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Whimsical PEDLIGS!!!!!! PEOPLE- William Seward: Republican; Secretary of State; he purchased Danish West Indies, annexed Midway Island, gained rights to build in Nicaragua and convinced Congress to annex Hawaii. Napoleon III: (Napoleon’s nephew) sent French troops to occupy Mexico during the Civil War. The Monroe Doctrine (Seward) forced the French to withdraw. Josiah Strong, Our Country: Its Possible Future and Current Crisis: Reverend who said that Anglo-Saxons were the “fittest to survive” and Protestants had a duty to spread Christianity (+ their other “superior” benefits: medicine, sciences, and technology). Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History: argued that a strong navy aided in a nation becoming a world power in securing foreign markets. US naval strategist used Mahan’s book to persuade Congress to build new steel ships and acquisition overseas. By 1900 the US was the 3rd largest navy in the world. James Blaine: Harrison’s Secretary of State. Wanted to establish closer ties between the US + Southern neighbors. Created Pan-American Conference for the main goal of lowering tariff rates but unified western hemisphere. Richard Olney: Cleveland’s Secretary of State, argued that the Monroe Doctrine applied to disputes between Venezuela and Guiana (British) and that the US would use military force if necessary. From this point on Britain would chose American friendship over hostilities. George Dewey: Naval Commander; open fired upon Spanish in the Philippines, US overtook them. Theodore Roosevelt: expansionist who wanted to show off the all-steel navy. Ordered Dewey’s attack. Emilio Aguinaldo: Filipino nationalist leader who fought alongside the US who now lead guerrilla fighter in a war against US control. John Hay: China was falling under control of outside powers; To ensure that America still had access to China’s trade, he sent a note stating that all nations should have Open Door trade with China (all can trade) George Goethals: army cornel, chief engineer of the canal William Gorgas: army cornel, he and ^^ stopped the spread of yellow fever though mosquitoes. William Howard Taft: Roosevelt’s successor (1909-1913) had a mildly expansionist policy but not to the extent of Roosevelt. Depended more on investors $$ than Naval battleships. Tried to promote Us trade by supporting American enterprises abroad. Henry Cabot Lodge: Sen. from Mass. responsible for another act that alienated Latin America & Japan. Woodrow Wilson: Campaigned for Pres in 1912, Democrat; called for New Freedom and promised moral approach to foreign affairs. Opposed imperialism. Victoriano Huerta: Mexican dictator that took over in 1913 y arranging to assassinate the democratically elected pres. Pancho Villa: led raids across US-Mexican border and murdered people in TX and NM. Venustiano Carranza: replaced Huerta, was a more democratic regime. His gov. was challenged almost immediately. John J Pershing: general sent after Villa. EVENTS- Venezuela Boundary Dispute: US argued the Monroe Doctrine applied, Britain backed off which aided their friendship with the US. Valeriano Weyler: Spain sent Weyler and 100,000+ troops to suppress a revolt by Cubans (sabotage and ruining crops…intended to persuade Spanish to leave or involve the US) Spanish-American War: America wanted Caribbean lands, used Monroe Doctrine against Spain to get those lands. De Lome Letter: Letter that was written by the Spanish minister, was highly critical of McKinley and was leaked to New York Press. Taken as a insult against US national honor and caused outrage. Maine: Less than a week after ^^,a US battleship anchored in Cuba exploded, killing 260 Americans. Yellow Press said the Spanish blew up the ship but it was probably just an accident. Boxer Rebellion: the Society of Harmonious Fists; society of Chinese nationalists who attacked foreign settlements and murdered Christian Missionaries. Russo-Japanese War: rivalry between imperial Russia and Japan (1904-05), Japan was winning. Roosevelt arranged a diplomatic meeting between reps of the nations in NH. Although both agreed to the Treaty of Portsmouth, Japanese nationalist blamed US for not giving them all they wanted from Russia. Mexican Civil War: tested moral diplomacy. Wanted democracy there so Wilson refused to recognize the military dictator General Victoriano Huerta. Tampico Incident: first US dispute to be settled through joint mediation. Wilson had sent a blockade to Vera Cruz to avoid revolutionary action. 1914, American men are arrested and released but Huerta refused to apologize. War was expected but averted. DOCUMENTS- Teller Amendment: Congress’s response to Presidents message about intervening in Cuba. War was authorized on April 20h, and the Teller Amendment declared that the US had no intentions to overtake Cuba and that they would run their own gov. once peace was restored. Platt Amendment (1901): required Cuba to agree… not to sign a treaty with a foreign power that would hinder their independence, don’t build up the public debt, allow the US to intervene in Cuba’s affairs to keep the peace, allow US to keep naval bases in Cuba including Guantanamo Bay. