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					No One Spared:
Total War

     Charlie Reach
     Kelsey Damassa
     Scott Grundei
Total War

   Total war is the theory that the entirety
    of a nation must commit itself utterly to
    a war effort, and thus that every citizen
    must participate in the war making
    every citizen a „legitimate military
    target‟; so long as this theory is in
    place a cataclysmic bloodletting is
    impossible to avoid.
Total War: Development

   Originally proposed by Clausewitz, who
    considered it an impossible hypothetical.
   With the advent of the military-industrial
    complex Total War became increasingly
    real; everyone who worked at an arms
    factory, and everyone who worked in
    industries that supplied that arms factory
    became a target.
Total War: Early Examples

   Levée en masse; the entirety of Jacobin
    France was theoretically mobilized in
    support of the War.
   Sherman‟s March; By 1864 the Union
    military effectively declared the entire states
    of Georgia and South Carolina to be military
    targets. Because Atlanta supported the CSA
    war effort it was burned.
Total War: Photographic
Interlude




    Sherman decreed that all the industry of
     the south was a legitimate military target.
Total War: Mobilization

   Wars were no longer the domain of small,
    professional armies; In august of 1914
    essentially every able bodied male under
    the age of 30 was mobilized.
   This mean massive armies that could
    absorb previously unimaginable casualties;
    the French army sustained 200,000
    casualties, in the first 40 days of WWI and
    barley blinked.
Total War: The Industrial Front

   In WWI, for the first
    time, the entire
    industrial complex was
    turned over to war
    production: all steel
    went into shells, all
    cloth into uniforms, all
    chemicals into gas.
    Total War: Women in the
    Military Industrial Complex
   With the conscription of
    nearly all young men,
    women were for the first
    time widely accepted as
    industrial workers,
    despite the wide
    perception that they were
    good for nothing more
    than housework.
   This was total
    mobilization of society.
Total War: The Flames of
Louvain
   Total War is heavily characterized by brutality
    towards occupied civilians.
   Clausewitz, the patron saint of the German Army,
    believed that terror applied to the populace could
    induce a political surrender.
   German High Command (OKH) decreed that any
    town that committed a partisan act would be burned
    to the ground, its population massacred or
    scattered to the winds.
   They followed through on their threat
    systematically.
Total War: The Flames of
Louvain; Interlude

   “In Belgium there are many towns
    whose cemeteries today have rows
    and rows of memorial stones inscribed
    with a name, the date 1914, and the
    legend repeated over and over: „Fusille
    par les Allemands‟ (Shot by the
    Germans). In many are newer and
    longer rows with the same legend and
    the date 1944.” The Guns of August,
    256.
Total War: Genocide
   A logical, if terrifying, outgrowth of the Total War
    philosophy is that if the objective of armed conflict is
    the destruction of your enemies ability to make war,
    and the entirety of that nation is supporting that war,
    then the destruction of the enemy society is your
    objective.
   The first group to be on the receiving end of this
    logic was the Armenians.
Total War: The Armenian
Genocide
   In 1915, the Armenians
    revolted against the
    Ottoman Empire.
   The Ottoman Empire
    determined that, because all
    Armenians were supporting
    the rebellion they were
    legitimate targets and should
    thus be annihilated.
   As many as 1 million
    Armenians died.
Total War: Genocide

   “"In many ways, it shows that the old
    idea that war is politics by other means
    is outdated in the 20th century. War
    [in the 20th century] is hatred by
    other means. And in this case, hatred
    means extermination.”
Conclusion

   In a world where “War is hatred by
    other means” and where everyone is a
    „legitimate military target‟ a slaughter is
    inevitable. Total War can only end in
    cataclysm.

				
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