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Population and Sustainable Energy Notes-Students


									                                                                          Name ____________________________
Population and Sustainable Energy
Please number each concept below, if the concept has an *, please illustrate.
Crude birth rate *            Demographic Transition                    Demography
Life expectancy *             Total fertility rate                      Zero population growth
Active solar system           Biofuel                                   Energy efficiency
Fuel cells*                   Geothermal energy                         Hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles
Passive heat absorption*      Photovoltaic cell*

Chapter 7 Human Populations
A. Population Growth
         1. As of 2005 world population reached ____________, each year growing by 75 million (1.2%)
         2. Two views, population growth will cause _______________________ and environmental degradation/human
         ingenuity, technology and enterprise can extend the world’s carrying capacity
         3. Human population grew slowly until relatively recently
                   -___________- ~50 million people
                   -0 AD- ~_____________
                   -1650 after the plague- 650 million
                   -1900- _____________
                   -1965- 3.2 billion
                   -It took all of human history to reach 1 billion people in 1804, but little more than __________ to reach
                   3 billion, the number of humans tripled during the 20th century
B. Limits to Growth: Some Opposing Views
         1. 1798 Rev. Thomas Malthus wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population” – human populations tend to
         increase at an ________________ while food production either remains stable or increases slowly leading to
         eventual collapse due to starvation, crime and misery.
         2. ____________- critic of Malthus, saw population growth is a symptom rather than the root cause of poverty,
         resource depletion, etc., the real causes of problems is exploitation and oppression
         3. Can technology make the world more habitable?
                   a. Tech optimists argue that Malthus failed to recognize __________________ in terms of sustainability
                   b. Examples- ________________________, engineering, commerce, medicine, sanitation has allowed
                   1,000 times as many people per unit area as was possible 10,000 years ago.
C. Human Demography
         1. Encompasses vital statistics about people, such as births, ________________, where they live, as well as total
         population size
         2. How many of us are there?
                   a. There are to demographic worlds, one poor, young and growing rapidly (Africa, Asia, Latin America)
                   represent _______ of world population/second world-wealthy countries (N. America, Western Europe,
                   Japan, Australia, New Zealand) old, and shrinking countries, average age is now _________
         3. Fertility measures the number of children born to each woman
                   a. _______________- number of births in a year per thousand persons
                   b. _______________- number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire
                   reproductive life, developed countries 2.1, developing countries 3.1

                c. _____________________- occurs when births plus immigration in a population just equals deaths plus
       4. Mortality in the other half of population growth rates
                a. _______________-expressed in terms of the number of deaths per thousand person in any given year
                        -Developing countries- mortality of 20 per 1,000 people due to poor sanitation and health care
                        -Developed countries- 10/1,000
                b. ___________________ – Crude death rate = natural increase of population
                c. Immigration + Crude birth rate – Crude death rate – Emigration = Total growth rate
                        -___________________= divide 70 by the total annual growth rate = how long it will take for the
                        population to double
       5. Life span and life expectancy describe our potential longevity
                a. ____________________- average age that a newborn infant can expect to attain in any given society
                        - Life expectancy: India- 61, U.S -77, Japan- 81, Sierra Leone ~36
D. Population Growth: Opposing factors
       1. Many factors discourage reproduction in developed countries- education and ________________________
       status are usually inversely related to fertility in richer countries, expensive to raise a child
       2. Developing countries have higher birth rates due to ___________________, less expensive to raise a child
       3. Most European countries have birth rates below replacement level which leads to falling military strength,
       economic power, declining social system (lack of taxpayers)
                a. Some countries encourage having children by _________________________