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901): allowed US to build a canal through Central America (there was a prior treaty in 1850 that stated any canal in C.A. was to be under joint British-US control.) Treaty of Portsmouth: US stepping in to end war between Russia and Japan. Japan complained that they didn’t get everything they wanted from Russia. Root-Takahira Agreement (1908): Agreement between US Sec. of State and Japanese ambassador pledging mutual respect for each nations Pacific possessions and support for the Open Door Policy in China. Algeciras Conference: in Spain, settle conflict between France and Germany over Morocco. (Pres. Roosevelt) Jones Act (1916): Philippines; granted full territorial status to the country, guaranteed a bill of rights and universal male suffrage to Filipino citizens, and promised Philippine independence once a stable gov. was created. LAWS- IDEAS- “New Imperialism”: increased foreign involvement because of growing markets for agriculture and industries, sources of raw materials. Hoped to use diplomacy, not military. International Darwinism: Idea that survival of the fittest applied to nations as well as businesses. US had to be the strongest with regards to religion, military, and politics. The way to prove the nations strength was to expand overseas (also, Manifest Destiny) Jingoism: intense form of nationalism asking for very aggressive foreign policy. Anti-Imperialist League: Led by William Jennings Bryan, opposed further expansion in Pacific. Spheres of Influence: Other Nations, such as Russia, GB, France, and Germany, could dominate trade and investments within a port or region in China and could shut out competitors. Open Door Policy: ^^^all nations would have equal trading privileges in China. Xenophobia: hatred of fear of foreigners Big Stick Policy: Roosevelt; aggressive foreign policy, bold and decisive actions to make the US a world power. Critics didn’t agree with the fact that they were stepping into global politics. “Gentlemen’s Agreement”: Tension between Japan and US were over segregation of Japanese children in cali. Roosevelt organized and informal understanding (Gentlemen’s agreement). Japan would restrict emigration of Japanese workers US would persuade CA to repeal discriminatory laws. Dollar Diplomacy: Taft, promoting US trade and supporting US enterprises abroad. Thought it would create more stability in those places around the world. Thwarted by anti-imperialists in US and around the world. New Freedom: against imperialism, use a moral approach to foreign affairs. Moral Diplomacy: tried to right past wrongs. Philippines: won passage of Jones Act (1916). Puerto Rico: 1917 congress passed act that granted US citizenship and provided for limited self-government. Panama Canal: 1914, persuaded congress to repeal act that let US ships get through canal without paying. Expeditionary Force: Pershing’s troops that were sent to chase Villa back to Mexico. GOV. STUFF- Mexico: The French occupied Mexico during the Civil War but the passage of the Monroe Doctrine and threats of U.S. military action forced the French to withdraw. Alaska Purchase (1867): Was debated over by Russia and Great Britain; Russia assumed control but it became an economic burden to them. America purchased it for $7.2 million. Known as Seward’s Folly” and Seward’s Icebox”. Pan-American Conference (1889): permanent organization for international cooperation on trade and other issues. (Western Hemisphere) mainly dealt with economic and political issues. Cuba: Large American investment in Sugar, Spanish misruled them, Monroe Doctrine provided justification for US to intervene. Yellow Journalism: promoted war fever, printed exaggerated and false accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. Gave Americans a false impression on the war as they tried to convince Congress + Pres. To intervene. Rough Riders: Regiment of volunteer fighters lead by Roosevelt. Won a cavalry charge up San Juan Hill in Cuba. Hawaii; Liliuokalani: For years American citizens had been living in Hawaii but Cleveland refused the annexation of Hawaii. In 1893, Americans aided in the overthrow of the Queen Liliuokalani. McKinley annexed Hawaii in 1898 and it became the 50th state in 1959. Puerto Rico; Guam: terms of the treaty of peace said that the us acquisitioned Puerto Rico and Guam in the Pacific. Philippine Annexation: got that in return for $20 mill to Spain. US wasn’t prepared to control this land. Panama Canal: built 1904-1914. Many people died (mosquitoes spread yellow fever). In 1921 Congress voted to pay Columbia $25million for its loss of Panama. Roosevelt Corollary (1904): (addition to Monroe Doctrine) US would intervene