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					MIT ASSOCIATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
AND MODEL UNITED NATIONS




                                             2012




                   UNEP2012@MITMUNC.ORG
                                                                                    2


                                              to hearing your wonderful ideas and
                                              reading your position papers.
Hey delegates,
                                              Happy researching! 
Welcome to MITMUNC 2012! We are
really excited to have you guys enrolled
and if you all are not excited, be excited
now because you have an amazing
                                              Muneeza Patel
weekend ahead of you!

My name is Muneeza Patel, and I am a
                                              Daniel Stallworth
first-year student pursuing Biological
                                              Chairs,
Engineering here at MIT. I have attended
several Model UN conferences as a high-       United Nations Environmental Program,
                                              MITMUNC IV
school student, including some
                                              unep2012@mitmunc.org
international conferences, and I have
chaired for my high school in the past, as
well. Additionally, please welcome my co-
chair, Daniel Stallworth, a pre-Law student
in MIT’s Class of 2012. This will be his
first chairing experience, but he is as
excited as I am to be working with you
over the duration of the conference.

This year, UNEP is going to discuss two
very important issues at hand. Firstly, the
issue of biodiversity which has yet not
been accepted as a global crisis, but is
going to become one soon, if not
addressed in the international forums.
Secondly, we will model the ongoing
debate about the Kyoto Protocol and
increasing the efficiency of energy
projects. So be prepared to indulge
yourselves in thinking about these issues
and working your way through them.

Do read the background guides
thoroughly and feel free to contact us via
e-mail with any questions you might have
prior to the conference. We look forward
                                                                                         3


Topic 1:                                        Development, and is the focus for
                                                UNEP’s biodiversity-related activities.
                                                Biodiversity refers to the uncounted
                                                variety of living things on the planet.
                                                These living organisms, interacting among
                                                themselves and with the non-living
                                                environment, comprise the ecosystems of
                                                the world. They supply food, medicines,
                                                timber and fuel, and play a fundamental
                                                role in providing breathable air,
                                                conserving soils and stabilizing climates.
Is the world facing a biodiversity              These benefits, or ‘ecosystem services’,
crisis?                                         which are ultimately essential for human
                                                life on earth, are the basis of a range of
89 mammalian species have gone extinct          industries,    from      agriculture      and
in the last 400 years, which is almost 45       biotechnology to fisheries and ecotourism.
times what would have been predicted            The value of ecosystem services was the
from past extinction patterns (Public           subject of the five-year Millennium
Broadcasting Service 2001). This increase       Ecosystem Assessment (MA), in which
in extinction rate can be attributed to a       UNEP was a partner. The MA concluded
variety of factors, including increased         in 2005, and its synthesis reports reveal
pollution levels, habitat destruction,          that ecosystem services are habitually
climate change, and increased resource          undervalued, at an uncountable cost to
consumption. These problems are                 society, especially the poor who rely most
exacerbated by a lack of awareness              heavily on the planet’s natural capital for
regarding the biodiversity crisis and by a      health and livelihoods.
global failure to properly implement and
enforce necessary regulations.
                                                Ways in which biodiversity is
UNEP & Biodiversity                             important to us.
In April 2002, governments at the sixth         Provisioning services
meeting of the Conference of the Parties
to the Convention on Biological Diversity,      These are services important to humans
which is administered under UNEP’s              for   example      food,   water   and
aegis, agreed “to achieve by 2010 a             pharmaceutical products.
significant reduction of the current rate of
biodiversity loss at the global, regional and   Regulating Services
national levels as a contribution to poverty
alleviation and to the benefit of all life on   Services that work to maintain a natural
earth”. This target was endorsed by the         balance. Regulating services include the
World       Summit        on      Sustainable   filtration of pollutants in wetlands, climate
                                                                                          4