Chapter 20 Sustainable Energy
A. Conservation
        1. One of easiest ways to avoid energy shortages and to relieve environmental degradation is simply _________
        2. There are ways to save energy
                 a. _________________- produce 4x the light and last 10x as long compared to incandescent bulbs
                 b. ___________________- even more efficient than fluorescents
                 c. better insulation, sealing of cracks, new ___________________
                 d. More efficient ___________________- washers- use 35% less water,
                 e. orienting your house _____________________ allows for passive solar gain in the winter
                 f. Turn off appliances to save energy!!
        3. Transportation could be far more efficient______________________ emissions
                 b. 13.3 mpg in 1973, 25.9 mpg in 1988, 20.4 mpg in 2004 (lowered due to cheap gas and SUVs)
                 c. Some argue that trucks and SUVs are safer during collision, however studies have shown they are
                 more dangerous than the typical midsize auto due to being hard to control due ______________
                 d. Hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles- have the highest efficiency up to 55 mpg and lowest emissions in the
                 e. Diesel- some European models can get up to 78 mpg
B. Tapping Solar Energy
        1. Solar collectors can be passive or active
                 a. ________- glassed walled sunspace/greenhouse have walls that absorb heat that can be used at night
                 b. __________- generally pump a heat-absorbing fluid (water, air) through a relatively small collector
                 that can provide heating or hot water
C. High-Temperature Solar Energy
        1. _________________ can focus on a central tube where fluid in the tube can reach much higher temperatures
        2. Solar box cookers are a great option in developing countries
        3. _______________________ capture solar energy by separating electrons from their parent atoms and
        accelerating them across a one-way electrostatic barrier creating an electrical current
D. Fuel Cells
        1. Devices that use ongoing electrochemical reactions to produce an electric current, similar to batteries but
        rather than recharging you add more fuel
                  a. Advantages- small size, high efficiency, low emission, net water production, no moving parts and high
                  b. Engineers are focused on improving efficiency of fuel cells for autos but this could take
                  __________________ to set up with infrastructure
E. Energy from Biomass
        1. Biomass has the potential to be a prime source of energy, it is renewable and easy access, accounts for
        ______ of total world energy use
        2. Examples-wood, wood chips, bark, branches, leaves, starchy roots, etc.
        3. Developed countries mainly use wood through woodstoves, drawbacks _____________________
        4. In Vermont, fossil fuels are expensive, unmarketable ______________ are burned to fuel a 50 megawatt
        power plant in Burlington
        5. Developing countries depend on ___________________________ as their primary energy source, due to
        rapid population growth, deforestation has increased
        6. Dung and methane can be fuel
                  a. Where wood is in short supply, people dry and burn _____________________, drawbacks- not
                  putting manure on back as fertilizer reduces crop production
                  b. Methane is the main component in natural gas being produced by anaerobic decomposition of any
                  moist ______________________ (swamp gas is explosive, swamps are large methane digesters)
                            -Burning methane produced from manure provides more heat than burning the dung itself
                            -Developed countries’ landfills produce methane that is used to generate electricity for 1 million
        7. Fuels can be produced from crop plants
                  a. ___________ (grain alcohol) and _______________(wood alcohol) can be used to power
                  automobiles, combined with gasoline is called biofuel or gasohaul
                  b. Brazil has instituted an ambitious national program to substitute crop-based ethanol for imported
                  petroleum, ethanol is 40% cheaper than gasoline
                  c. Some crops are being raised specifically as an energy source: eucalyptus, poplar, shrub such as alder
                  and willow, milkweeds, sedges, marsh grasses, cattails, drawbacks- ecosystem disruption and increases
                  the price on food- corn and wheat, when being shifted towards energy
F. Energy from the Earth’s Forces
        1. Hydropower- _____________ electricity come from water turbines, Three Gorges dam (2 km long and 600 ft
        tall) will generate 25,000 mw of power= 25 large nuclear power plants
                  a. Drawbacks- displaces population, ___________________, sediments accumulate behind dam,
                  migratory fish paths disrupted
                  b. Small micro-hydro generators provide economical power for a single home
        2. Wind Energy- fastest growing renewable source, European companies dominate the
        _____________________ per year market
         a. Largest wind turbines are as tall as _____________________ and 62 meter blades that can generate 5
         mw, enough for 5,000 typical American homes
         b. Wind power offers enormous potential at an estimated 20 million mw of energy, it would be _______
         the total current global electrical generating capacity
         c. Each tower takes abut .25 acre of cropland, farmers get ______________ or more in annual rent for
         each windmill and can still use 90% of their land for crops
         d. drawbacks- ___________________, some people object to the sight of windmills, means to transfer e
         energy only by high voltage power lines
3. Geothermal- Earth’s internal temperature near plate boundaries produce wet and dry steam along with hot
         a. California’s Geysers power plant project is the world’s largest commercial geothermal electrical-
         generating complex ______________ of energy
         b. drawbacks- potential danger of noxious gases, noise
         c. Just below ground level, the Earth is a nearly constant 50-70 degrees Fahrenheit, by using a set of
         closed loop, underground tubes, homeowners can utilize this stable temp to help with space
                  - Reduces home heating and cooling costs by __________ and can pay for itself in about 5 years
4. Tidal and Wave energy
         a. The Rance River Power station in France, in operation since 1966 was the first large tidal electric
         generation plant (160 mw), requires a high to low tide difference of several meters
         b. Wave energy could be converted to power homes, the largest facility in _____________ generates
         500 kW, enough for 400 homes


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