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					Ecosystem Responses to
  Nitrogen Deposition
         in the
 Western United States

         Jill Baron
  U.S. Geological Survey
 Colorado State University
      Fort Collins CO
                            Conversion to
Against Prevailing Winds    NO3 and NH4

 NOx

       NH3
                           Fertilizers
 NITRATE


             TRENDS IN WET
             PRECIPITATION
            CONCENTRATION
               1983-1994
           (LYNCH et al. 1996)

AMMONIUM     SULFATE
Change is in concentration
 Nilles and Conley 2001
Nilles, M.A. and B.E. Conley 2001,
Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 130:409-414.
                  3.00
                          Trends of NH4-N Concentration in Precipitation
                                     Snowy Range (p=0.02)
                  2.60               Brooklyn Lake (p=0.04)
(log) ueq/l


                                     Niwot Saddle (p=0.001)
                                     Sunlight Peak (p=0.89)
                  2.20               Loch Vale (p=0.003)                       +
                  1.80
                                                                               +
                                                                               +
                                                                               o
                  1.40
                                                                               -
                  1.00



Trends of NO3-N Concentration in Precipitation
                   3.00
                                                                               +
    (log) ueq/l




                   2.60
                                                                               o
                                                                               o
                   2.20                                                        o
                                                                               o
                   1.80                               Snowy Range (p=0.97)
                                                      Brooklyn Lake (p=0.21)
                                                      Niwot Saddle (p=0.01)
                   1.40                               Sunlight Peak (p=0.16)
                                                      Loch Vale (p=0.68)
                   1.00
                         Trends of H Concentration in Precipitation
                  2.5                                                                   +
                                                                                        +
                                                                                        +
                                                                                        o
                   2                                                                    +
(log) ueq/l




                  1.5

                   1                                         Snowy Range (p<0.001)
                                                             Brooklyn Lake (p=0.20)
                  0.5
                                                             Niwot Saddle (p=0.03)
                                                             Sunlight Peak (p=0.0009)
                                                             Loch Vale (p=0.0005)
                   0


                        Trends of SO4 Concentration in Precipitation
                   3


                  2.5                                                                   o
    (log) ueq/l




                                                                                        -
                                                                                        -
                   2
                                                                                        -
                                                                                        -
                                  Snowy Range (p=0.002)
                                  Brooklyn Lake (p=0.01)
                  1.5             Niwot Saddle (p=0.47)
                                  Sunlight Peak (p<0.0001)
                                  Loch Vale (p<0.0001)
                   1
                                         TOTAL NITROGEN (kg/ha) at NADP SITES - 1998
                                                 Ñ                                                      Ñ                                   Ñ                                                     Ñ



                Ñ




                                     Ñ
                                                                                    Ñ
                                                                                                                        Ñ




                                                                                                        Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                    Ñ
                                         Ñ
                                                                            Ñ

                                                                                                                                Ñ
                         Ñ
                     Ñ
                                     Ñ                                                      Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ñ

                                                                                                            Ñ
                                                                                        Ñ                                               Ñ
                                                     Ñ
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                                                                                                                                                    Ñ
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                                 Ñ


                                                                                                                            Ñ                                                    Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ñ


                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                Ñ           ÑÑ
                                                                                                                                                                                         ÑÑ
                                                                                                                                                                                         ÑÑ



                                                                                                                                                                    Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                    Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ñ
                             Ñ                                                                      Ñ                               Ñ
                                                                    Ñ
                                             Ñ                                                                                              Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ñ

                                                             Ñ                                                                                                  Ñ
                                                                                                                    Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                            Ñ        Ñ
                                                                                                                                                        Ñ


TO TAL NITROG EN (KG/HA)                                                Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ñ




    4.652 - 4.95 6                                                                              Ñ
                                                                                                                    Ñ                                                   Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                                 Ñ

    4.043 - 4.65 2

    3.739 - 4.04 3

    3.13 - 3 .7 39                                                              Ñ



    2.825 - 3.13
                                                                                                                                                            Ñ
                                                                                                                                            Ñ
    2.521 - 2.82 5                                                                                                                                                                            Ñ

                                             W e s te rn S ta tes
    1.912 - 2.52 1                   Ñ       N AD P S ites
                                                                                                                Ñ

    1.303 - 1.91 2

    0.39 - 1 .3 03
                                                        NITRATE (kg/ha) at NADP SITES - 1998

                                                Ñ                                               Ñ                                       Ñ                                                 Ñ



                Ñ




                                    Ñ                                       Ñ
                                                                                                                Ñ




                                                                                                Ñ
                                                                                                                                                            Ñ
                                        Ñ
                                                                    Ñ

                                                                                                                            Ñ
                        Ñ
                    Ñ                                                               Ñ
                                    Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ñ