regulation through the carbon cycle,              have symbiotic relationships with animals
protection from disasters.                        and plants and provide their hosts with
                                                  nutrients including carbon, nitrogen, and
Cultural services                                 phosphorus. Studies have shown that a
                                                  reduction in soil microbial diversity
Services provided by biodiversity that have       reduces plant growth in that soil. For
some form of social value. These include          example, one study found that “in soils
but are not limited to recreation, aesthetic      with experimentally simplified microbial
beauty, and education. Hence, Biodiversity        communities, plants were smaller, had
is invaluable, both qualitatively and             reduced chlorophyll content, produced
quantitatively. Qualitatively, when               fewer flowers, and were less fecund than
biodiversity is lost, a part of an intricate      plant populations grown in association
and ancient system is also lost. The loss of      with more complex soil microbial
biodiversity also corresponds to the loss of      communities” (Lau and Lennon, 2011).
the very things that allow human life to          Another study estimates that there are
thrive on Earth. Quantitatively,                  over 20,000 species of plants that would
biodiversity is correlated to a loss of           not even be able to exist without microbial
fiscally valuable ecosystem services.             assistance. Because microbes support
Ecosystem services give society so-called         global ecosystems in so many ways, loss of
"dividends" from natural capital. But, to         microbial diversity reduces the overall
allow for the continued production of             ability of ecosystems to function (Van der
these crucial dividends, natural capital (i.e.,   Heijden et. al., 2007).
biodiversity) must be preserved. In a 2008
report, the European Commission                   Now that we have established that all
estimated that biodiversity provides              forms of biodiversity are important to us,
"ecosystem services worth 50 billion              in order to come up with an effective set
Euros per year", or about 68 billion US           of solutions we need to investigate all the
dollars (USD). They also estimated that,          factors that lead to the decline of
by 2050, economic loss due to loss of             biodiversity.
ecosystem services would amount to
almost 14 trillion Euros (or 19 trillion          What causes            the      loss     of
USD). This would be equivalent to                 biodiversity?
approximately 7 percent of the world's
GDP in 2050.                                      Climate Change
Biodiversity also includes microbes which         Climate change is the permanent change in
are extremely important to sustaining life        weather patterns and temperature
on Earth. Many varieties of microbes              fluctuations. It can affect everything from
function in the nitrogen cycle and/or as          a single ecosystem to the biosphere in its
decomposers. Decomposers create and               entirety. Today, the public generally
store nutrients necessary for plant growth.       associates climate change with global
Some microbes generate oxygen; others             warming,       otherwise      known       as
                                                                                         5


anthropogenic climate change. This is the       environment, and/or alter habitats by
rise in atmospheric temperatures caused         changing the natural controls of that
by the release of excessive amounts of          distinct ecosystem (US Department of
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse             Agriculture).
gases. In the last century, the average         These species are organisms that have the
global      temperature        has      risen   ability to adapt easily to new environments
approximately        1.6      degrees      F;   and often reproduce at high rates, allowing
disconcertingly, most scientists agree that     them to establish themselves in an
the point of no return is a rise 2 degrees F.   ecosystem in large quantities in a short
Beyond these levels (approximated to be         period of time. In the new environment,
450 ppm carbon dioxide), the planet will        the invasive species often does not have a
experience unprecedented changes in the         natural predator to stabilize its population,
global climate and a significant increase in    so it expands without limit. With its
the severity of natural disasters (Dresner,     overwhelming numbers, the species can
2008). Species thrive in certain areas          out-compete native species for nutrients,
because they have adapted so that they can      and cause extinctions. These extinctions
use the resources offered by their              cause further repercussions in the food
environment. Though it may seem slight, a       chain that disrupt the whole ecosystem
2 degrees F increase in temperature is          (Convention of Biological Diversity).
significant enough to alter seasonal
weather patterns so that ecosystems             Urban Sprawl
cannot provide the habitats their species
depend on. Because anthropogenic climate        In October of the year 2011, the world
change is occurring at such an accelerated      population of human beings reached 7
rate, some estimate that the loss of species    billion, and the population is expected to
is currently happening at 1000 times the        pass 10 billion by the end of the 21st
natural rate of extinction (Esterman,           century (USA Today). Between 50 percent
2010). Species simply do not have enough        and 90 percent of these humans live in
time to adapt to altered habitats or migrate    cities, with the variation depending on
to better suited ecosystems.                    geographical area. In addition, the rate of
                                                increase of city population is increasing in
Invasive species                                the vast majority of countries. This
                                                generally leads to the expansion of city
The world consists of a large finite            boundaries, which in turn has a direct
number of ecosystems that coexist, but          impact on biodiversity. Expanding city
often face trouble when their distinct          boundaries can lead to habitat loss and
habitats are altered in the slightest. Often    interfere with the natural life cycles of
times the cause of this problem is the          animals living near cities. One study, by
introduction of invasive species that grow      Pillsbury and Miller, on frogs in the state
quickly and manifest themselves in the          of Iowa in the United States showed that
ecosystem. Invasive species are flora or        the number of frogs was directly related to
fauna that are non-native to an                 the distance of their habitat to an urban
                                                                                         6


