World War I - Part 2 by gegeshandong


									World War I

The Later Years
Quick Timeline of Events So Far
• June 1914 – Archduke
  Francis Ferdinand killed
• July 1914 – Austria-
  Hungary gives Serbia an
  ultimatum, Russia steps
  in to help Serbia
• August 1914 – War
  breaks out
• Late 1915 – War
  becomes a stalemate; no
  side can win
    What Happens in a stalemate?

•   Nobody really gains or loses territory
•   Battles go on for a loooong time
•   Both sides suffer heavy damage
•   Tons of supplies are used
•   Many soldiers are killed
•   The war becomes known as a war of attrition
    – Both sides keep fighting to wear down their opponent
 The Ottomans and Gallipoli

• The Ottoman Empire
  controlled a vital sea
  passage between the
  Black Sea and the
• The allies used this
  passage to ship supplies to
• The Ottomans decide to
  join the central powers,
  cutting the Allies’ supply
• The Allies launched a
  massive attack at Gallipoli
  to gain control of the
  passage, but they failed
  miserably with about
  200,000 casualties
      The Armenian Genocide
• The Ottomans claimed that the Armenians, an ethnic
  group in their country, were helping the Russians
• The Ottomans forcibly removed the Armenians from the
  area, killing over 600,000 in the process
Events that
Changed the
               Problems in Russia
• Russia’s economy was in
  terrible condition and many
  groups were planning to
  overthrow the government even
  before WWI broke out
• When war erupted, Czar
  Nicholas II hoped that
  nationalism would help unite the
  country – it did for a while as
  people rushed to join the
• Unfortunately the Russian army
  was too large, unorganized, and
  unprepared for the war
• While Russia won a few early
  battles, they lost several later
  ones and suffered huge losses
Things Get Worse
        • Nicholas decided to take
          personal control of the Russian
          military, even though he knew
          nothing about war or the
        • The Russian army continued
          to lose and battlefield
          conditions were horrible
        • Conditions at home were even
          worse – there was a major
          food shortage and peasants
          were starving
        • The czar’s wife, who he put in
          charge while he was fighting
          the war, grew increasingly
         The Russian Revolution
• By 1917 conditions got so bad
  that the people began rioting in
  the capital, Petrograd
• Police sympathized with the
  rioters and refused to help the
  government restore order
• Nicholas ordered the Russian
  legislature to disband because
  he was afraid his political
  opponents would gain too
  much control – they defied his
• The czar was forced go give
  up his power and the
  legislature created a temporary
  The Russian Revolution (cont.)

• The new government was also unpopular, especially because it
  decided to keep fighting in the war
• The Bolsheviks, a Marxist political party, wanted to start a
  communist revolution that they hoped would spread around the
• The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, armed and organized a
  group of factory workers to attack the new government, and it
                  Lenin in Charge
• Once the temporary
  government fell, the
  Bolsheviks took over and
  Lenin abolished private
  ownership of land
• He distributed all private lands
  among the peasants and gave
  ownership of the factories to
  the workers
• Lenin then signed a peace
  treaty with the Central Powers
  so Russia could leave the war
• The treaty required Russia to
  forfeit large chunks of land,
  which angered many Russians
• The angered Russians banded
  together and formed an army
  to attack Lenin’s government
        The Russian Civil War
• The Reds – Lenin’s army,
  fought to make Russia a
  communist state
• The Whites – Angry
  Russians, the rich, and
  foreigners opposed to
  Lenin, fought to destroy
  the Bolsheviks
• The war lasted 3 years
  and cost many lives
• Lenin’s army finally won
  and he began creating a
  new country, the Soviet
       The U.S. Enters the War

•   The U.S. kept neutral for most of the war, but most Americans supported the
•   Government got upset over German submarine warfare and the sinking of
    merchant ships
•   They were very mad over the sinking of the Lusitania, in which 120
    Americans were killed
•   Angry over Zimmerman Telegram
•   Russia pulls out of the war in March 1917
•   USA decides to enter the war in April 1917
      The Zimmerman Telegram
• Sent from German
  diplomat to Mexican
• Proposed that Mexico
  should attack the U.S.
  and in return it could
  have all of the territory it
  had lost to America
• Germany hoped the
  U.S. would be so
  distracted by Mexico
  that it would enter the
  European war
• When America found
  out about the telegram it
  helped motivate the
  U.S. to enter the war
The Zimmerman Telegram
                Ending the War
• US brought in a strong
  military that had not been
  fighting, was a great help to
  the Allies
• They helped push back the
  German military from Allied
  territory and wear them
• Germany was also facing
  unrest at home
• Germany agreed to sign an
  armistice, or truce
• Armistice was signed and
  went into effect on
  November 11, 1918 at
  11:00 in the morning
             The Peace Treaty

• REMEMBER: an armistice is just an agreement to stop
  fighting, not claiming that one side lost
• Allied and Central leaders met at Versailles to write out
  peace treaty
• Central powers were not allowed much of a voice at all
• Allied leaders were really angry at Germany
     President Wilson’s 14
• Wanted to create a
  list of rules that
  would keep the peace
  after the end of the
• No secret treaties
• Freedom of the seas
  for all nations
• More fair trade
• Reduction of
• Limit colonies
• Establish a league of
  nations to guarantee
  independence for all
  The Treaty of
• Cut Germen military
  to just a few thousand
• Make Germany pay
  reparations for the
  war (amounted to
  billions of dollars)
   – The war cost about
     $300 billion
• Germany had to
  admit guilt for the war
• A league of nations
  was created

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