of that, I am very thankful to the cooperation and contribution from everyone that has driven me to accomplish of this project especially my friend. To wrap it, thank you for everything. May Allah bless you all. ABSTRACT Test circuit of Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT-type IRGPC50F); standard ultra fast speed IGBT will be operated when gate voltage, Vg is applied to the Gate-terminal. IR2109 (MOSFET/IGBT Driver) will amplify the pulse signal from function generator due to DC voltage supply input amplitude. Output of IR2109 connected to IGBT gate in the test circuit and the circuit operates. In the test circuit, IGBT will turn on ad off due to the input PWM signal from the driver circuit. The event of the switching on and off of the IGBT observe and the data note down. The factors affecting the switching mode discuss. Power dissipation and losses in the circuit calculated due to the test. The result is then compared to IGBT-type IRG4IBC20UDPBF; IGBT with ultra fast soft recovery diode. Analysis and conclusion then been made to compare the pros and cons between the 2 tested IGBT due on term of selectivity. ABSTRAK Litar ujian untuk Transistor Bipolar gate-berpenebat (IGBT model IRGPC50F); IGBT berkelajuan tinggi ultra biasa akan beroperasi apabila voltan di terminal ‘gate’, Vg diberi ke terminal Gate di IGBT. IR2109 (Pemacu MOSFET/IGBT) akan membesarkan isyarat denyutan daripada generator pelbagai fungsi berdasarkan masukan daripada amplitud pembekal voltan DC. Keluaran oleh IR2109 kemudiannya disambung ke gate IGBT di dalam litar ujian utama dan litar beroperasi. Di litar ujian utama, IGBT akan berada dalam keadaan ‘on’ dan ‘off’ berdasarkan masukan PWM daripada litar pemacu. Keadaan ‘on’ dan ‘off’ tersebut diperhatikan dan segala data dicatat. Faktor yang yang mempengaruhi keadaan ini dibincangkan. Kuasa terhapus dan kehilangan tenaga diperhatikan dan dihisab berdasarkan data diperoleh melalui ujian. Keputusan tersebut kemudian disbanding terhadap IGBT model IRG4IBC20UPBF, iaitu IGBT dengan diod pemulih berkelajuan tinggi ultra. Analisis dan kesimpulan dibuat untuk membanding beza antara kedua-dua IGBT yang telah diuji berdasarkan segi pilihan yang lebih efisyen. Vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE TITLE i DECLARATION ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv ABSTRACT v ABSTRAK vi TABLE OF CONTENTS vii LIST OF FIGURES xii LIST OF TABLES xiv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xv LIST OF APPENDICES xvi viii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Overview 2 1.3 Problem Statement 3 1.4 Objective 3 1.5 Scope of the Project 3 1.5.1 Software Development of IGBT Test Circuit 3 1.5.2 Data Analysis of 2 Types of IGBT 4 1.4.3 Using Microsoft Excel to Store Data 4 1.6 Thesis Outline 5 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6 2.1 Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) 7 2.2 High & Low Side Driver 8 2.3 PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional 9 2.4 Microsoft Excel 10 3 METHODOLOGY 11 3.1 Introduction 12 3.2 Software Implementation/Design Simulation 13 3.2.1 PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional 13 ix 3.3 Hardware Development 14 3.3.1 Gate Driver Circuit 14 22.214.171.124 Integrated Circuit (IC) IR2109 15 3.3.2 Main IGBT Test Circuit 17 126.96.36.199 IRG4IBC20UPBF 17 188.8.131.52 IRGPC50F 18 3.4 Data Management 19 3.4.1 Data Storage Using Microsoft Excel 19 3.4.2 Rise Time, tr and Fall Time, tf 19 3.4.3 Td (on) and Td (off) 20 3.4.4 Vgate (on) and Vgate (off) 20 4 RESULT, DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS 21 4.1 Introduction 22 4.2 Power Supply Output Voltage 22 4.2.1 Discussion 23 4.3 Driver Circuit Output Result 23 4.3.1 Discussion 24 4.4 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 26 4.4.1 Discussion 26 4.5 Simulation Results 26 x 5 CONCLUSION 36 5.1 Conclusion 37 REFERENCE 42 APPENDIX A 44 APPENDIX B 56 APPENDIX C 63 APPENDIX D 73 xi LIST OF FIGURE FIGURE TITLE PAGE 2.1 IGBT Structure 7 2.2 Static Characteristic of an IGBT 8 3.1 Flow Chart of the project 12 3.2 Finalized Circuit Design 14 3.3 Driver circuit configuration scheme 15 3.4 Driver circuit operational block diagram 15 3.5 Functional block diagram of IR210X 16 3.6 Configuration of test circuit of IGBT 17 3.7 n-channel IGBT with ultra fast recovery diode 18 3.8 standard n-channel ultra fast speed IGBT 18 4.1 Output of DC power supply of 15V 22 4.2 Test point of PWM output of IR2109 23 4.3 PWM output at end of the driver circuit 24 4.4 Noise cause by long wire jumper 25 4.5 Voltage drop cause sy standard wire jumper 25 xii 4.6 Simulation test of IGBT switching characteristics 27 4.7(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc input 28 4.7(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc input 29 4.8(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc input 29 4.8(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc input 30 4.9(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc input 30 