area. They found that as the urban density     content and hence, the habitat of aquatic
increased, the number of frogs in that area    animals.
decreased proportionally (Pillsbury &
Miller, 2008). Other studies have shown        Lack of awareness about biodiversity
declines in bird populations linked to
urbanization.    species     affected    by    There is a general lack of awareness about
urbanization into three categories: urban      the biodiversity crisis. Man is naturally
avoiders, urban adapters, and urban            inclined to disregard issues that are not
exploiters (McKinney, 2002). Urban             directly present in his life. There are
avoiders are species that are sensitive to     people that are largely unaware of the
human activity. These are animals, such as     biodiversity crisis. This is often due to lack
large predators, that cannot survive once      of education. In children, it may also be
humans have displaced their food sources.      caused by a removal from nature that has
Urban adapters are species that are quick      accompanied the shift to a technology-
to utilize changes to the environment due      dependent world. This removal may result
to humans. Finally, those species that are     from the emergence of a technology-
totally dependent on the presence of           dependent lifestyle. However, this issue
humans are classified as urban exploiters.     extends beyond children. According to the
                                               Secretariat of the Convention of Biological
Pollution                                      Diversity (2011), only 35 percent of
                                               European Union citizens said that they
Biodiversity loss due to air pollution is      actually knew what “biodiversity” meant.
mainly attributed to three distinct            There are also those who understand the
categories: greenhouse gases, chemical         effects that biodiversity loss has on
imbalances, and aerosols. Today, societies     everyday life, but do not know what they
demand more and more resources,                can do to remedy the problem. Many
services, and products that are readily met    members of society manage to convince
by companies and businesses all around         themselves that they cannot make real
the world. However, this competitive           changes. But, the issue of biodiversity loss
global market forces companies to make         is such that collections of small-scale
decisions based on cost effectiveness. In      efforts can have a real effect on mitigating
many cases, this leads to pollution or eco-    the problem.
unfriendly products. The sectors that
contribute most to air pollution are           Short-coming of present policies
transportation,      energy     production,
agriculture, and industry. The other types     One key issue is that while some
of pollution that directly affects             governments did pass laws to help halt the
biodiversity are aquatic pollution and         loss of biodiversity, they only did so
nutrient run off. The high toxic level         sporadically. Furthermore, they only tried
chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides from     to solve a small issue instead of integrating
agriculture and industries run off in to the   all sectors of the economy to make global
rivers and oceans and disrupt the water        and all-inclusive policies. Biodiversity is a
                                                                                          7


large problem that needs to be dealt with
in an integrated fashion. Some sectors that     Some policies have technical problems as
should be included are agriculture,             well and need to be re-evaluated
fisheries, water usage and energy (Council      altogether. Some fire laws in forest regions
of the European Union, 2011).                   are inefficient and the fires provoked,
Even when the policies were actually well       whether or not they were intentional, can
written and had the potential to be             be damaging to entire ecosystems and may
effective, there was often a lack of            even kill entire species. For example,
regulation and enforcement, rendering           Phillip Island, in Australia, has hot, dry,
them essentially ineffective. There is no       and dusty weather and the current
over-arching body to regulate breeches in       changing climate in this location has taken
policies and impose sanctions on violators.     its toll on the Eudyptula minor penguin.
As such, countries have not had any             Many of these rare creatures have been
incentives to put their policies into effect.   found dead, either near on in their
And, since there were no consequences,          burrows, killed by small forest fires, which
policies were not implemented to the            they were unable to retreat from. This has
extent were meant to. Furthermore, most         altered their breeding cycles as variations
countries put very little funding into          in the numbers of birthing creatures can
environmental issues so resources are           drastically change the entire ecosystem. In
scarce. For example, in the European            2005, lightning started a very large fire that
Union (EU), the budget for all nature           caused the death of many penguins and
conservation projects is 1 700 million €,       almost permanently destroyed the island's
which is less than 1 percent of the EU's        ecosystem      (Australian     Government,
annual budget (Spyropoulou et al., 2010).       2011a).