                                                                                                    Ñ
                                                                                Ñ                                                   Ñ
                                                    Ñ
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                                Ñ
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                                                                                                                        Ñ                                                Ñ
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                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ñ
                                                                                                                                                        Ñ           ÑÑ
                                                                                                                                                                                 ÑÑ

                                                                                                                                                                                 ÑÑ



                                                                                                                                                            Ñ
                                                                                                                                                            Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                                              Ñ
                            Ñ                                                               Ñ                                   Ñ
                                                            Ñ
                                            Ñ
                                                                                                                                        Ñ

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ñ

                                                        Ñ                                                                                               Ñ
                                                                                                            Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                    Ñ        Ñ
                                                                                                                                                Ñ

NITR ATE (kg/h a)                                                                                                                                                                                         Ñ
                                                                Ñ

     12.84 - 13.692                                                                     Ñ                   Ñ                                                   Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                         Ñ
     11.136 - 12.84
     10.284 - 11.136
     8.579 - 10.284
                                                                        Ñ

     7.727 - 8.579
     6.875 - 7.727                                                                                                                                  Ñ
                                                                                                                                        Ñ
                                                                                                                                                                                      Ñ
     5.171 - 6.875
     2.615 - 5.171
                                                                                                        Ñ

     0.91 - 2.615

    W e s te rn S ta tes
Ñ   N AD P S ites
(a)               (b)




      NHx-N                      NOy-N



(c)
                       Simulated annual N
                   deposition for 1996 using
                     Models-3/Community
                  Multiscale Air Quality Model
                   (CMAQ)(36 km resolution)
        Total N      (from Fenn et al. 2003)
Housing density 2000
               WELD

                      MORGAN


                ADAMS


   JEFFERSON




    DENVER
30,000
         Total South Platte N emissions, Mg
                NOx
25,000       Elect.+Ind
                    NOx
                  Highway
                                                     1985
20,000
                              NOx                    1995
                            Off Road
15,000


10,000                                                      NH3
                                                         Livestock
                                      NOx
                                   Agriculture    NH3
 5,000
                                                 Crops


    0
    WHAT ARE THE ECOSYSTEM
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN DEPOSITION?
  Pathways and Effects of Excess Nitrogen Deposition

                        N Deposition


             Fertilization
                                        Loss of Soil
                                        Base Cations
    Changes in
Plant Communities    N Saturation




      Lake             Changes in       Loss of Lake ANC
 Eutrophication       Aquatic Species     (acidification)
Figure 1
           Coastal Sage Scrub Communities of Southern California




Nitrogen Deposition linked to:

-Decrease in symbiotic soil fungi
 (mycorrhizae) that enable native
 shrubs to get nutrients
-Endangerment of native butterflies
 and up to 200 sensitive plant species
-Increase in non-native annual
 grasses
-Increase in fire frequency

(work by Edith Allen and colleagues,
UC Riverside)
         San Bernardino Mountains, California


-Up to 90 kg N/ha/yr at some sites
-Ozone and N interact:
  a) cancel each other out for aboveground processes,
  b) combine to dramatically reduce root biomass and
  growth
  c) increased risk of severe fire
  d) nitrate in some streams exceed drinking water
     standards




Fenn, Bytnerowicz,
et al., USDA
Forest Service
                     Alectoria sarmentosa




                             Loss of sensitive
                             lichen species in
                             Columbia River Gorge,
                             Willamette Valley,
                             San Bernardinos.            Xanthoria polycaropa


                                                          Weedy, nitrogen-loving
                                                          pollution indicators
                               Replacement species
                               show high tissue N
Lobaria oregana




                                  Described in Fenn et
                                  al. 2003
                                                         Physcia adscendens
    Pollution sensitive species
Mineralization Rate vs. Organic Horizon %N

                6
  Mineralization Rate (ug N/g/d)

                                    2                                                                   Sites with
                5                  R=0.62                       LV-E
                                                                          ML-E
                                                                                                        measurable
                                                       MP-E
                                                                                                        nitrification
                4
                                                         ER-E
                3                                      LL-E


                2                                      BP-E

                                                          GF-W
                                       BC-WWR-W
                1                   BR-W
                                   FC-W            WA-W
                0
                0.8 0.9                   1   1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
                                              Organic Soil % N
                                                                                       1.6




                                                                       Nitrification
                                                                                       1.2
Colorado Front Range


                                                                         ugN/g/d
                                                          %N       min                 0.8
 Baron et al. 2000                                                                     0.4
Rueth & Baron 2001                                                                      0
                                               New England, USA                              1    1.5         2     2.5

                                               McNulty et al. 1991                               % N Forest Floor
                   N deposition:
                increased soil %N,
                lowered C:N ratios,
           increased microbial N cycling

Fertilization studies in low and high N dep’n stands
suggest a trajectory for future change
   • Between 100-160 kg N ha-1
         initiates biogeochemical changes

   • Within the 2nd year of fertilization we observed
         significant changes at Loch Vale

Soil waters in fertilized plots show high NO3, NH4,
also high levels of Ca, Mg, K.