4.9(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc input 31 4.10(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc input 32 4.10(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc input 33 4.11(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc input 33 4.11(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc input 34 4.12(a) Graph of Icollector vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc input 34 4.12(b) Graph of Power vs. Vgate of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc input 35 viii LIST OF TABLE TABLE TITLE PAGE 2.1 High & Low Side Driver Features Comparison 10 4.1 Result of IRG4BC20SD on 20Vdc collector voltage input 27 4.2 Result of IRG4BC20SD on 80Vdc collector voltage input 28 4.3 Result of IRG4BC20SD on 480Vdc collector voltage input 28 4.4 Result of IRG4RC10U on 20Vdc collector voltage input 31 4.5 Result of IRG4RC10U on 80Vdc collector voltage input 31 4.6 Result of IRG4RC10U on 480Vdc collector voltage input 32 5.1 Cost estimate for Test Circuit of IGBT 40 ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IGBT - Insulated-gate bipolar transistor MOSFET - Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor P - Power V - Voltage I - Current Vdc - Direct Current Voltage DC - Direct Current PWM - Pulse width modulation IC - Integrated circuit Vg - Gate terminal voltage FET - Field-effect transistor CMOS - Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor HVDC - High Voltage Direct Current VSM - Virtual System Modeling LSTTL - Large Scale Transistor-transistor Logic SPICE - Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis Op-amp - Operational amplifier x LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Data Sheet of IRG4IBC20UPBF 44 B Data Sheet of IRGPC50F 56 C Data Sheet of IR2109 63 D Author’s Biography 73 xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will describe about the whole inspiration of the project thesis which cover the project overview, problem statement, objective, scope of the project and the thesis outline. viii 1.1 Introduction The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric power in many modern appliances. It is designed to rapidly turn on and off. The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFET with the high-current and low–saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors. Nowadays, there are bulk types of IGBT available in the market for various type of electrical and electronics use as well. The selection of these components should be properly done by specifically recognize their characteristics and limitations. This may effects the future performance of a system and effectively saving costs. 1.2 Overview This project is based on the product of today IGBT which come in various types and packages. This sometimes bring problem to such event on which type of effective power electronic switching (in this matter IGBT) to take consideration. There are factors of selectivity that should be included in the proper pick of the component. Lack of these factors will result in maybe poor performance and highly cost the defect of the system because even a typical type of an IGBT would cost a high value in money. ix Thus, this project will basically show experiment and analysis of some types of IGBT available on the market these days. So that, hopefully it will assists viewer in proper selection of the component. 1.3 Problem Statement Test circuit of Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT-type IRG4RC10U) will be operated when gate voltage, Vg is applied to the Gate-terminal. IR2109 (MOSFET/IGBT Driver) will amplify the pulse signal from function generator due to DC voltage supply input amplitude. Output of IR2109 connected to IGBT gate in the test circuit and the circuit operates. In the test circuit, capacitor and inductor will store voltage and current respectively. The event of the charging and discharging of the component observed and analyzed. Power dissipation and losses in the circuit calculated due to the test. The result is then compared to IGBT-type IRG4BC20SD. 1.4 Objective i. To design a test circuit of IGBT ii. To compare between 2 types of IGBT iii. To analyze the switching characteristics 1.5 Scope of the Project There are 3 scopes for this project to achieve. x 1.5.1 Software Development of IGBT Test Circuit Design. To start the entire project after the research, simulation test must be carried out to design a proper and workable system. In this contact, design-simulation software needed. The other importance aspects of carrying this step are to make sure that the system components easily to be identified and cost estimation of the components can be done well. It is decided to use PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional as the deign-simulation software because of a certain aspects. It provides most of the electronics parts in the library and features realistic and sufficient needs of example to explore the whole software to user. 1.5.2 Data Analysis of 2 Types of IGBT. Any 2 types of commercial IGBT must be