Lastly, it is hard to come to an                Another recurring problem is a lack of
international agreement because each            indicators to measure success. It is very
country is afraid of losing its sovereignty.    hard to tell how efficient a policy is. This
Countries also often go into summits with       is even more problematic on the large
completely different approaches to solving      scale where there is no common baseline
the problem. At the Nagoya Conference,          or standardized indicators. Even in the
for instance, wealthier countries were          European Union – which is designed for
reticent to give financial aid to poorer        international cooperation and is relatively
countries to help them preserve valuable        uniform in many ways – not all
hotspots. Developing countries, on the          measurements are standardized. This
other hand, demanded compensation from          results in useless data (Streamlining
developed countries that made a profit          European Biodiversity Indicators, 2011).
from the biodiversity they are trying to        Additionally, in order for future
preserve (e.g., by selling pharmaceuticals)     assessments to be successful, it is
(Watts, 2010; Black, 2010).                     necessary to set a quantitative goal upon
                                                defining a policy. This will let future policy
                                                                                      8


makers know how efficient an original         • Should biodiversity be considered a
policy was, so that they can make changes     global crisis
to make it more efficient.
                                              • To create a short term plan and/ or
Important things to keep in mind              long term plan for the conservation of
while doing research                          biodiversity by keeping in mind the factors
                                              that contribute to the biodiversity loss.
                                              Coming up with a plan for international
• What does the government in your            cooperation that mitigates the effects of
country feel about biodiversity as a crisis   climate change, reduces pollution, creation
that needs to be addressed as soon as         of hot spots, and creating awareness about
possible?                                     biodiversity issues.

•    What is your country doing to            • To think about factors that relate to
contribute  to   biodiversity  loss?          loss of biodiversity such as excessive
                                              hunting,     monoculture        agriculture,
•    What common practices in your            genetically modified crops, deforestation,
country are factors for the loss of           mining and logging and coming up with
biodiversity?                                 policies of making these practices feasible.

• Is your country trying in any way to        • To think about ways of measuring
put those practices to an end?                biodiversity so as to measure the
                                              effectiveness of the short term and/or
• If yes, in what ways is your country        long term plan.
trying to mitigate those adverse effects?
                                              • To think about the existing regulation
•    Has your country succeeded in            bodies, think about their effectiveness and
mitigating the above mentioned effects?       whether more committees should be
                                              formed to address the issue of biodiversity
•   If it has, can those policies be
implemented on an international level?        • To think about ways of international
                                              collaboration specifically between the
• What are the recent developments in         developed and developing world to
your country about the issue at hand?         address the issue at hand.

Committee Goals                               • To think about the funding, how much
                                              funds are required and where these funds
                                              will come from.
• To conclude whether the conservation
of biodiversity is worth the attention and
                                              •    To think about the formation of
capital.
                                              accountability systems that will ensure
                                              proper implementation of the policies.
                                                                                                  9



Bloc Positions                                         Helpful Links
North & South America                                  • Some general information on
                                                       biodiversity
For more information, please refer to the              http://www.esa.org/education_diversity/pdfDocs
Ecological      Society  of     America:               /biodiversity.pdf
http://www.esa.org/
                                                       • UNEP- Biodiversity
European Union                                         http://www.unep.org/themes/biodiversity/

European Commission on Biodiversity &                  • Connecting the dots; biodiversity,
nature.                                                adaptation, food security and livelihoods
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/index_          http://unep.org/delc/PDF/publicationconnectin
en.htm                                                 gdots.pdf