Leaching of cations is a step toward acidification.
  Pathways and Effects of Excess Nitrogen Deposition

                        N Deposition


             Fertilization
                                        Loss of Soil
                                        Base Cations
    Changes in
Plant Communities    N Saturation




      Lake             Changes in       Loss of Lake ANC
 Eutrophication       Aquatic Species     (acidification)
                                 T
                                 $
                                 TT
                                 $$
                              $$
                              TT
                              $
                              T
                               $
                               T            Rocky Mtn Nat Park
                              T
                              $


         Continental   EVW NO3

         Divide               T
                              $$
                               T
                              T
                              $
                               T
                               $
                              $$
                              TT
                                             Means:
                              $
                              T$
                               T
                    TT
                    $ $       $
                              T
                              T
                              $              East 10.5 (5.0)
                        $$ $$$
                        T TT
                         T T
                          T
                          $
                           $$
                           TT
                                             West 6.6 (4.3)
                     T
                     $
NO3 (ueq / l)      $
                   T
                       TT
                       $$                    p = 0.02
                                 T
                                 $
 $
 T   0 - 3.99                 TT
                              $$
 T
 $   4 - 6.99            T
                         $
                              TT
                              $ $
                          T T T
                          $ $ $
 $
 T   7 - 9.99           $
                        T             Indian Peaks Wilderness
                       $$
                       TT
 $
 T   10 - 15.99         T T
                        $ $
 T
 $   16 - 21
                                     Loch Outlet Alkalinity
        160                                                                                                                                       Annual dynamics,
                                                                                                                                                 but no long-term
        140
        120
        100                                                                                                                                      trends are evident
ueq/L




                                                                                                                                                 for alkalinity (ANC)
         80
         60
         40
         20
          0
              10/2/90

                        10/2/91

                                  10/2/92

                                            10/2/93

                                                      10/2/94

                                                                10/2/95

                                                                          10/2/96

                                                                                    10/2/97

                                                                                              10/2/98

                                                                                                        10/2/99

                                                                                                                   10/2/00
                                                                                                                                                           Loch Outlet NO3

              Nitrate dynamics
                                                                                                                  2.5



              are biannual, but
                                                                                                                    2



                do not show
                                                                                                                  1.5
                                                                                                           mg/L




              long-term trends
                                                                                                                    1

                                                                                                                  0.5

                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                             10/2/90

                                                                                                                                       10/2/91

                                                                                                                                                 10/2/92

                                                                                                                                                            10/2/93

                                                                                                                                                                      10/2/94

                                                                                                                                                                                10/2/95

                                                                                                                                                                                          10/2/96

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10/2/97

                                                                                                                                                                                                              10/2/98

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10/2/99

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10/2/00
Asterionella formosa




Fragilaria crotonensis
Sky Pond




Lake Louise
                       20
                       16      Chl-a




             m g/m 3
                       12
                           8
                           4
                           0
                                 8/22   8/29   9/5
            1000
mg C/m3/h
             800               Productivity
             600
             400
             200
                       0
                                8/21    8/29   9/5
Analyzing Taxonomic Data…
          Phytoplankton Results                       Dictyosphaerium p.
                                                      Sticchococcus b.
                  (PRC)                          3    Pyrobotrys sp.




                                                                           Green Algae
                                                       Diatom 3
 2.5
                                                 2    Rhabdoderma c.
      2                                               Chlorella 1
                                                      Chlorella v.
 1.5                                                  Chlamydomonas m.
                                                 1    Dictyosphaerium e.
Cdt




      1                                               Schroederia s.

 0.5                                             0
                                                       Pseudopedinella 1
                                                       Chrysococcus sp.




                                                                           Chrysophytes
      0
          1               2                  3   -1   Dinobryon s.
-0.5                                                  Spiniferomonas sp.
                   Week of Experiment
                                                      Pedinomonas sp.
              La    C     N      P      NP       -2    Pseupedinella 2
                                                      Pedinella t.
                                                      Pseudokephyrion e.
                                                 -3   Erkenia s.
                                                      Pseudopedinella 3
                                                 -4
                                                      Unk. chryso
NO3 (ueq / l)
                     WLS NO3
                                                         $
  $  0 - 3.99                              $
                                           $
                                               $
                                                     $