identified in the earliest stage of the project. The characteristics of both also should be noted and taken care of theoretically to make sure they are comparable, feasible and effective in the later stage of the project. Parameters such as input voltage, current and frequency drive well-recognized for the system to be practically can be done. Other part of the system that might affects the system from running (i.e. Gate Driver) also take into account. After the all data have been gathered and valid, the comparison and analysis be made. All the aspect possible of affecting the selectivity between the 2 types of IGBT taken care of and conclusion deduced on each of them. xi 1.5.3 Using Microsoft Excel to Store Data. We can manipulate the data that will store in Microsoft Excel to get a graph, chart and diagram. From the data in Microsoft Excel, we can build a graph, chart and many more. We also can make an observation or conclusion using the data. That’s why I choose to use Microsoft Excel to store a data. 1.6 Thesis Outline This thesis contains 5 chapter which is every chapter have its own purpose. After viewing the entire chapter in this thesis hopefully viewer can understand the whole system design and analyzed data for this project. Chapter 1 describe on the background of the project which include the problem statement, objectives, scope of the project and the thesis outline that briefly describe the entire view of the project. Chapter 2 is illustrating about the literature review of all parts of the project. Those include the theory of the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), where it described about the characteristics, test circuit design-software, and other components which related to the project stages. Chapter 3 elaborated more on the theory of the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), how to design, control and operate the system. Besides it also describe the functions of each components use in the circuit and how the data is taken especially on the second stage of the project. xii Chapter 4 presents the data and result that have been got from the experiments while in development process. The result of this project also is accompanied by the discussions for each problem statements. Analysis of the data also included in this chapter. Lastly is chapter 5, in this chapter the conclusion have been made for the project from the whole aspect and there are also suggestions to improve the test of IGBT on the future, it is for the commercialization. There is also the costing stated for the project implementation. viii CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will review about the critical components and parts of the project which include Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), type of Low & High Side Driver, PROTEUS ISIS 7 Professional and also Microsoft Excell. 2.1 Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) The insulated gate bipolar transistor or IGBT is a three-terminal power semiconductor device, noted for high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric power in many modern appliances: electric cars, variable speed refrigerators, air- conditioners, and even stereo systems with digital amplifiers. Since it is designed to rapidly turn on and off, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulse width modulation and low-pass filters.  The IGBT combines the simple gate-drive characteristics of the MOSFETs with the high-current and low–saturation-voltage capability of bipolar transistors by combining an isolated gate FET for the control input, and a bipolar power transistor as a switch, in a single device. An IGBT structure shown in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 show the static characteristic of an IGBT. Figure 2.1: IGBT Structure 13 Figure 2.2: Static Characteristic of an IGBT The IGBT is a fairly recent invention. The first-generation devices of the 1980s and early 1990s were relatively slow in switching, and prone to failure through such modes as latch up and secondary breakdown. Second-generation devices were much improved, and the current third-generation ones are even better, with speed rivaling MOSFETs, and excellent ruggedness and tolerance of overloads.  2.2 High & Low Side Driver The IR2XXX are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT drivers with independent high and low side referenced output channels. Proprietary HVDC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction. The logic input is compatible with standard CMOS or LSTTL output, down to 3.3V logic. The output drivers feature a high pulse current buffer stage designed for minimum driver cross-conduction. The floating channel can be used to drive an N- channel power MOSFET or IGBT in the high side configuration which operates up to 600 volts.  Since there are certain types of IGBT driver available, certain features should be considered when choosing the suitable one for any use. The features are shown in Table 2.1.
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