Arab League                                            • Technology Transfer and cooperation
                                                       under the convention on biological
The Arab League is still new to accepting              diversity
the issue of biodiversity as a serious                 http://www.unep.org/dec/PDF/TechnicalTrans
problem. However, there have been recent               ferCBD.pdf
efforts in trying to make the environment
more sustainable. For more, information,               • Convention on Biological Diversity
check,                                                 http://www.cbd.int/
http://biodiversity-l.iisd.org/news/arab-league-
meeting-focuses-on-biodiversity-and-desertification-   • History of previous resolutions relating
meas/                                                  biodiversity in the UN General Assembly
                                                       http://unbisnet.un.org:8080/ipac20/ipac.jsp?ses
African Union                                          sion=L3222D116P824.50962&menu=search
                                                       &aspect=subtab124&npp=50&ipp=20&spp
For more information, please refer to                  =20&profile=bib&ri=&index=.SW&term=
“Africa       Biodiversity Collaborative               Biodiversity&matchopt=0%7C0&oper=AND
Group”.                                                &x=11&y=12&aspect=subtab124&index=.
http://abcg.org/                                       TW&term=&matchopt=0%7C0&oper=AN
                                                       D&index=.TN&term=&matchopt=0%7C0
Asia                                                   &oper=AND&index=.AW&term=&match
                                                       opt=0%7C0&ultype=&uloper=%3D&ullimit
For more information, please refer to the              =&ultype=&uloper=%3D&ullimit=&sort=
ASEAN       Centre       for      Biodiversity.
http://www.aseanbiodiversity.org/                      • Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-
                                                       2020
                                                       http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268
                                                                                        10



                                               References
• Biodiversity in Africa
http://frameweb.org/CommunityBrowser.aspx?i    Dresner, S. (2008). The principles of
d=114&lang=en-US                               sustainability, 62-64. Retrieved 19 November
                                               2011, from http://books.google.com.
• Climate Change and animal adaptation
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09   Esterman, S. (2010). Extinction Record
/110929074203.htm                              Fastest on Record, Conservationists Warn.
                                               Retrieved 20 November 2011, from
                                               http://www.wendmag.com/greenery/2010/0
                                               3/extinction-rate-fastest-on-record-
                                               conservationists-warn/

                                               McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization,
                                               biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience,
                                               52(10), 883-884-890. doi:10.1641/0006-
                                               3568(2002)052[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2
                                               Pillsbury, F. C., & Miller, J. R. (2008).
                                               HABITAT AND LANDSCAPE
                                               CHARACTERISTICS UNDERLYING
                                               ANURAN COMMUNITY STRUCTURE
                                               ALONG AN URBAN–RURAL
                                               GRADIENT. Ecological Applications, 18(5),
                                               1107-1108-1118. doi:10.1890/07-1899.1

                                               Spyropoulou, Rania et al. (2010). The
                                               European environment state and outlook -
                                               biodiversity. Copenhagen: European
                                               Environment Agency. doi:10.2800/58023

                                               Watts, J. (2010, 25 October). Nagoya
                                               biodiversity summit is showing depressing
                                               parallels with Copenhagen. The Guardian,

                                               Australian Government. (2011a). Department
                                               of climate change and energy efficiency.
                                               Retrieved 11/16, 2011, from
                                               http://www.climatechange.gov.au/

                                               "CBD Home." CBD Home. N.p., n.d. Web.
                                               28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.cbd.int/>.
                                               production in developing nations and
                                               sustainability management for future
                                               emission targets.

                                               Key points to think about
                                                     The review the status of the current
                                                      energy           projects          and
                                                      adherence/ability to accurately
                                                      measure emission levels
                                                     Should there be a larger focus on
                                                      sustainability projects in the future?
                                                     How largely is your country
                                                      committed to renewable initiatives?
                                                      Have they changed their stance on
Introduction                                          the Kyoto Protocol since the
                                                      Copenhagen conference?
The Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an           Reviewing of the quotas of
important first step towards a truly global           greenhouse        emissions,       and
emission reduction regime that will                   possibilities of a carbon tax for
stabilize GHG emissions, and provide the              large emissions or other adherence
essential architecture for any future                 incentives
international agreement on climate change.           Assessment          of        previous
                                                      accountability methods
By the end of the first commitment period            Small scale energy projects within
of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new                  national legislation
international framework needs to have                Large           scale          projects
been negotiated and ratified that can                 implementation           (international
deliver the stringent emission reductions             cooperation) and history of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate                importance between sustainability
Change (IPCC) has clearly indicated are               and economic means
needed.
                                               Background
A consensus must be developed on the
new and improved methods for the               Almost two decades ago, countries joined
reduction of greenhouse gases with special     an international treaty, the United Nations
reference to how current and future            Framework Convention on Climate
energy projects align with the previous        Change, to cooperatively consider what
protocol's goals. This is to occur on both     they could do to limit average global
small scale within national communities        temperature increases and the resulting
and large scale in international structures,   climate change, and to cope with whatever
taking into account the current                impacts were, by then, inevitable. This was
international economic status and              in 1992.
especially the accelerating need for energy
                                                                                       12