whenever necessary. Justified going to Haiti, Honduras, Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua, giving the US poor relations with all of Latin America. San Domingo: caused Roosevelt to enforce ^^ European war ships were coming to force them to pay debts, America stepped in. Great White Fleet: a fleet of battleships were sent around the world to show our naval power. Made an impression and were welcomed into Tokyo Bay, Japan. Nicaragua: American intervened to protect US investments from their financial affairs in 1911. Marines sent when civil war broke out in 1912, and stayed until 1933. Lodge Corollary: 1912; stated non-European powers were excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere. ABC Powers: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. They offered to mediate the dispute between the US and Mexico. SUPREME COURTCASES- Insular Cases: series of Supreme Court Cases, decided that constitutional rights were NOT automatically given to territories in US possession. The power to decide whether or not to grant those rights belonged to Congress. 2.) a-The cartoonist is saying that Uncle Sam (America) and McKinley are looking at the rest of the world as if they can just pick and chose which nations to take over. I agree that some people felt that the President was just taking over land to take it over, but I disagree with the cartoonist on the basis that America did not just cross oceans into territories without a cover, such as “helping the nation”, or saving them by spreading western customs. I believe that the President and his people did abuse their power through imperialism, but not to the extent portrayed in the cartoon. b- This cartoon is showing how through imperialism brought people of all different races and ethnicities under the American Flag. This is a representation of White Man’s Burden to help people who cannot run a nation on their own. There was a debate over if these incompetent people should be granted citizenship. This cartoon shows Uncle Sam, the white man, standing over the people from other nations in a controlling manner, and on the globes there are American flags in all of the territories the US controls. c- Puerto Rico was finally granted local autonomy when, during the Spanish-American War, the US gained control of it. Americans didn’t give them US citizenship right away but improved the living conditions, triggering a population surge. Very high unemployment rates because of monopolies, weather, and lack of wage labor. In 1917, Congress granted Puerto Rican citizenship, thus causing many to move north for work. Because of citizenship and cheap airfare after WWII, many Puerto Ricans “kept one foot in the United States and the other on their native island”. Although their lives were far better in America, they were paid less than African Americans and 60% lived below the poverty line. d- When the Philippines were taken under control by the Americans, they were resentful but were promised democracy. Many went to Hawaii and worked for their stay on the sugar plantations. The issue of intermarriage became sensitive and some states banned marriages between Asians and Caucasians, those laws remained until 1948. Were not eligible for citizenship until 1946 and lacked political leverage. The number of immigrants soared after WWII, and today more Asians are sent from the Philippines than any other Asian nation. 3.)Dewey was a naval commander who led an attack into the harbor of Manila, a fleet of 6, and overtook a fleet of 10 Spanish ships. Not a single American was lost in the battle. Although Dewey overtook the Spanish fleet, he waited 12 days for American reinforcements to come and capture Manila. General Pershing was sent by President Wilson to pursue Villa into Mexico. Was in northern Mexico for months without being able to capture Villa. In 1917, Wilson was forced to withdraw Pershing’s troops because of US entry into WWI. Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipino uprising against Spain. The US told him that if he got his people to fight with them against Spain, they would secure their independence but after the war, the US took control over the Philippines. Liliuokalani was the Queen of Hawaii and intended to reinstate the monarchy. She felt that the Hawaiins should be governing themselves, not be governed by a foreign power. This enraged many white workers who happened to be Americans and casued a revolt in 1893 that was assisted by American troops. Hawaii was annexed to America in 1898. The Rough Riders were volunteer, many cowboys, ex-convicts, and were short on discipline. They were very strong fighters and helped attain victory in (near) Santiago. There was no discrimination against people of different races, religions, skin colors, ect. this group of good was created by Roosevelt, but led by another man for Roosevelt didn’t feel qualified to hold the position.
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