                                                      $ $$
                                                      $
                                                     $$ $
                                                             $ $$ $
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                                                      $ $$$$$ $ $
                                                     $$$$$$$$ $$
                                                            $$
                                                                    $
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                                               $     $$ $$ $
                                               $ $ $$$ $ $ $
                                                                                $       $
                                                                                       $$
  $  4 - 6.99                                  $
                                                     $ $$$$
                                                      $ $$ $
                                                      $ $$$
                                                      $ $ $$
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                                                  $$ $$ $$$ $
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                                                 $$                                        $ $           $
                                             $ $$$$                                                    $$
  $  7 - 9.99                                $$
                                               $
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                                         $ $                                                $$$$$$$
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                                                                                             $ $$$
     10 - 15.99
                                           $$                                                             $
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                                       $$ $                                             $
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                                       $
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                                       $$                                            $                             $$$$
                                                                                             $ $

     16 - 44
                                       $
                                       $                                                                             $$
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                                                                                                            $   $ $ $$ $$
                                                                                                                $      $$
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                                          $ $$$$
                                              $$$$                                                                                     $$
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                                              $$$$                                                                                  $ $               $
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                                                                                                                                $       $      $
                                                                                                                                       $

                                                                                                                                               $

 Mean = 1.66
 Std dev = 3.59
 Range = 0 - 43.05
                             $ $
                            $ $
NO3 (ueq / l)              $$$$
                              $
                             $ Seattle               $$
                          $                           $
                        WLS NO3 hotspots
  $  4 - 6.99               $
                                           $
                                                $
  $  7 - 9.99
                                               $ $
  $  10 - 15.99                   $                  $
                                                              $
                                                              $
                                                          $
  $  16 - 44                                                      $$$
                                                                  $$

                                                                                    $
                                                              $
                                                              $$
                                                                   $

                                      Salt Lake
                        $
                                      City $ $$$$$$$                                $
                                                                                         $
                                                                                        $$
            San         $                                                    $          $
                                                                                        $
                                                                                        $
                                                                                         $
                                                                                         $
                           $
            Francisco    $$
                            $$                                                   $ $
                                                                                        $    Denver
                             $$                                                     $
                             $                                                          $
                                                                        $               $
                                                                            $$          $




            Los Angeles
                                         $ $
                             $        $ $$ $ $
                                         $$ $
                                          $$
                                 $ $  $ $


Nutrient Limitation
                                N&P lim
                                    $
                                  $ $
                                     $$ $ $ $
                                       $$
                                       $
                                      $$
                                    $ $
                                      $$
                                     $ $
                                     $$
                                                        $

                                                        $$
                                                             $
                                                             $
                                                              $
                                                              $
                                                              $

                                    $$
                                    $                  $
                                                          $ $
 $   N     17%                    $
                                  $
                                  $                       $
                                                          $$
                             $                             $
                                                          $$ $$
                                                           $
                                                           $  $
 $   P     22%
                              $
                               $
                               $
                                $                $
                                                     $$ $
                                                      $ $     $
                                                                         $
                                                                         $
                             $$
                             $$                       $ $             $$
                             $                         $        $        $$
      (N&P 61%)            $
                            $                          $ $
                                                       $
                                                       $
                                                       $$ $
                                                                      $$ $ $
                                                                           $
                          $                                          $ $         $
                      $                                              $ $
                                                                     $ $         $
                                                                                 $
                          $
                                                                         $
                                                                         $
                      $$ $
                      $                                                  $$
                                                                        $$$
                                                                        $$$
                      $                                                   $$$
                                                                           $
                          $                                                 $
                           $
                           $
                           $$
Nutrient limitation
 predicted by                $$
                             $$
                             $$
                             $$
                                                                    $$
                                                                    $$$$
                                                                     $$$         $
                                                                                 $
                                                                                   $
                              $                                                  $
                                                                                 $ $
  DIN:TP ratio                $
                              $$
                              $$                                                $ $$
                                                                                     $
                                                                                     $
                                                                                     $
                                                                                     $
                                                                                     $
                                $$
                                $$                                                   $
                               $$ $$                                        $    $
                               $$$
                                $$                                           $ $$$
                                 $$                                            $ $$
                                  $$                         $
                                  $$
                                   $$
                                $                                           $$$     $
                                                                                    $
                                                                             $
                                                                            $ $$
  Eutrophication                Acidification
• Low NO3                     • High NO3
• N limitation (17%)          • P limitation
• In-lake ANC production • In-lake ANC production
from algal NO3           from denitrification (less
assimilation             efficient)


             Increased N and acid deposition

                                      +P
          Eutrophication,
          not acidification
Summary for Aquatic Ecosystems


-High N deposition => high [NO3] lakes
-Primary productivity in high N lakes
      not limited by N
-Substantial species change with N deposition
-Increased N deposition => acidification?
  Pathways and Effects of Excess Nitrogen Deposition

                        N Deposition


             Fertilization
                                        Loss of Soil
                                        Base Cations
    Changes in
Plant Communities    N Saturation




      Lake             Changes in       Loss of Lake ANC
 Eutrophication       Aquatic Species     (acidification)

				
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