                                              Recognizing that developed countries are
By 1995, countries realized that emission     principally responsible for the current high
reductions provisions in the Convention       levels of GHG emissions in the
were      inadequate.   They      launched    atmosphere as a result of more than 150
negotiations to strengthen the global         years of industrial activity, the Protocol
response to climate change, and, two years    places a heavier burden on developed
later, adopted the Kyoto Protocol. The        nations under the principle of “common
Kyoto Protocol legally binds developed        but     differentiated      responsibilities.”
countries to emission reduction targets.      "The door is closing," said Fatih Birol,
The Protocol’s first commitment period        chief economist at the International
started in 2008 and ends in 2012.             Energy Agency (IEA). "I am very worried
The UNFCCC Secretariat supports all           – if we don't change direction now on
institutions involved in the international    how we use energy, we will end up beyond
climate change negotiations, particularly     what scientists tell us is the minimum for
the Conference of the Parties (COP), the      safety. The door will be closed forever."
subsidiary bodies (which advise the COP),
and the COP Bureau (which deals mainly        If current trends continue, and we go on
with procedural and organizational issues     building      a     high-carbon       energy
arising from the COP and also has             infrastructure, by 2015 at least 90% of the
technical                       functions).   available carbon budget needed to prevent
                                              the temperature from rising above 2°C will
What happens beyond 2012 is one of the        be swallowed up. By 2017, there will be no
key issues governments of the 195 Parties     more room for maneuver, since the whole
to the Convention are currently               carbon budget will be spoken for,
negotiating. Climate change is a complex      according       to    IEA       calculations.
problem, which, although environmental
in nature, has consequences for all spheres   The United Nations Environment
of existence on our planet. It either         Programme is most interested in the
impacts on -- or is impacted by -- global     solving the question of the gap between
issues, including poverty, economic           the 2020 emission levels expected as a
development,       population       growth,   result of the current pledges and the
sustainable development and resource          emission levels that would be consistent
management. It is not surprising, then,       with either a 2° C or 1.5° C limit. A
that solutions come from all disciplines      UNEP Emissions Gap Report was created
and fields of research and development.       last year and the COP 17 UN Climate
                                              Change Conference, the 17th UN
At the very heart of the response to          conference of its kind, was held recently to
climate change, however, lies the need to     address this.
reduce emissions. In 2010, governments
agreed that emissions need to be reduced
so that global temperature increases are
limited to below 2 degrees Celsius.
                                                                                       13


Mechanisms             under         Kyoto      more expensive emission reductions in
Protocol                                        their own or other industrialized countries.
                                                The most important factor of a carbon
Flexible mechanisms, also sometimes             project is that it establishes that it would
knows as Flexibility Mechanisms or Kyoto        not have occurred without the additional
Mechanisms, refers to Emissions Trading,        incentive provided by emission reductions
the Clean Development Mechanism and             credits. The CDM allows net global
Joint     Implementation.    These     are      greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced at
mechanisms defined under the Kyoto              a much lower global cost by financing
Protocol intended to lower the overall          emissions reduction projects in developing
costs of achieving its emissions targets.       countries where costs are lower than in
These mechanisms enable parties to              industrialized countries.
achieve emission reductions or to remove
carbon from the atmosphere cost-                Between 2001, which was the first year
effectively in other countries. While the       Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
cost of limiting emissions varies               projects could be registered, and 2012, the
considerably from region to region, the         end of the Kyoto commitment period, the
benefit for the atmosphere is in principle      CDM is expected to produce some
the same, wherever the action is taken.         1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide
                                                equivalent      (CO2)       in     emission
The Emissions Trading-mechanism allows          reductions.[17] Most of these reductions
parties to the Kyoto Protocol to buy            are through renewable energy, energy
greenhouse gas emission permits from            efficiency, and fuel switching. By 2012, the
other countries to help meet their              largest potential for production of
domestic emission reduction targets.            Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) are
Through the Joint Implementation,               estimated in China (52% of total CERs)
industrialized countries with a greenhouse      and India (16%). CERs produced in Latin
gas reduction commitment of Annex 1             America and the Caribbean make up 15%
countries may fund emission reducing            of the potential total, with Brazil as the
projects in other industrialized countries as   largest producer in the region (7%).
an alternative to emission reductions in
their own countries. Typically, these           Emission reduction is not only important
projects occur in countries in the former       for global environment health, but for
Eastern Europe.                                 improving lives as well. Access to energy is
                                                a problem that affects primarily the poor,
The Clean Development Mechanism                 usually in developing regions. But
(CDM) is an arrangement under the Kyoto         environmental damage also tends to
Protocol allowing industrialized countries      disproportionately affect the poor in
with a greenhouse gas reduction                 society. In industrialized urban areas, the
commitment of Annex 1 countries to              poor tend to live closest to pollution-
invest in projects that reduce emissions in     producing factories and highways. In rural
developing countries as an alternative to       areas, the poor are most likely to be
                                                                                     14


exposed to indoor air pollution from                 (N2O), and gases containing
traditional fuels such as fuel wood. They            fluorine (the F-gases HFCs, PFCs
are also more vulnerable to soil and water           and SF6).
pollution because they often depend on              These estimates are subject to large
agriculture.                                         uncertainties regarding CO2
                                                     emissions from deforestation; and
The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention,             the per country emissions of other
is also designed to assist countries in              GHGs (e.g., methane). There are
adapting to the adverse effects of climate           also other large uncertainties which
change. It facilitates the development and           mean that small differences
deployment of techniques that can help               between countries are not
increase resilience to the impacts of                significant. CO2 emissions from
climate change.                                      the decay of remaining biomass
                                                     after biomass
The Adaptation Fund was established to               burning/deforestation are not
finance adaptation projects and programs             included.
in developing countries that are Parties to         Excludes underground fires.
the Kyoto Protocol. The Fund is financed            Includes      an     estimate      of
mainly with a share of proceeds from                 2000 million tonnes CO2 from
CDM project activities.                              peat fires and decomposition of
                                                     peat soils after draining. However,
Top-ten Carbon Dioxide Emitters                      the uncertainty range is very large.

China – 17%, 5.8                              Current state
United States – 16%, 24.1
European Union– 11%, 10.6                     The Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an
Indonesia – 6%, 12.9                          important first step towards a truly global
India – 5%, 2.1                               emission reduction regime that will
Russia – 5%, 14.9                             stabilize GHG emissions, and provides the
Brazil – 4%, 10.0                             essential architecture for any future
Japan – 3%, 10.6                              international agreement on climate change.
Canada – 2%, 23.2                             By the end of the first commitment period
Mexico – 2%, 6.4                              of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new
                                              international framework needs to have
Notes                                         been negotiated and ratified that can
                                              deliver the stringent emission reductions
      These values are for the GHG           the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
       emissions from fossil fuel use and     Change (IPCC) has clearly indicated are
       cement production. Calculations        needed.
       are for carbon dioxide (CO2),
       methane (CH4), nitrous oxide
                                                                                           15




Committee Goals                                 Questions to keep in mind while
                                                doing research.
     Develop framework to alleviate
      that which is not working and plans              Is your country considered
      for     further     reduction      and            developing? Did your country ratify
      sustainability     mechanisms,       in           the Kyoto Protocol? Why or why
      accordance       with     the    clean            not? Have they changed their
      development        mechanism and                  position since the Copenhagen
      article 2 of the Kyoto Protocol                   conference?
     Determine realistic reduction goals              Does the country have measures to
      and balancing the contribution of                 mitigate climate change by
      those goals from developed nations                addressing anthropogenic
      along with commitments of                         emissions by sources and removals
      developing nations                                by sinks of all greenhouse gases?
     Examine effectiveness of the                      Are there current plans to do so?
      Adaptation fund and reduction and                What R&D and/or financial
      benefits      from      the     Clean             incentives are given for promoting
      Development Mechanism for                         energy      efficiency,   sustainable
      energy projects in all nations and                projects and fuel switching? What
      suggest improvements to the                       more can be done?
      language,       enforcement,       and           What are the reduction
      oversight                                         requirements of the country? How
     Establish certain energy projects                 has that country progressed in
      and programs that could be                        reducing emissions by utilizing
      implemented drawing from the                      renewable energy, energy
      reduction goals and the Kyoto                     efficiency, fuel switching, and
      Protocol (solar, hydropower, tidal,               partnerships or cooperation with
      wind power, biomass, nuclear,                     other nations?
      clean tech, energy efficiency
      research, etc.)                           Country and Region Blocs:
     Discuss       ways     to     improve
      measurement         of      emissions,    European Union
      especially from concrete sources
      such as energy production and             Federal Ministry for the Environment,
      energy use in connection with             Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety
      manufacturing                             http://www.bmu.de/english/aktuell/4152.php
     Draft new protocol commitments
      and reductions for a period after         UN Framework Convention on Climate
      2012                                      Change Europe
                                                http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien
                                                                                              16


ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6228.ph
p                                                  Australia and New Zealand

Latin America                                      UN Framework Convention on Climate
                                                   Change Australia and New Zealand
UN Framework Convention on Climate                 http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien
Change Latin America                               ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6226.ph
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien   p
ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6229.ph
p                                                  Helpful Links on Kyoto-protocol
                                                   and Energy Policy
North America
                                                   United States
UN Framework Convention on Climate                 http://www.usembassy.at/en/download/pdf/ky
Change North America                               oto.pdf
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien
ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6230.ph        Federal Ministry for the Environment,
p                                                  Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety
                                                   (Energy)
Africa                                             http://www.bmu.de/english/climate_energy/doc
                                                   /41327.php
UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change Africa                                      United Nation. (1997). Kyoto Protocol to
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien   the United Nations Framework
ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6224.ph        Convention on Climate Change
p                                                  http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.p
                                                   df
Asia
                                                   Nuclear energy and the Kyoto-protocol
UN Framework Convention on Climate                 http://www.oecd-
Change Asia                                        nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3808-kyoto.pdf
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien
ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6225.ph        The Kyoto Protocol Summary - A Quick
p                                                  Guide To Understanding It
                                                   http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/Kyoto-
Small Islands                                      Protocol-summary.html
UN Framework Convention on Climate                 Strategy for Post 2012 Kyoto-protocol
Change Small Islands                               Agreement
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/the_scien   http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/smsn/ngo
ce/climate_change_impacts_map/items/6232.ph        /169.pdf
p
                                                                                            17


Renewable Energy Technologies and                 Sources
Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms
http://www.eurosfaire.prd.fr/sustdev/documents    United Nation. (1997). Kyoto Protocol to
/pdf/Renewable_Energy_kyoto-                      the United Nations Framework
mechanisms_en.pdf                                 Convention on Climate Change
                                                  http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.p
Previous UN resolutions on Kyoto                  df
Protocol:
http://unbisnet.un.org:8080/ipac20/ipac.jsp?ses   UN Framework Convention on Climate
sion=1I22718107VV4.67125&menu=search              Change
&aspect=subtab124&npp=50&ipp=20&spp               http://unfccc.int/essential_background/items/6
=20&profile=bib&ri=&index=.SW&term=               031.php
kyoto+protocol&matchopt=0%7C0&oper=A
ND&x=14&y=10&aspect=subtab124&ind                 Kyoto Protocol and government action
ex=.TW&term=&matchopt=0%7C0&oper=                 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol_a
AND&index=.TN&term=&matchopt=0%7                  nd_government_action
C0&oper=AND&index=.AW&term=&ma
tchopt=0%7C0&ultype=&uloper=%3D&ulli              Renewable Energy and Kyoto Protocol:
mit=&ultype=&uloper=%3D&ullimit=&sor              Adoption in Malaysia
t=                                                http://publicweb.unimap.edu.my/~ppkas/home
                                                  /index.php/news/articles/29-renewable-energy-
Results of COP 17 in Durban, South                and-kyoto-protocol-adoption-in-malaysia
Africa November - December 2011
http://unfccc.int/2860.php                        Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund
                                                  http://unfccc.int/cooperation_and_support/finan
                                                  cial_mechanism/adaptation_fund/items/3659.p
                                                  hp

                                                  EcoNews, The Dire, Unavoidable Truth
                                                  http://www.earthfuture.com/econews/back_issue
                                                  s/11-12.asp

                                                  UNEP Emissions Gap Report
                                                  http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/emiss
                                                  ionsgapreport/

				
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